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Satapatha Brahmana Part II (SBE26), Julius Eggeling tr. [1885], at



4:2:5:11. Having drawn the cups of Soma, and gone out (of the cart-shed to the high altar) 1, he offers the oblation of drops 2. The reason why he offers the oblation of drops is this. Whatever drops of that (Soma) are spilt here, to them he now wishes a safe journey to the Âhavanîya, for the Âhavanîya is the resting-place of offerings: this is why he offers the oblation of drops.

4:2:5:22. He offers with (Vâg. S. VII, 26; Rig-veda X, 17, 12), 'Whatever drop of thine leapeth

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away, whatever stalk of thine,'--whatever particle (of Soma) is spilt, that is a drop, that indeed he means; and by 'whatever stalk of thine' he mentions the stalk;--'stone-pressed, from the lap of the press-bowls;' for pressed by the stone 1 it leaps away from the two press-bowls;--'be it from the Adhvaryu or from the strainer,'--for it leaps away either from the Adhvaryu's hands or from the strainer,--'that I offer unto thee in my mind consecrated by Vashat, Hail!' whereby it becomes for him as an offering consecrated by Vashat.

4:2:5:33. Thereupon the Adhvaryu takes two stalks of grass from the covered altar. The two Adhvaryus 2 proceed first (to the chanting-place beside the pit), as the out-breathing and in-breathing of the sacrifice; then the Prastotri, as the voice of the sacrifice; then the Udgâtri, as the self (or body), the Pragâpati, of the sacrifice; then the Pratihartri, either as the physician or the through-breathing 3.

4:2:5:44. The Sacrificer holds on to those five priests from behind 4, for as much as those five priests are, so much is the whole sacrifice, the sacrifice being fivefold: hence the Sacrificer thereby holds on to the sacrifice.

4:2:5:55. He (the Adhvaryu) then throws one of the two

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stalks of grass forward towards the pit 1, with, 'Thou art the ascent of the gods!' for when the gods through the sacrifice attained to the heavenly world, it was from that pit that they went upwards to the heavenly world: he thus makes the sacrificer look along the road to heaven.

4:2:5:66. He then throws down the other stalk in front of the chanters, silently, for those chanters represent the hymn of praise (stotra), Pragâpati (the sacrifice),--he (Pragâpati) draws to himself everything here, and takes possession of everything here: it is to him that that stalk is offered, and thus he does not draw the Adhvaryu to himself, and take possession of him. And when they mutter 2,--for the chanters mutter now 3,--

4:2:5:77. Then he bespeaks the chant, saying, 'Soma becometh pure!' He bespeaks the chant right off 4, and they chant right off; for these chants, the Pavamânâh 5, are directed towards the gods, since

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the gods thereby attained to the heavenly world right off (straightway): therefore he bespeaks the chant right off, and right off they chant.

4:2:5:88. With 'Turn ye back 1!' (he bespeaks) the other chants (viz. the Dhuryas), and turning back (or repeating) they chant the Dhuryas 2, for the latter

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are directed towards these creatures: whence creatures are produced here repeatedly.

4:2:5:99. And as to why they chant the Bahishpavamâna here (near the kâtvâla). In the beginning, forsooth, yonder sun was here on earth 1. The seasons embraced him and ascended from hence to the heavenly world: there he burns firmly established

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in the seasons. And in like manner do the priests thereby embrace the sacrificer and ascend from hence to the heavenly world: this is why they chant the Bahishpavamâna h ere.

4:2:5:1010. The Bahishpavamâna 1 chant truly is a ship

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bound heavenwards: the priests are its spars and oars, the means of reaching the heavenly world. If there be a blameworthy one, even that one (priest) would make it sink: he makes it sink, even as one who ascends a ship that is full would make it sink. And, indeed, every sacrifice is a ship bound heavenwards: hence one should seek to keep a blameworthy (priest) away from every sacrifice.

4:2:5:1111. Thereupon, when the chanting is over 1, he

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utters this speech,--'Agnîdh, spread the fires! strew the barhis! Prepare the cakes! go on with the victim!' The Agnîdh spreads the fires, that is to say, kindles them 1; he strews that barhis 2, thinking, 'When the barhis is strewn, I will offer to the gods on the kindled (fire).'--'Prepare the cakes,' he says, because he is about to proceed with the cakes; and, 'Go on with the victim,' because he is about to get ready the victim 3.

4:2:5:1212. Having again entered (the cart-shed) he draws the Âsvina graha 4. Having drawn the Âsvina graha he goes out and girds the sacrificial stake 5; and having girt the stake he gets ready the victim: he thereby puts flavour (juice) into him (Soma--the sacrificer).

4:2:5:1313. Having been slain at the morning feast, it continues being cooked till the evening feast; whereby he puts flavour (juice) into the whole sacrifice, imbues it with flavour.

4:2:5:1414. Let him therefore, at the Agnishtoma, slay a (victim) sacred to Agni, for there is harmony when, at the Agnishtoma, he slays a (victim) for Agni. If

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it be an Ukthya sacrifice, let him slay one to Indra and Agni in the second place, for songs of praise (uktha) 1 refer to Indra and Agni. If it be a Shodasin sacrifice, let him slay one to Indra in the third place, for the sixteenfold chant (shodasin) 2 means Indra. If it be an Atirâtra, let him slay one to Sarasvatî in the fourth place, for Sarasvatî is speech, and speech (vâk, fem.) is female, as the night (râtri, fem.) is female: he thus duly distinguishes the forms of sacrifice 3.

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4:2:5:1515. Thereupon he proceeds with (the offering of) the cakes of the Soma feast. Now Soma is a god, for Soma was in the heaven;--'Soma, forsooth, was Vritra; the mountains and stones are his body: thereon grows that plant called Usânâ,' said Svetaketu Auddâlaki; that they bring hither and press.'

4:2:5:1616. Now when he slays the victim, he thereby puts flavour into it; and when he proceeds with (the offering of) the Soma feast cakes, he puts sap into it: thus it becomes Soma for him.

4:2:5:1717. They all belong to Indra; for Indra is the deity of the sacrifice: that is why they all belong to Indra.

4:2:5:1818. And as to why there are a cake, parched barley-grain, a porridge, sour curds, and clotted curds,--it is that those who are the deities of the sacrifice shall be well-pleased.

4:2:5:1919. For, when one has eaten cake here, he wishes, 'I should like to take parched grains, I should like to eat porridge, I should like to eat sour curds, I should like to eat clotted curds!' All these (are Objects of one's) wishes: it is in order that those who are the deities of the sacrifice shall be well-pleased. Now as to why that offering of clotted curds (payasyâ) is prepared only at the morning libation, and not at the two other libations (Soma feasts).

4:2:5:2020. The Gâyatrî, forsooth, bears the morning libation (to the gods), the Trishtubh the midday libation, and the Gagatî the evening libation,--but, then, the Trishtubh bears the midday libation, not alone, (but) with both the Gâyatrî and the Brihatî 1; and the Gagatî (bears) the evening libation, not alone,

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[paragraph continues] (but) with the Gâyatrî, the Kakubh, and Ushnih, and the Anushtubh 1.

4:2:5:2121. The Gâyatrî alone bears singly the morning libation,--with those two sets of five (paṅkti) 2, the set of five chants, and the set of five oblations: there are four Âgya (chants) 3 and the Bahishpavamâna is the fifth,--the Paṅkti metre is five-footed with that paṅkti of chants, not alone, the Gâyatrî bears the morning libation.

4:2:5:2222. To Indra belongs the cake, to the two bay steeds the parched grains (dhânâh4, to Pûshan the porridge (karambha), to Sarasvatî the sour curds (dadhi), and to Mitra and Varuna the clotted curds (payasyâ) 5,--the Paṅkti is five-footed--with that paṅkti of oblations, not alone, the Gâyatrî bears the

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morning libation (to the gods): for the sake of completing that paṅkti, that oblation of clotted curds to Mitra and Varuna is prepared only at the morning libation, and not at the two other libations.


305:1 The libations (grahas) having been taken, and the remaining Nigrâbhyâ water, mixed with Soma-juice, poured from the Hotri's cup into the Dronakalasa (p. 256, note 1), the Adhvaryu, Pratiprasthâtri; Prastotri, Udgâtri, Pratihartri, and Sacrificer walk out of the Havirdhâna shed, each following one touching the hem of the garment of the one before him, and betake themselves to the altar.

305:2 The viprud-homa, an expiatory oblation for the Soma spilt during the pressing, consists of a prakaranî spoon full of ghee. According to Âsv. V, 2, 6, and Lâty. I, 11, 9, it would seem that each of those taking part in the Sarpana (see p. 299, note 2) makes two oblations (called 'pravritta-homa' by Lâty. Sr. and Pañkavimsa Br.).

306:1 'Grâva-kyuta' seems to be taken by the author in the sense of set in motion by the (pressing) stone.' The Rig-veda reads 'bâhu-kyuta;' also 'dhishanâyâh' instead of 'dhishanayoh.'

306:2 That is, the Adhvaryu and his assistant, the Pratiprasthâtri.

306:3 Ait. Br. II, 20 enumerates Adhvaryu, Prastotri; Pratihartri; Udgâtri, and Brahman (see also Âsv. V, 2, 4-5); the Lâtyây. Sûtra I, 11, Adhvaryu, Prastotri, Udgâtri; Pratihartri, Brahman, and Sacrificer.

306:4 That is, each holds on to the hem of the garment of the one who precedes him.

307:1 The Udgâtris (chanters) also throw stalks of grass to the south with their left hands, with the text, Pañkav. I, 3, 3.

307:2 And when he thinks 'they have muttered' (atha yadâ manyate ’gâpishur iti)--for the chanters mutter now. Kânva text.

307:3 For the mantras the Udgâtris have to mutter on this occasion, previous to the chanting, see Tândya Br. I, 3, 4-6. The recitation of the Âgyasastra, by the Hotri, succeeding the chanting of the Bahishpavamâna-stotra, is likewise preceded by a prayer muttered by that priest, for which see Ait. Br. II, 38; Âsv. V, 9.

307:4 That is, without repeating that formula, in the same way as the Pavamâna chants are performed without repeating single verses. See p. 308, note 2.

307:5 The first stotra at each pressing is called pavamâna (purifying, i.e. during the chanting of which the Soma becomes clarified), viz. the Bahishpavamâna at the morning, the Mâdhyandina pavamâna at the midday, and the Ârbhava (or tritîya) pavamâna at the evening pressing. The other stotras are called Dhurya, 'to be harnessed, belonging to or forming a team.' For the correspondence between the stotra and sastra, see p. 325, note 2.

308:1 This is Sâyana's interpretation of 'upâvartadhvam,' instead of 'draw near,' as translated by me at I, 5, 2, 12. He is probably right in connecting it with the repetitions which certain verses have to undergo in the dhurya-stotras.

308:2 There are many different stomas, or forms of chanting stotras, named from the number of verses produced in each form (generally by repetitions of certain verses). Those required for the Shadaha and Dvâdasâha (see IV, 5, 4, 1 seq.) are: trivrit (9), pañkadasa (15), saptadasa 07), ekavimsa (21), trinava (27), trayastrimsa (33), katurvimsa (24), katuskatvârimsa (44), and ashtakatvârimsa (48). The first four of these are those most frequently used, and the only ones used at the Agnishtoma. All these stomas, with one exception (24), have two or more different varieties or arrangements, called vishtuti, differing from one another either in the order in which the several verses are to be chanted, or in regard to the number of repetitions which the corresponding verses have to undergo. Besides, stomas are generally performed in three turns or rounds, paryâya, consisting of a triplet of verses (some of which may have to be repeated more than once), and preceded by the sound 'hum' (Hiṅkâra). Thus the first Âgyastotra, Sâmav. II, 10-12, (consisting of three verses, a, b, c,) is to be performed in the pañkadasa-stoma; that is, the three verses have to be so treated, by repetitions, as to produce fifteen verses in three turns. Now, as there are three different varieties of performing the pañkadasa-stoma, the stotra might be chanted in one or other of the following three arrangements:--



a a a



this form is called 'pañka-pañkinî,' i.e. consisting of five in each row.




b b b






c c c







Or 2.


a a a



('apârâ' or 'other, second').









b b b

c c c


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Or 3.





this form is called 'udyatî,'
or the ascending one.




b b b




a a a


c c c

The three paryâyas of a stoma (or vishtuti) show each three subdivisions (viz. a a a--b--c. being those of the first paryâya above), called vishtâva. When the Udgâtris are about to commence a chant, the Prastotri spreads in their midst a cloth, doubled up so that the unwoven fringe lies over the selvage, either towards the east or north. Thereon he marks the subdivisions of the rounds, by means of sticks (kusâ), a span long, of some kind of wood suitable for sacrifice, split lengthways along the pith (the bark being left outside) and somewhat pointed at one end, then smeared over with some fragrant substance, and wrapped up singly in pieces of the same kind of cloth as that spread on the ground. The marking of the vishtâvas, or subdivisions, takes place at the end of the prastâva or prelude (see next page, note 1) in this way, that each vishtâva is marked by as many sticks as the corresponding verse has to be repeated; those of the first vishtâva being laid down with the point to the north, then behind or west of them those of the second turn with the point to the west, and behind them those of the third turn with the point to the north. Thereupon those of the other two rounds are laid down in the same way, each turn north of the preceding one. Hence the arrangement of sticks for the first of the above varieties of the pañkadasa-stoma would be three straight, one across, one straight; one straight, three across, one straight; one straight, one across, three straight.

With the exception of the Bahishpavamâna, the chanting is performed in the Sadas by the side of the Udumbara post (see III, 6, 1, 2 seq.), the latter being likewise enclosed in a cloth of the above description, wrapt round it from left to right, with the unwoven fringe towards the top.

309:1 Cf. Tândya Br. VI, 7, 24.

310:1 The Bahishpavamâna-(stotra), or 'outside-pavamâna,'--so called because (on the first day of a Soma-sacrifice) it is performed outside the altar (commentary on Pañkav. Br. VI, 8, 10-11; or outside the Sadas, Sây. on Sâmav. S. p. 47),--is chanted in the Trivrit, or threefold, stoma; consisting, as it does, of three gâyatrî triplets (Sâmav. II, 1-9 for the Agnishtoma), and none of its verses being chanted more than once. This stoma has three different varieties, viz. the udyatî, or ascending mode, the first turn of which consists of the first verses of the three triplets, the second turn of the second verses, and the third turn of the last verses, hence a1 a2 a3--b1 b2 b3--c1 c2 c3; the parivartinî, or reverting mode, following the natural order, a1 b1 c1--a2 b2 c2--a3 b3 c3; and the kulâyinî, or web-like mode, performed in the order a1 b1 c1-b2 c2 a2--c3 a3 b3. Cf. Haug, Transl. Ait. Br. p. 237, where, however, these forms are described quite differently. The term used for the natural order of verses in the parivartinî vishtuti is 'parâkî,' i.e. thitherwards, straight off. From the statement in paragraph 7 above, that 'they chant straight off (parâk),' one might therefore infer that that particular mode of chanting ought to be used for the Bahishpavamâna-stotra; but the term 'parâk' may also be taken as referring to each of the several verses being chanted 'straight off,' without any repetition. Haug, Transl. Ait. Br. p. 120 note, remarks: 'Each of these verses is for the purpose of chanting divided into four parts: Prastâva, i, e. prelude, the first being preceded by hum̃, to be sung by the Prastotar; Udgîtha, the principal part of the Sâman, preceded by Om, to be chanted by the Udgâtar; the Pratihâra, i.e. response [? rather check, stop; cf. IV, 3, 4, 22], introduced by hum̃, to be chanted by the Pratihartar; and the Nidhana, i.e. finale, to be sung by all three. To give the student an idea of this division, I here subjoin the second of these rikas in the Sâman form, distinguishing its four parts:--

[The connected rik form is: Abhi te madhunâ payo--atharvâno asisrayur--devam devâya devayu.]

'Prastâva: abhi te madhunâ payom.

'Udgîtha: om âtharvâno asisrâdeyurvam devâyadâ. p. 311

'Pratihâra: hum âvâyo.

'Nidhana: sâm.

The Nidhanas, i.e. finales, are for the nine Pavamâna-stotra verses the following ones: sât, sâm, suvâh, idâ, vâk, and â (for the four last verses).' See also Burnell, Ârsheyabr. p. xlv seq.

311:1ty. I, 12; II, 1; Tândya Br. VI, 7 seq. give the following details: The Prastotri takes the prastara (bunch of grass, representing the Sacrificer) from the Adhvaryu and says, 'Brahman, we will chant, O Prasâstar!' The Brahman and Maitrâvaruna having given their assent (Âsv. V, 2, 12-14). the Prastotri hands the prastara to the Udgâtri. The latter touches his right thigh with it (or bends his right knee thereon) and 'harnesses' (introduces) the chant by the formula, 'with Agni's fire, with Indra's might, with Sûrya's brilliance, may Brihaspati harness thee,' &c. (Tândya Br. I, 3, 5); whereupon he mutters, 'I will make food,' &c. (ib. 6); and after looking towards the pit and a vessel of water and the sun. he commences the chant. The three chanters are seated west of the Adhvaryu and Pratiprasthâtri (who look towards them), viz. the Udgâtri facing the north, the Prastotri the west, and the Pratihartri the south (or south-east). To the west of them are seated three, four, or six subordinate singers, or choristers (upagâtri), who accompany the chanting in a deep voice with the sound 'Ho.' When the chant is completed, the Udgâtri says, 'I have made food,' and makes the sacrificer mutter the formula, 'Thou art a falcon,' &c. (Pañk. Br. I, 3, 8); whereupon he takes a stalk of grass from the prastara, cuts off the top and bottom, so as to make it of the length of four thumbs’ breadths, and throws it into the pit with, 'If it has been chanted,' &c. (ib. II, 1, 8). They then pour out the vessel of water into the pit, with, 'I send you to the sea,' &c., and make 3, 5, 7 or 9 steps northwards outside the altar, p. 312 whereupon they betake themselves to the Âgnîdhrîya. During the chanting, the Unnetri pours the Soma-juice from the Âdhavanîya trough through the strainer into the Pûtabhrit.

312:1 The Agnîdh takes burning coals from the Âgnîdhrîya fire, and puts them on the dhishnya hearths, in the order in which they were raised. See p. 148, note 4.

312:2 He spreads a layer of (ulapa) grass along the 'spine' (the line from the middle of the back to the middle of the front side) of the altar.

312:3 Pasum hy âlipsyamâno (!) bhavati. Kânva MS.

312:4 Having taken this cup of Soma or libation (with the formula, Vâg. S. VII, 11) from the Drona-kalasa or the Pûtabhrit, he makes the sacrificer eye the several cups and Soma vessels, as set forth IV, 5, 6, 1 seq.; the Âsvina being looked at sixth in order (or fourth of the grahas), not tenth (as was its order of drawing). See IV, 1, 5, 16.

312:5 See III, 7, 1, 19 seq.

313:1 Or, the (three) Uktha-stotras (Sâmav. II, 55-62) and sastras, the characteristic feature of the Ukthya sacrifice. Cf. p. 325, note ; and IV, 6, 3, 3.

313:2 The Shodasi-stotra (Sâmav. II, 302-304) chanted in the ekavimsa stoma is the characteristic stotra of the Shodasin sacrifice. The term meaning 'having a sixteenth' (viz. stotra), it evidently refers originally to the sacrifice, and has then also been applied to the stotra and sastra. See also Haug, Ait. Br. Transl. p. 255, note 2.

313:3 On this occasion the same rites are performed as at the sacrifice of the Agnîshomîya buck (III, 6, 4, 1 seq.), viz. from the girding of the stake (III, 7, 1, 19) to the election of the Hotri (III, 7, 4, 9). Then the other priests are elected, viz. Adhvaryu (and Pratiprasthâtri), the Prasâstri (Maitrâvaruna), the Brâhmanâkhamsin, the Potri, the Neshtri, the Âgnîdhra, and finally the sacrificer himself; after which each of them makes two election oblations (pravritahoma) of ghee, the first with, 'May I be well-pleasing to Speech, well-pleasing to the Lord of speech: O divine Speech, what sweetest, most pleasing speech is thine, therewith endow me! Hail to Sarasvatî!' the second with, 'May the holy Sarasvatî, of abundant powers, rich in devotion, accept favourably our sacrifice!' Thereupon they proceed with the animal offering up to the offering of the omentum (vapâ) and cleansing (III, 8, 2, 30); after which all the eighteen priests and the sacrificer perform the Sarpana (see p. 299, note 2), that is, they step up to the eight dhishnya hearths (with formulas Vâg. S. V, 31 a-d; 32 a-d respectively), the Adhvaryu then pointing out the Âhavanîya, the Bahishpavamâna place, the Kâtvâla, &c. (with Vâg. S. V, 32 e seq.); and touching the Sadas and its door-posts, and addressing Sûrya (the sun), the Ritvigs (officiating priests) and dhishnya hearths (with V, 33-34). Kâty. IX, 8, 8-25. For the duties of the Udgâtris, see Lâty. Sr. II, 2, 10 seq.

314:1 For the metres of which the Mâdhyandina-pavamâna stotra is composed, see p. 333, note 1.

315:1 The Ârbhava or Tritîya-pavamâna stotra, Sâmav. II, 39-52 (see note on IV, 3, 5, 24), is made up of five parts, composed chiefly in the Gâyatrî, Kakubh, Ushnih, Anushtubh, and Gagatî metres respectively. It is chanted in the Saptadasa-stoma, the seventeen verses being obtained in the following way. The Gâyatrî triplet (II, 39-41) is chanted twice, in the Gâyatra and Samhita tunes, making six verses. Then verses 42 and 44 once each, in the Sapha and Paushkala tunes respectively. Then the triplet II, 47-49 twice, in the Syâvâsva and Ândhîgava tunes (six verses). And finally the triplet II, 50-52 once, in the Kâva tune (three verses). This makes together seventeen verses. Verses 43, 45, and 46 of the Samhita are omitted in the chanting.

315:2 Paṅkti means both 'a set of five,' and the paṅkti metre, consisting of five octosyllabic feet.

315:3 See p. 325, note 2.

315:4 Taitt. Br. I, 5, 11 assigns them to the Asvins, for the reason that they performed cures therewith.

315:5 These five sacrificial dishes, called savanîyâh (or aindrâh) purodâsâh, are placed together in one vessel (pâtrî)--the purodâsa proper, or rice-cake to Indra, being placed in the centre--and oblations are made from them to the respective deities at one and the same time, two pieces being cut from each dish into the guhû for the chief offering, and one piece from each into the upabhrit p. 316 spoon, for the svishtakrit. While cutting the portion he calls on the Maitrâvaruna to 'Recite (the invitatory prayer) of the cakes of the morning feast for Indra!' The anuvâkyâ (Rig-veda III, 52, 1) having been recited by the Maitrâvaruna, the Adhvaryu steps to the fire, calls on the Âgnîdhra for the Sraushat formula (see I, 5, 2, 16, with note), and thereupon on the Maitrâvaruna to Urge the cakes of the morning feast brought forward for Indra!' That priest then urges, 'Let the Hotri pronounce the offering prayer to Indra! May Indra with his bays eat the grain! [O Hotar, pronounce the offering prayer!]' Whereupon the Hotri recites, We who worship (part i, p. 142, note),--May Indra with his bays eat the grains, with Pûshan the porridge; with Sarasvatî, with Bhâratî, the sour curds, with Mitra and Varuna the clotted curds! [cf. Ait. Br. II, 24; Taitt. Br. I, 5, 11; Âsv. V, 4, 3] Vaushat!' when the Adhvaryu pours the oblation into the fire. For the oblation to Agni Svishtakrit the invitatory prayer is Rig-Veda III, 28, 1, and the offering formula 'Havir agne vîhi,' 'graciously accept the offering, O Agni!' The offerings completed, the dishes of sacrificial food. are placed on the Hotri's hearth.

Next: IV, 3, 1. Third Adhyâya. First Brâhmana