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Satapatha Brahmana Part II (SBE26), Julius Eggeling tr. [1885], at



4:4:3:11. The metres, forsooth, are the (draught) cattle of the gods. Even as harnessed cattle here on earth

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draw for men, so do the harnessed metres draw the sacrifice for the gods. And whenever the metres gratified the gods, then the gods gratified the metres. Now it has been previous to this, that the harnessed metres have drawn the sacrifice to the gods, that they have gratified them 1:

4:4:3:22. He now draws the Hâriyogana 2 graha--the Hâriyogana being the metres--it is the metres he thereby gratifies: this is why he draws the Hâriyogana graha.

4:4:3:33. He draws it as an additional (libation); since

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he draws it when he (the Hotri) pronounces the 'All-hail and blessing 1.' For there are here the gods, and the metres in addition to them; and there are men, and beasts in addition to them: therefore he draws it as an additional one.

4:4:3:44. He draws it in the Dronakalasa. Now Soma was Vritra. When the gods slew him, his head rolled off 2: it became the Dronakalasa. Thereinto flowed together so much of the juice as it could hold 3; that was in excess; and so is this graha in excess: he thus puts the excess. to the excess,--therefore he draws it in the Dronakalasa.

4:4:3:55. He draws it without a puroruk-formula, for he draws it for the metres; and in that he draws it for the metres, even thereby that (graha) of his becomes supplied with a puroruk: therefore he draws it without a puroruk.

4:4:3:66. He now draws it from that (Âgrayana graha) with (Vâg. S. VIII, it), 'Thou art taken with a support: of bay colour art thou, meet for the team of bay steeds,--thee to the pair of bay steeds!' Now, the two bay horses are the Rik and Sâman: it is for the Rik and Sâman that he draws it.

4:4:3:77. He then pours parched grain into it with, 'Ye are the bays’ grains, united with the Soma for

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[paragraph continues] Indra!' Whatever metres there are, both measured and unmeasured, they all thereby drink (of the Soma 1).

4:4:3:88. For this (libation) the Unnetri 2 calls for the Sraushat;--for the Unnetri is in excess (additional), since he does not call for the Sraushat for any other (libation); and this libation also is in excess: thus he puts the excess to the excess,--therefore the Unnetri calls for the Sraushat.

4:4:3:99. Placing (the Dronakalasa) on his head, he calls for the Sraushat,--for this (vessel) is his (Soma's) head. He first says (to the Maitrâvaruna), 'Recite (the invitatory prayer) for the Soma-draughts with grains!' Having called for the Sraushat, he says, 'Prompt (the Hotri to pronounce the offering prayer on) the Soma-draughts with grain brought forward 3!' and offers as the Vashat and Anuvashat are uttered. They then divide the grain between them for the sake of the Soma-draught.

4:4:3:1010. Now some take the Dronakalasa over to the Hotri, on the ground that 'the draught belongs to the utterer of the Vashat.' But let him not do it thus; for the other draughts are (taken by the respective priests) according to the kamasa cups, but this one is in excess: therefore there is a draught in it for all of them,--for this reason they divide the grain between them for the sake of the Soma-draught.

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4:4:3:1111. They must not bite them with their teeth,--for these (grains) mean cattle,--thinking 'lest we should do aught to crush our cattle!' They only drink it in with their breath 1, with (Vâ,;. S. VIII, 12), 'What horse-winning, what cow-winning draught is thine 2;' for they are cattle: therefore he says, 'what horse-winning, what cow-winning draught is thine;'--'Of that draught, offered with Yagus, praised by chants 3,'--for Yagus-prayers have indeed been offered, and chants have been chanted;--'sung by hymns,'--for songs (sastras) have been sung;--'Of the invited 4 do I drink, invited,'--for invited, he now drinks of the invited.

4:4:3:1212. They must not throw them into the fire, lest they offer remains (of offerings) in the fire. They rather throw them on the high altar: thus they are not excluded from the sacrifice.

4:4:3:1313. Thereupon they touch the vessels filled (with water 5) which some call Apsushomâh (Soma-draughts in water). For even as a yoked (animal) draws, so

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do they who perform the priestly duties. But the yoked (animal) galls or scratches itself; and water is a means of soothing, a medicine: thus wherever in this (sacrifice) they gall or scratch themselves--water being a means of soothing--they soothe by that means of soothing, water; they heal it by water. This is why they touch the vessels filled (with water).

4:4:3:1414. They touch them with (Vâg. S. VIII, 14), 'With lustre, with sap, with bodies 1 have we united,--with the happy spirit: may Tvashtri, the dispenser of boons, grant us riches, and may he smooth what was injured in our body!' thus they heal what was torn.

4:4:3:1515. They then touch their faces. There is a twofold reason why they touch their faces;--water, forsooth, is the elixir of immortality: it is with the elixir of immortality that they thus touch themselves. And, moreover, they thus deposit that holy work into their own self: therefore they touch their faces.


370:1 See I, 8, 2, 8; the translation has been amended in accordance with Professor Whitney's suggestions, American Journal of Philology, III, p. 406.

370:2 That is, referring to the 'hari-yogana,' or (Indra's) team of bay steeds.

371:1 For the Sam-yos, see part i, p. 254, note. The pronunciation of that formula takes place after the offering proper is completed.

371:2 ? Or burst (udvavarta), as the St. Petersburg Dictionary takes it. The Kânva text reads.--Vritro vai soma âsît tam yatra devâh pâtreshu vyagrihnata tasya mûrdhno (!) vyavartta sa dronakalaso ’bhavat.

371:3 Yâvân vâ yâvân vâ rasah, (? some indeterminate quantity of the juice:) Cf. IV, 4, 5, 13.

372:1 The text might also be taken in the sense of 'Whatever metre there is, both measured and unmeasured, all that he thereby consumes.' The libation is, however, taken out for the metres or cattle, represented by the grain.

372:2 Instead of the Âgnîdhra, see I, 5, 2, 16, with note.

372:3 Regarding 'prasthitam,' see p. 198, note 3.

373:1 They are only to smell the grains steeped in the Soma-juice.

373:2 The Kânva recension adds, 'O divine Soma!'

373:3 Lit., having Yagus offered, and chants chanted for it.

373:4 ? I.e. 'that to which I am invited.'

373:5 That is, the ten Kamasins touch their respective kamasa cups, filled with water and placed in the proper order from south to north, behind the pit (kâtvâla), after putting fresh kusa stalks on them. Those priests who have no cups of their own touch the cups of those with whom they are most nearly connected, viz. the four Adhvaryus that of the Neshtri the Udgâtri's assistants that of their principal, the Grâvastut that of the Hotri. Thereupon they touch their faces and betake themselves to the Âgnîdhra fire-house, to partake of sour milk. Then follow, on the Gârhapatya (at the front hall door), the Patnîsamgas of the cakes of the animal offering, followed by the Samishtayagus, See also Lâty. Sr. II, 11, 16 seq.

374:1 See I, 9, 3, 6. Cf. Atharva-veda VI, 53, 3. The Tândya Br. I, 3, 9 reads 'sam tapobhih' (with fervour).

Next: IV, 4, 4. Fourth Brâhmana