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p. 310


1. The law of castes and of orders has been declared. 1

2. Now, indeed, man (in) this (world is polluted) by a vile action or acts wrongly, (e.g.) sacrifices for men. unworthy to offer a sacrifice, accepts presents from those whose gifts ought not to be accepted, eats the food of those whose food ought not to be eaten, (and) practises what is forbidden. 2

3. They are in doubt if he shall perform a penance for such (a deed) or if he shall not do it.

4. (They declare that he shall not do it) because the deed does not perish.

5. (The correct opinion is) that he shall perform (a penance). 5

6. It is declared in the Veda, 'Let him offer a Punastoma; (those who offer it, may) again come to (partake of) the libations of Soma.' 6

7. He who offers a horse-sacrifice conquers all sin, he effaces the guilt of the murder of a Brâhmana.' 7

p. 311

8. Moreover, 'He who is being accused (of a heinous crime) shall perform an Agnishtut sacrifice.'

9. Reciting the Veda, austerity, a sacrifice, fasting, giving gifts are the means for expiating such (a blamable act).

10. The purificatory (texts are), the Upanishads, the initial (verses) of the Vedas, the ends of the Vedas (vedântas), the Samhitâs of all the Vedas, (the Anuvâkas called) Madhu, (the hymn of) Aghamarshana, the Atharvasiras, (the Anuvâkas called the) Rudras, the Purusha hymn, the two Sâmans (called) Râgina and Rauhineya, the Brihat (Sâman) and the Rathantara, the Purushagati (Sâman), the Mahânâmnîs, the Mahâvairâga (Sâman), the Mahâdivâkîrtya (Sâman), any of the Gyeshtha Sâmans, the Bahishpavamâna Sâman, the Kûshmândîs, the Pâvamânîs, and the Sâvitrî. 10

11. To live on milk alone, as if one were fasting, to eat vegetables only, to eat fruit only, (to live on) gruel prepared of a handful of barley-grains, to eat gold, to eat clarified butter (are the modes of subsistence) which purify.

12. All mountains, all rivers, holy lakes, bathing-places, the dwellings of Rishis, cowpens, (holy) plains and temples of the gods (are) places (which destroy sin) 12

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13. Abstention from injuring living beings, truthfulness, abstention from theft (or unrighteously appropriating anything), bathing in the morning, at noon, and in the evening, obedience towards Gurus, continence, sleeping on the ground, dressing in one garment only, and abstaining from food (are the various kinds of) austerity.

14. Gold, a cow, a dress, a horse, land, sesamum, clarified butter, and food (are) the gifts.

15. A year, six months, four (months), three (months), two (months), one (month), twenty-four days, twelve days, six days, three days, a day and a night, (and) one day are the periods (for penances).

16. These (acts) may be optionally performed if no (particular penance) has been prescribed,

17. (Viz.) for great crimes difficult (penances) and for trivial faults easy ones.

18. The Krikkhra and the Atikrikkhra, as well as the Kândrâyana, are penances for all (offences).


310:1 10. As stated formerly, Sacred Books of the East, vol. ii, p. li this chapter is borrowed from Gautama XIX. I have therefore adopted the same division of the Sûtras as in the translation of the latter work.

310:2 I read, with the MSS. of the commentary, atha khalvayam purusho yâpyena karmanâ mithyâ vâkaraty ayâgyam vâ yâgayaty apratigrâhyasya vâ pratigrihnâty anâsyânnasya vânnam asnâty akaranîyena vâkarati. M. reads yâgayitvâ, and the Dekhan MSS. yâgayitvâ and pratigrihya.

310:5 The Dekhan MSS. read kûryâd ity eva, M. kûryâd eva, and Govinda kuryât tv eva.

310:6 All the MSS. of the text omit the word vigñâyate, 'it is declared in the Veda,' which is given by Govinda.

310:7 All the MSS. of the text give at the beginning of this Sûtra p. 311 athâpy udâharanti, 'now they quote also,' which Govinda omits, and which is inappropriate, because the following passages are taken from the Veda.

311:10 The word vedâdayah, which occurs also in some MSS. of Vasishtha (XXII, 9), must be explained, according to the analogy of karmâdi, the beginning of the sacrifices' (Sâyana on Taitt. Âr. II, 7, 5), by 'the initial verses of the Vedas.' The Pâvamânîs are added on the authority of Govinda alone.

311:12 'Kshetra, (holy) plains, e.g. the Kurukshetra.'--Govinda.

Next: Prasna IV, Adhyâya 1