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1. Let the king protect (his) subjects, receiving as his pay a sixth part (of their incomes or spiritual merit). 1

2. Brahman, forsooth, placed its majesty in the Brâhmanas, together with (the duties and privileges of) studying, teaching, sacrificing for themselves, sacrificing for others, liberality, and accepting (gifts), for the protection of the Vedas; 2

3. In the Kshatriyas (it placed) strength, together with (the duties and privileges of) studying, sacrificing, liberality, (using) weapons, and protecting the treasure (and the life of) created beings, for the growth of (good) government; 3

4. In the Vaisyas (it placed the power of work), together with (the duties of) studying, sacrificing, liberality, cultivating (the soil), trading, and tending cattle, for the growth of (productive) labour. 4

5. On the Sûdras (it imposed the duty of) serving the three higher (castes). 5

6. For (the Veda states), 'they were created from the feet (of Brahman).' 6

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7. Let (the king) choose a domestic priest (who shall be) foremost in all (transactions). 7

8. Let him act according to his instructions. 8

9. Let him not turn back in battle. 9

10. Let him not strike with barbed or poisoned (weapons). 10

11. Let him not fight with those who are in fear, intoxicated, insane or out of their minds, (nor with those) who have lost their armour, (nor with) women, infants, aged men, and Brâhmanas, 11

12. Excepting assassins (âtatâyin). 12

13. Now they quote also (the following verse): 'He who slays an assassin, able to teach (the Veda) and born in a (noble) family, does not (incur) by that (act the guilt of) the murderer of a learned Brâhmana; (in) that (case) fury recoils upon fury.'

14. The duty on goods imported by sea is, after deducting a choice article, ten Panas in the hundred. 14

15. Let him also lay just (duties) on other (marketable goods) according to their intrinsic value without oppressing (the traders). 15

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16. Let the king guard the property of men belonging to a non-Brâhmanical caste, the owner of which has disappeared, during a year, and afterwards take it (for himself). 16

17. A Brâhmana, forsooth, shall not suffer corporal punishment for any offence. 17

18. In case (a Brâhmana) has slain a Brâhmana, has violated his Guru's bed, has stolen the gold (of a Brâhmana), or has drunk (the spirituous liquor called) Surâ, (the king) shall cause to be impressed with a heated iron the mark of a headless trunk, a female part, a jackal, (or) the sign of a tavern on the forehead (of the offender) and banish him from his realm. 18

19. If a Kshatriya or (a man of any) other (lower caste) has murdered a Brâhmana, death and the confiscation of all his property (shall be his punishment).

20. If those same (persons) slay men of equal or lower castes, (the king) shall fix suitable punishments in accordance with their ability. 20


199:1 18. Vasishtha I, 42-44. Learned Brâhmanas do not pay taxes, but the king obtains a sixth part of the spiritual merit which they acquire. Hence Baudhâyana uses the general term, 'a sixth share.'

199:2 Vasishtha II, 13-14.

199:3 Vasishtha II, 15-17.

199:4 Vasishtha II, 18-19. The words 'the power of work' are inserted by Govinda.

199:5 Vasishtha II, 20.

199:6 Rig-veda X, 90, 12; Taittirîya Âranyaka III, 12, 6.

200:7 Vasishtha XIX, 3-6. Govinda explains sarvatodhuram, 'foremost in all,' by sarvagñam, 'omniscient.'

200:8 Vasishtha I, 40-41. The rule, of course, refers primarily to advice in spiritual matters.

200:9 Gautama X, 16.

200:10 Manu VII, 90.

200:11 Gautama X, 18. The meaning is that such persons shall not be slain in battle.

200:12-13. Vasishtha III, 18.

200:14 I take this to mean that the king may take one article which particularly pleases him out of each consignment, and impose on the rest an ad valorem duty of ten per cent. Regarding the tribute in kind to be paid to Indian kings by foreign merchants, see Periplus maris Erythraei, par. 49.

200:15 Vishnu III, 29-30. Govinda interprets anupahatya, 'without' p. 201 oppressing the traders,' by 'without deducting (anuddhritya) a choice article.'

201:16 Vasishtha XVI, 19-20. As stated above, I, 5, II, 15, the king must not take the property of a Brâhmana.

201:17 Vishnu V, 2. 'Corporal punishment,' i.e. capital punishment, mutilation, &c., except branding.

201:18 Vishnu V, 3-7. 19. Âpastamba II, 10, 27, 16.

201:20 Vasishtha XIX, 9. 'Those same persons,' I.e. Kshatriyas, Vaisyas, or Sûdras.

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