Sacred Texts  Hinduism  Index  Previous  Next 


1. Bathing is suitable for (the practice of) austerity.

2. The libation to the manes (is offered) after the gods have been satisfied (with water),

3. They pour out water which gives strength, from one Tîrtha after the other. 3

4. Now they quote also (the following verses): 'With flowing, unconfined water twice-born men of the three castes shall satisfy the gods, Rishis, and manes, when they have risen in the morning.'

5. 'They shall not offer (libations of water) con-fined (in tanks and wells), (If they do it), he who made the embankment; will obtain a share (of the merit of their devotion).' 5

6. 'Therefore let him avoid embankments (around tanks) and wells made by others.' 6

7. Nov they quote also (the following verse): 'Or, in times of distress--not as a rule--he may bathe in (water) confined (in tanks), after taking out three lumps (of earth); from a well (let him take three) lumps of clay and three jars of water.' 7

p. 239

8. If he has accepted presents from one who is able to give presents to many, or from one whose presents ought not to be accepted, or if he has sacrificed for one for whom he ought not to have sacrificed, or if he has eaten food (given by a person) whose food must not be eaten, he shall mutter the Taratsamandîya. 8

9. Now they quote also (the following verse): Those who improperly associate with (an outcast) teacher, those who improperly associate with (outcast) pupils, and those who improperly associate (with outcasts) by (accepting their) food or by (reciting) Mantras (for them), enter into deep darkness.'

10. Now (follow) the duties of a Snâtaka. 10

11. After offering at the morning and at the evening (meals) with (a portion of) the food which he may have, the Vaisvadeva and the Bali-offerings, he shall honour, according to his ability, Brâhmanas, Kshatriyas, Vaisyas, and Sûdras (who may come to his house as) guests. 11

12. If he cannot (afford to give food) to many, let him give (something) to one who possesses good qualities,

13. Or to him who has come first.

14, If a Sûdra (has come as) a guest, he shall order him (to do some) work, (and feed him afterwards); 14

p. 240

15. Or (if he cannot spare much), he may give a first portion (agrya) to a Srotriya. 15

16. It is prescribed that the division (of the food) shall be made without detriment to (the interests of) those who daily receive a portion. 16

17. But he shall never eat without having given away (some small portion of the food).

18. Now they quote also two verses which have been proclaimed by (the goddess of) food: 'Him who, without giving me to the gods, the manes, his servants, his guests and friends, consumes what has been prepared and (thus), in his exceeding folly, swallows poison, I consume, and I am his death. But for him who, offering the Agnihotra, performing the Vaisvadeva, and honouring guests, eats, full of contentment, purity, and faith, what remains after feeding those whom he must support, I become ambrosia, and he (really) enjoys me.'

19. Presents of money must be given, according to one's ability, to good Brâhmanas, Srotriyas, and Vedapâragas, when they beg outside the Vedi, for the sake of Gurus, in order to defray (the expenses of) their marriages, or of medicine, or when they are distressed for a livelihood, or desirous to offer a sacrifice, or engaged in studying, or on a journey, or have performed a Visvagit sacrifice. 19

p. 241

20. Cooked food (must be given) to other (beggars). 20

21. Let him eat (seated) in a pure, enclosed place, after having well washed his hands and feet and after having sipped water, respectfully receiving the food which is brought to him, keeping himself free from lust, anger, hatred, greed, and perplexity, (conveying the food into his mouth) with all his fingers and making no noise (during mastication). 21


238:3 5. As to the Tîrthas, see above, I, 5, 8, 15-16.

238:5 Manu IV, 201.

238:6 Vishnu LXIV, 1.

238:7 Vishnu LXIV, 2. I read the verse as follows: uddhritya vâpi trîn pindân kuiyâd âpatsu no sadâ | niruddhâsu ka mritpindân kûpât trîn abghatâmstatheti || The Dekhan MSS. read at the end of the second half verse, kûpâmstrînavatâmstathâ; M. has kupâtnabapatânstathâ while C. I. gives kûpât trîn ghatâmstathâ. Nandapandita on Vishnu, loc. cit., seems to have had the latter p. 239 reading, and to have changed it to 'kûpât to trin ghatâmstathâ,' in order to save the metre. The sense remains the same.

239:8 Manu XI, 254. The text is found Rig-veda IX, 58. Govinda explains bahupratigrâhya, 'one who is able to give presents to many,' by bahubhrityabharanakshama, 'one who is able to support many servants.'

239:10 Vasishtha XII, 1.

239:11 Vasishtha XI, 3-9.

239:14 Âpastamba II, 2, 4, 19.

240:15 Vasishtha XI, 5. Govinda quotes a verse, according to which an agrya, 'first portion,' is equal to sixteen mouthfuls, each of the size of a peahen's egg.

240:16 Âpastamba II, 4, 9,10-11. 'Those who daily receive a portion' (nityabhâktika), i.e. sons, wives, and so forth.--Govinda. But see also Âpastamba, loc. cit.

240:19 Gautama V, 20-21, and notes. 'A good Brâhmana, i.e. one who follows the rule of conduct.'--Govinda.

241:20 Gautama V, 22.

241:21 Vasishtha XII, 19-20; Vishnu LXVIII, 46. 'This is the rule for him who makes an offering to Âtman (i.e. performs the Prânâgnihotra at his meal).'--Govinda. See also below, II, 7, 12.

Next: Prasna II, Adhyâya 3, Kandikâ 6