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Satapatha Brahmana Part II (SBE26), Julius Eggeling tr. [1885], at


4:5:3:11. The Shodasin 2 (graha) forsooth is Indra. Now, at one time the beings surpassed (ati-rik)

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[paragraph continues] Indra--the beings being the creatures--they were in a state of equality, as it were, with him.

4:5:3:22. Indra then bethought himself, 'How can I stand forth over everything here, and how may everything here be beneath me?' He saw that graha, and drew it for himself. Then he stood forth over everything here, and everything here was

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beneath him. And, verily, for whomsoever, knowing this, they draw that cup of Soma, he stands forth over everything here, and everything here is beneath him.

4:5:3:33. Wherefore it has been said by the Rishi (Rig-veda III, 32, 11), 'The sky hath not reached thy greatness, when thou didst rest on the earth with thine other thigh,'--for, verily, yonder sky did not reach up to his other thigh 1: so did he stand forth over everything here, and everything here was beneath him. And, verily, for whomsoever, knowing this, they draw that cup of Soma, he stands forth over everything here, and everything here is beneath him.

4:5:3:44. He draws it with a verse to the lord of the bay steeds (Indra Harivant); they (the Udgâtris) chant verses to (Indra) Harivant, and he (the Hotri) afterwards recites verses to (Indra) Harivant. For Indra seized upon the strength, the fury (haras) of his enemies, the Asuras; and in like manner does he (the sacrificer) now seize upon the strength, the fury of his enemies: therefore he draws the graha with a verse to (Indra) Harivant; they chant verses to Harivant, and he (the Hotri) afterwards recites verses to Harivant.

4:5:3:55. He draws it with an Anushtubh verse; for the morning press-feast belongs to the Gâyatrî, the midday feast to the Trishtubh, and the evening feast to the Gagatî. The Anushtubh, then, is over and above 2 (ati-rikta), and he thus makes that (Soma of the

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[paragraph continues] Shodasin) to remain over: hence he takes it with an Anushtubh.

4:5:3:66. He draws it in a square cup; for there are three worlds: these same worlds he gains by three corners, and by the fourth corner he makes that (Soma) to remain over;--therefore he draws it in a square cup.

4:5:3:77. Let him draw it at the morning pressing, after drawing the Âgrayana. Having been drawn at the morning pressing, it reposes apart from that time: he thus makes it to outlast all (three) pressings.

4:5:3:88. Or he may draw it at the midday pressing, after drawing the Âgrayana,--but this is mere speculation: let him rather draw it at the morning pressing, after drawing the Âgrayana: having been drawn at the morning pressing, it reposes apart from that time.

4:5:3:99. He thus draws it therefrom with (Vâg. S. VIII, 33; Rig-veda I, 84, 3), 'Mount the chariot, O slayer of Vritra, thy bay steeds have been harnessed by prayer! May the stone by its sound draw hitherward thy mind!--Thou art taken with a support: thee to Indra Shodasin (the sixteenfold)!--This is thy womb: thee to Indra Shodasin!'

4:5:3:1010. Or with this (verse, Vâg. S. VIII, 34; Rig-veda I, 10, 3), 'Harness thy long-maned, girth-filling bay steeds! Come hither to us, O Indra, drinker of Soma, to hear our songs! Thou art taken with a support: thee to Indra Shodasin!--This is thy womb: thee to Indra Shodasin!'

4:5:3:1111. Thereupon he returns (to the sadas) and bespeaks the chant with, 'Soma has been left over:

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[paragraph continues] Turn ye back 1!' for he indeed causes it to remain over by that (Shodasin graha). He (the Adhvaryu) bespeaks it 2 before the setting of the sun; and after sunset he (the Hotri) follows it up by reciting the sastra: thus he thereby joins day and night together,--therefore he bespeaks (the stotra) 3 before the

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setting of the sun, and after sunset he follows it up by reciting the sastra 1.


397:2 The author has now completed his exposition of the simplest form of Soma-sacrifice, viz. the Agnishtoma, the libations of which are accompanied by twelve chants (stotra) and as many recitations (sastra), and which (on the press-day) requires one victim to Agni (see IV, 2, 5, 14). He has also incidentally (IV, 4, 2, 18) touched upon the characteristic features of the Ukthya sacrifice, viz. its second victim, a he-goat to Indra-Agni, and three additional Uktha stotras and sastras (p. 370 note 1). He now proceeds to p. 398 consider another libation which, with its accompanying stotra and sastra, forms the distinctive feature of the Shodasin sacrifice, i.e. the one having sixteen or a sixteenth (hymn). This sacrifice also requires a third victim on the press-day, viz. a ram to Indra. By the addition, on the other hand, of the Shodasin graha, with its chant and recitation, to an ordinary Agnishtoma, another form of one day's (ekâha) Soma-sacrifice is obtained, viz. the Atyagnishtoma, or redundant Agnishtoma, with thirteen stotras and sastras. This form of sacrifice is, however, comparatively rarely used, and was probably devised on mere theoretic grounds, to complete the sacrificial system. A somewhat more common form is the Atirâtra, lit. 'that which has a night over and above,' differing as it does from the Shodasin in that--besides a fourth victim (a he-goat to Sarasvatî)--it has in addition a night performance of libations, with three rounds (paryâyas) of four stotras and sastras each (one for the Hotri and for each of his three assistants), and concluding at daybreak with one more stotra, the sandhi (twilight) stotra, and the Asvina sastra and offering. These are the forms of Soma-sacrifice referred to in the present book, as required for the performance of sacrificial sessions (twelve days and more) of which its concluding portion treats. With another form, the Vâgapeya sacrifice, the author deals in the next Kânda. These--with the Aptoryâma, which to the Atirâtra adds another course of four Atirikta, or superadded stotras--constitute in the later official classification the seven fundamental forms (samsthâ) of Soma-sacrifice. This term, meaning properly 'termination, consummation,' probably applied originally to the concluding rites of the Soma-sacrifice proper, as the distinctive features of the several forms of sacrifice, but by a natural transition, became the generic terms for the complete forms of sacrifice. See Professor Weber's somewhat different explanation, Ind. Stud. IX, 229.

399:1 ? Or either of his thighs. The situation depicted in this verse would seem that of the warrior Indra lying or kneeling on Vritra, whom he has thrown on the ground.

399:2 Or, additional, in excess; see IV, 4, 3, 4.

401:1 See IV, 2, 5, 8. The verb, here and elsewhere translated by 'to bespeak,' is upâ-kri, the proper meaning of which would seem 'to be to prepare, to introduce, to bring up' the chant. As the same verb is, however, also used for the 'driving up, or bringing up' of cattle (to the stable), it may perhaps have a similar meaning in connection with the stotra; the metres of the chant (which are often called the cattle of the gods) being, as it were, 'led up' (or put to') by the Adhvaryu, to be 'harnessed' or 'yoked' (yug) by the Udgâtri; see p. 311, note 1. Instead of the Prastara, handed to the Udgâtri on the occasion of the Pavamânas, two stalks of sacrificial grass are generally used with other chants; but certain stotras and sâmans require to be 'introduced' by special objects, such as a fan, or the two churning sticks (for producing fire), or water mixed with avakâ plants, or an arrow.

401:2 ? Read 'tad' for 'tam;' or 'he calls upon him (the Udgâtri).'

401:3 The Shodasi-stotra usually consists of the Gaurivita Sâman (S. V. II, 302-4); but the Nânada Sâman (ib. II, 790-3) may be used instead. It is performed in the ekavimsa stoma, i.e. the three verses are chanted in three turns, so as, by repetitions, to produce twenty-one verses; the usual form being a a a-b b b-c; a-b b b-c c c; a a a-b-c c c. For some modifications in the present case, see Haug, Transl. Ait. Br. p. 258 note. The first turn is to be performed in a low voice, while the sun is going down; the second in a middle voice, when the sun has disappeared, but not entirely the daylight; and the third turn in a loud voice, when darkness is closing in. If, for some reason or other, the stotra is entirely performed after sunset, it is chanted with a loud voice throughout. During the chanting a horse (black, if possible), or a bullock, or he-goat is to stand at the front (or back) gate of the sadas, facing the latter. Besides, a piece of gold is to circulate among the chanters, each of them holding it, while his turn of chanting lasts, and the Udgâtri (or all three) doing so during the nidhana or finale.

402:1 The Shodasi-sastra is minutely described in the Ait. Br. IV, 3 seq. The opening verses are in the Anushtubh metre (of sixteen syllables), but otherwise also the Hotri has by means of pauses and insertions of formulas (nivid) to bring out its 'sixteenfold' character so as to accord with its designation.

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