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t would seem that the inhabitants of Man and the other Western Isles of Scotland had acquired a reputation for magical powers at an early period. For the bard, who accompanied Hakon, king of Norway, in his expedition to these parts in 1203, wrote as follows--Now our deep inquiring sovereign encountered the horrid powers of enchantment and the abominations of an impious race. The troubled flood tore many fair gallies from their moorings, and swept them anchor less before the waves. A magic raised watery tempest blew upon our warriors, ambitious of conquest, and against the floating habitations of the brave." 1 Two centuries later, we are told by Ranulph Higden that "In the Ilonde of Mann is sortilege and witchcraft used; for women there sell to shipmen wynde as it were closed under three knottes of threde, so that the more wynde he would have the more knottes he must undo." 2 According to Sacheverell, Martholine, who was Governor of the Isle of Man in 1338. wrote a treatise against the practice of witchcraft then prevalent there.

A profound belief in the power of Magic was one of the charactistics of Goidelic peoples, though indeed it was formerly all but universal. Their paganism was a kind of fetichism which considered the various objects of nature, especially the sun, as malignant beings, who had to be propitiated with offerings to avert their wrath. In connection with this worship, a class of persons arose called Druadh, who stood between the people and their deities, and acquired great power over the former by the influence they were supposed to be able to exert over the latter by their

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sacrifices and magic arts. St. Patrick, who is supposed to have driven the Druadh from Ireland, prays in a very old hymn attributed to him, to be protected

     "Against snares of demons
     Against black laws of heathens,
Against spells of women, smiths, and Druads."

These Goidelic Druadh 1 probably belonged to the same system as the Gaulish Druids at a very remote period; but, by Julius Cæsar's time, the latter had picked up a little Greek philosophy, and were probably comparatively well educated and superior men; while the Druadh in Britain, and more especially in Ireland and Man, being isolated from Continental influences, had shrunk into mere Magicians and Medicine-men. It was formerly supposed that they sacrificed to Baal on the cromlechs within the stone circles, but more recent research has shown that these mighty stone monuments are the memorials of a pre-historic race, and that the Goidels, who, before the introduction of Christianity, worshipped the heavenly bodies, hills, fire, wells, &c., had no knowledge of the Phoenician Baal, or, indeed, of a personal God of any kind. With the introduction of Christianity these Druadh disappeared, but the beliefs they had inculcated survived in other forms, as it was believed that all the powers of evil were concentrated in the devil and his myrmidons, that he could delegate his powers to human beings who sold their souls to him, and who, according to the nature of their functions or their sex, were called Magicians, Enchanters or Enchantresses, Sorcerers or Sorceresses, Wizards or Witches. By their spells, or charms, they could bring all kinds of evil on human beings, but by counter-charms they could also alleviate those evils. The Magicians, Enchanters, and Enchantresses belonged to the higher order of these beings. They had spirits or demons at their command, and were proficient in the occult sciences, but would not condescend to the petty malignity occasionally practised by the Sorcerers and Sorceresses, the Wizards and the Witches. The only Magician who is remembered by name in the Isle of Man is the famous Manannan (see Chapter I.) There is also the Enchantress Tehi, and the Sorceress, or rather Prophetess, called Caillagh-ny-Ghueshag, a sort of Manx Mother Shipton, who appears to have been superior to most of her kind. To the lower and much more common order of these beings belong those who practised witchcraft, which may be defined to be a supernatural power which persons were formerly supposed to

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obtain by entering into compact with the devil. As soon as the bargain was concluded, the devil was said to deliver to the Wizard or Witch an imp or familiar spirit, to be ready at call to do whatever it was directed. By the aid of this imp and the devil together, the Witch--who was almost always an old woman, the Wizard being comparatively uncommon--was enabled to transport herself through the air on a broomstick, and transform herself into various shapes, particularly those of cats and hares; to inflict diseases on whomsoever she chose, and to punish her enemies in various ways. The belief in witchcraft is very ancient, being common in Europe till the sixteenth century, and it maintained its ground till the middle of the seventeenth century; indeed it is not altogether extinct either in the Isle of Man, or elsewhere, at the present day. A special attribute of Sorcerers and Witches was the possession of the "Evil Eye." This was supposed to be an influence in virtue of which its possessor could injure whomsoever he or she cast a hostile or envious eye upon, and to be the cause of many things going wrong. For instance, if anyone took suddenly ill, if a cow was diseased, or any difficulty occurred in churning, if the hens did not lay well, &c., the operation of the "Evil Eye" was at once suspected. Before curing any of these complaints, it was first necessary to discover the operator. One of the most approved methods of doing this, in the case of a diseased animal, is to burn it; when, as Train remarks, "The first person that passes that way after the fire is kindled, is recognised as the witch or wizard." Fire, indeed, was considered generally efficacious against Witches and their wiles, and was used at special seasons, as we shall see later (Chapter VI.), when they were supposed to be more powerful than usual. When the possessor of the "Evil Eye" was discovered, the next step was to cure the disease, and this was frequently effected by picking up the dust from beneath the feet or from the threshold of the suspected Witch, and rubbing it on her victim.

But there were cases in which the popular and well-known methods failed, when recourse was had to the practitioners called" Charmers," or "Witch-doctors." These Charmers--Fer-obbee, "Men-charmers," and Ben-obbee, "Women-charmers," as they might be either men or women--used certain formulas and practised various ceremonies for the purpose of curing diseases, or, occasionally, of causing them; and they also made use of their powers to counteract the spells of Fairies as well as those of the malevolent Sorcerers or Witches. For diseases, in addition to using charms, they administered medicinal herbs and applied fasting spittle, in the virtues of which there was a

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very general belief; but to accomplish the more recondite branch of their profession they used charms and incantations 1 only. They were all more or less tainted with the suspicion of dabbling a little in sorcery and witchcraft on their own account, but, as their powers were on the whole used for good purposes, they were tolerated.

One of the best known of these Witch-doctors was Teare, of Ballawhane, who was described by Train as follows:--The Seer is a little man, far advanced into the vale of life; in appearance he was healthy and active; he wore a low-crown slouched hat, evidently too large for his head, with a broad brim; his coat, of an old-fashioned make, with his vest and breeches, were all of loughtyn wool, which had never undergone any process of dyeing; his shoes, also, were of a colour not to be distinguished from his stockings, which were likewise of loughtyn wool." He was said to have been the most powerful of all these practitioners, and when their prescriptions had failed in producing the desired effect, he was applied to. The messenger that was despatched to him on such occasions was neither to eat nor to drink by the way, nor even to tell any person his mission. The recovery was supposed to be perceptible from the time the case was stated to him.

These powers were supposed to be hereditary, and were handed down in the same family for generations. There, is for instance, a daughter of Teare's still practising the same art, and she is resorted to by the fishermen for the sake of having their nets charmed, and so cause them to be lucky in their fishing. 2 To preserve these powers intact from generation to generation, it was supposed to be necessary to hand them down from a man to a woman, but in the next generation from a woman to a man, and so on. Having thus referred to the methods of detecting Witches and of protecting and curing those that were attacked by them, we will now proceed to show how they were punished. The Law with regard to witchcraft and kindred practices was very severe in every part of Europe, and, it is said, that in England alone, no less than 30,000 Wizards and Witches have suffered at the stake. Blackstone writes with regard to the law on this subject in England as follows:--"Our law once included in the list of crime, that of actual witchcraft or intercourse with evil spirits; and though it has now no longer a place among them, its exclusion is not to be understood as implying a denial of the possibility of such an offence. To deny this, would be to contradict the revealed word of God in various passages both

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of the Old and New Testament; and the thing itself is a truth to which every nation hath in its turn borne testimony; either by examples seemingly well attested, or by prohibitory laws, which at least suppose the possibility of a commerce with evil spirits * * *

By the Statute 33, Henry VIII., all witchcraft and sorcery were declared to be 'felony without benefit of clergy,' and by I. Jac. 1., 'all persons invoking any evil spirits, or consulting, covenanting with, entertaining, employing, feeding or rewarding any evil spirit; . . . for killing, or hurting any person by such infernal arts; should be guilty of felony and suffer death; and if any person should attempt, by sorcery, to discover hidden treasure, or to restore stolen goods, or to provoke unlawful love, or to hurt any man or beast, he, or she, should suffer imprisonment and pillory for the first offence, and death for the second.' These acts long continued in force, to the terror of all antient females in the kingdom; and many poor wretches were sacrificed thereby to the prejudice of their neighbours and their own illusions; not a few having confessed the fact at the gallows.' In the Isle of Man, too, legislation on this subject was not neglected, for we find, by the 50th Spiritual Law, that "all such as are suspected for sorcerie and witchcraft are to be presented to the Chapter Quest, then the Ordinary in such cases finding any suspicion is to impannel a jury of honest men within the same parish and the party suspected in the meantime to be committed to the Bishop's Prison, and all the offences and crimes the jury doth find the Ordinary shall write, and if the jury can prove any notorious fault or crime done by the same person, then the Ordinary to deliver him out of the Bishop's Prison to the Lord's Jail and Court." It is supposed that in old times the usual result of the legal procedure against Witches was that they were subjected to two so-called forms of ordeal, but which were really means of putting them to death, as, if they survived the first, the second would almost certainly prove fatal, for they were said to have been thrown into the middle of the Curragh Glass, or "green bog" pool, in the valley below Greeba mountain. If they sank, their bodies were taken out of the water, carried home, waked, and received a Christian burial; but if; to save themselves from drowning, they managed to paddle to either side, they were instantly declared guilty of the crime of which they were charged, and were consequently either burned alive as unconvicted witches. or rolled from the top of Slieau Whuallian in spiked barrels, Thus literally was followed the Scripture maxim, "Thou shalt not suffer a witch to live."

The following extracts from the Manx Episcopal and Civil Records show, however, that our forefathers dealt with these

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poor creatures in the seventeenth century, and later, in a milder fashion than they did, according to tradition, at an earlier date:--

1638.--Whereas Jony Tear hath been presented by the Chapter Quest upon information given them that she was seen together with an Irish woman in a gill pulling strange herbs, and whereas the said Jony Tear hath cleared herself, her slanderers had to ask her forgiveness before the congregation.

The following entry, taken from the Liber Scaccar, or Exchequer Book, appears in the Malew Register in 1659. It affords an instance of the enforcement of Church discipline by the temporal ruler who took the Bishop's place during the time of the Commonwealth:--

Bishop's Court, 30th September, 1659.--Whereas Mrs Jane Cesar hath been accused upon suspicion of witchcraft, charminge or sorscerie, where upon certaine examinacons have been taken. And the said case being putt to the triall of a jurie, they the said jurors (after examinacon of the business) have this day cleared and acquitted ye said Jane Cesar of the accusacon aforesaid as by theire Answere may appeare. Nevertheles that the said Jane Cesar may declare her inocencie of such practizes and that shee doth renounce the same as diabolicall and wicked; she is hereby ordered to acknowledge the same before the Congregacon off (sic.) Kk. Malew Parish on the next Lord's day to the end that others may be admonished to relinquish detest and abhor such delusions which are of great inducement to greater temptacons and are too frequently practised in this Island as is dayly observed. Of which if any one shalt be hereafter accused and the same lawfully proved such persons are to be severely fined and punished, or otherwise proceeded against accordinge as the law doth provide in such cases.

(Signed) Jam. Chaloner.

To Sr. Tho. Parr minister of Kk Malew who is to read ye before his Congregacon the next Sabbath in English and Manxe and to return this Order with the acknowledgment made as aforesaid into the Comptrouleres office afterwards. True Coppie agreeinge with ye originall.

October the 2th, 1659

(Signed) J. Woods.

It is certainly remarkable that this unfortunate woman, after being acquitted by the jury of the offence alleged against her, should be ordered "to acknowledge the same before the congregation," and at the same time "to declare her innocencie."

The following, in 1690, is from the Archideaconal Register:--

We, whose names are hereunder written, being sworn in a jury of inquiry to take evidence in some difference between Gilbert Moore and John Steon about witchcraft, picking of herbs, and strikening them unknown, do give in our verdict as followeth:--Ann Callister, alias Karran, and Grace Cowley, being sworn and examined say that John Steon said unto Ann Callister thou b------ and w------ that little fat that thou has gotten upon thee I will take it oft thee in a short time, and since that time she has lost very many of her goods, and furth: saith not, Ann Callister further saith that John Steon's wife said unto her that she knew an herb, that if a man drank of the drink of it be would forget himself, but if one drank of it twice he would forget himself for ever--and further saith not. John Corlet and William Tear swore that Daniel Quayle told them that John Steon gave

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him an herb to put to his eyes and he never saw afterward, and further saith not. Gilbert Callister and Ann Callister declared that the said Daniel Quayle's wife told them the same words, and further saith not. Dollin Gawn sworn, examined, saith that himself and John Steon chid (sic) and the said John Steon promised to give him loss, and shortly after he received it, & furth: saith not, Dollin Gawn's wife sworn, examined, saith that the same John Steon told her that he knew that none of her children should inherit that little place they had, and since that time one of her childn dyed and another is now a cripple at her fire side, and furth: saith not. Adam Callister sworn, examined, saith that he came with John Corlett and John Steon from church and John Corlett told Steon he would present him to the great inquest, and the said Steon answered that he could not tell whether he would be able to do so, but that he might be sick and have need to be washed in tobacco water and swines broth, and further saith not. Ann Cowle sworn, examined, saith that John Steon said unto her he would deceive her and blind her, and strike her unknown. Adam Callister sworn, examined, saith that the said Steon told him that he would strike him unawares, and John Corlett declared that that was the common report he had heard of John Steon that he would strike people unknown and furth: saith not. Gilbert Moore sworn, examined, saith that the said Steon came to his house and said to his wife and children that he would strike them unawares so that they should not know of it, and since that time he lost abundance (sic) of his goods, and furth: saith not. Gilbert Moore likewise and Pat. Cowley sworn, examined, say John Steon came to the plough to Gilbert Moore for the lone (sic) of a Manks spade, and the said Moore denyed him, whereupon Steon told bins he would do him a mischief and that shortly and within a while after one of his oxen were struck lame so the said Moore sent to Steon to come to see the Ox, and Steon coming spit upon the Ox and handled him and he recovered, and further saith not. Mrs. Nelson sworn, examined, saith that John Steon told her that he knew she would be willing to deliver up her land unto Grinsey and Richard Cannell, and the said Mrs. Nelson asked him how did he know, whereupon the said Steon replyed that he knew she would be willing to give them payment for taking it from her and they would not accept of it, and further saith not. Pat. Cannell sworn and examined saith that he came upon John Steon's daughter picking of herbs in the Court land where corn was sowen on our Lady day in Lent a little after break of day. Ellinr Cannell sworn, examined, saith as abovesd, Jaine Quayle examined saith that she saw an herb with John Steon's daughter, and asked what that was for and she said to preserve her from the flux and seeing something else with her she said it was to preserve her from the feaver.--Having taken the above depositions we find said Steon to be guilty, and leave him to the discretion of the Court for fine and punishment. Jo. Quayle his mk. X, Gilbt. Callistr his mk. X, Pat, Caine his mk. X, and Wm. Quayle his mk. X.

At Kirk Michael, July 31, 1712, one Alice Knakill, alias Moor, of Kirk Lonan, confessed to a charge of having taken up some earth from under a neighbour's door, and burnt it to ashes, which she gave to her cattle, "with an intention, as she owns, to make them give more milk. Also another woman declares that the said Alice Knakill cut a piece out of her petticoat and burnt it to powder, which she drank with a design, as she confessed, to recover her health, and procure sleep. Both which charms

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she owns to have been taught her by an Irishwoman." She was sentenced to three Sundays' penance in the neighbouring churches. In the following year, Alice Cowley, of Ballaugh, a regular dealer in charms, and known as such far and wide in the Island, was brought before the Consistory Court. It was then deposed that this old crone, "addressed herself to a youth, and told him, if he would give her a ninepenny piece, she would give him something that would make a young woman fall in love with him, which proves to be a powder in a paper, which he believes to be the powder of some of the bright stones that are at Foxdale." Her dealings with married women, under the pretence of removing barreness; with farmers for procuring a crop of corn, or making the herd fruitful; with young women for procuring lovers; and with parents for the recovery of a sick child were also deposed to; the mischief in each case being implied to be the witch's doing, and thought to be remedied by drawing blood from her. All these charges were proved, and Alice was sentenced, by the Bishop and Vicars-General, to "thirty days' imprisonment, and before releasement to give sufficient security to stand two hours in a white sheet, a white wand in her right hand, and these words, 'for charming and sorcery,' in capital letters on her breast, in the four market towns of this Island, at the public cross, in the height of the market; and afterwards to do penance in Ballaugh Church."

In 1716, a woman from Jurby complained to Vicar-General Walker that she and her husband had been "suspected to have been out early in the morning last May-day, walking on the dew in their neighbours' fields, with a design to prejudice them in the increase of their crop," and that though this calumny had been disproved by evidence, it was still repeated. It was, therefore, ordered by the Court, in order "to discourage such vile and unchristian thoughts of one neighbour receiving damage from another, by any trivial, foolish customs of that kind, which betray great weakness of faith and trust in God," that a fine of £3, and imprisonment for forty days, besides further punishment at the Ordinary's discretion, should be imposed on anyone reviving the story.

Bishop Wilson evidently viewed the practice of charming with abhorrence, as we find him writing about it, in 1741, as follows:--"There is a cursed practice carried on secretly by Satan and his instruments, which I beseech you, my brethren, take this proper occasion 1 to speak upon: both to terrify those that practice it, and to confirm people's

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faith in God, against any hurt the devil or his agents can do them. Many complaints have been brought into our courts against people using foolish and wicked charms and arts, either to injure their neighbour in his goods, or to transfer them to themselves, to the great dishonour of God, who alone can increase the fruits of the earth to our comfort, or withhold them for our sins; and, indeed, it is for want of a true faith in God's power and goodness that makes men afraid of what such wretched instruments of Satan can do . . ."

There are many other similar presentments to be found in the Records during the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries, but we will content ourselves with mentioning two cases which have come into the Courts in the present century. In the Manx Sun newspaper of the 5th of January, 1838, it is reported that "a case of sorcery was recently brought into and solemnly heard in one of the Courts of Law." About the same time the then Deemster McHutchin was applied to for a warrant against a Witch on the charge of depriving cows of their milk, and causing them to sicken. He, however, wisely asked a veterinary surgeon to supply a remedy, and thus put a stop to the prosecution.

The following account was published in the Mona's Herald newspaper of the 10th of January, 1844, concerning the proceedings against a suspected Witch:--A farmer in the parish of Marown, having lost in succession, a heifer, a cow, and a horse, attributed the death of these animals to the influence of witchcraft. Consequently he obtained a trespass warrant from one of the Deemsters, under authority of which a jury was sworn, and a number of persons summoned as witnesses and examined. Such questions as the following were put: 'Did you ever witch Quine's cattle?' 'Do you bear malice against Quine?' 'Did you hear anybody talking about Quine before his cattle died, and seeming to grudge him what he possessed?' Among those who were sworn was Quine's sister-in-law, and on being asked if she ever came in any shape or form to do Quine or his goods an injury, she confessed 'that she had once passed through Quine's fields without leave.' The poor woman was frightened into paying the costs in consequence of this. While the case was going on someone let loose a wild rabbit in the room. On the appearance of this unexpected visitor all became terrified, crying, 'The Witch, the Witch!' This continued for several minutes, till one of the party, more courageous than the rest, seized the supposed Witch, and, while depriving the harm less creature of existence, triumphantly exclaimed, 'You shall not trouble poor Quine again."'

The stories which follow relate to the various practices of MAGIC, ENCHANTMENT, SORCERY, and WITCHCRAFT. A list of the CHARMS most in vogue is also given.

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In visionary glory rear’d,
The gorgeous castle disappear’d;
And a bare heath's unfruitful plain
Usurp’d the wizard's proud domain,

In the days of enchantment a certain great magician had, by his art, raised for himself the most magnificent palace in the Isle of Man that eye ever beheld; but none who, either out of curiosity or a desire of being entertained there, went to it but was immediately converted into stone, or at least had the appearance of it, so implacable an enemy was the wicked master of it to all his own species,. being served only by infernal spirits. He became at length so much the terror of the whole Island that no person would venture to live or pass within several leagues of his habitation, so that all that side of the country was in a manner desolate, to the great loss and detriment of the place in general. This had continued for the space of three years, when an accident, or rather the peculiar direction of divine providence, was pleased in mercy to deliver them from the terror of so cruel a neighbour.

A poor man, whom one may justly term a pilgrim, having nothing to subsist on but what he procured by imploring the charity of those able to afford him succour, happening to travel on that side of the Island, not knowing anything of the fame of this enchanter, and perceiving no house inhabited, nor any cottage even, where he might get a lodging, and it growing dark, he was in terrible apprehensions of being under the necessity of taking up his lodgings on those bleak mountains, yet wandering on as long as light permitted, in hopes of better fortune, he, at last, came within sight of this palace, which filled his heart with much joy. Coming near it, he beheld large piazzas, which surrounded that magnificent building, and believing these might serve him for a resting-place, without being troublesome to any of the servants, whose churlish disposition in other places did not always afford a ready welcome to strangers, he chose rather to content himself with resting his wearied limbs on the marble floor than entreat a reception into any of the barns, which, perhaps, might be denied. In a word, he sat down on a bench in one of these piazzas, and, finding himself hungry, he took out of his pouch a piece of meat and bread, which he had begged at the last town he had passed through. He had also a little salt, which, by dipping his meat in the dark, he happened to spill some on the floor, on which he presently heard the most terrible groans to issue, from the earth beneath, vast winds seemed to be let loose from every quarter of the element, all the face of heaven was deformed

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with lightning, the most dreadful thunder rattled over his head, and in less than a moment this fine palace, with all its proud and lofty piazzas, porticos, and brazen doors, vanished into the air, and he found himself in the midst of a wide, desert, mountainous plain, without the least appearance of anything he had formerly seen. Surprised as he was, he instantly betook himself to his prayers, nor removed from his knees till day began to break, when, after thanking God for bringing him safe through the dangers of the night past, he made what speed he could to the next village, and relating the adventure just as it was to the inhabitants, they could not at first give credit to what he said, hut, going in great numbers towards the place where the palace of the necromancer had stood, they were convinced, and all joined in prayer and thanksgiving for so great a deliverance.

It was presently concluded, from what the pilgrim said, that the salt spilt on the ground had occasioned this dissolution of the palace, and for that reason salt has ever since been in such estimation among them that no person will go out on any material affair without taking some in their pockets, much less remove from one house to another, marry, put out a child, or take one to nurse, without salt being mutually interchanged; nay, though a poor creature be almost famished in the streets, he will not accept any food you will give him unless you join salt to the rest of your benevolence.--Waldron.

Salt has borne a conspicuous part in many superstitious ceremonies. The high priest of the Jews was ordered to season all offerings with salt. 1 The Egyptians and Romans also used it in their sacrifices. In Ireland, before the seed is put into the ground, salt is sent into the field for the purpose of counteracting the power of the witches and fairies. So in the Isle of Man, salt was placed in the churn lest the fairies should prevent the production of butter. Salt was formerly placed on the breast of a corpse in the Isle of Man, as elsewhere, as an emblem of the immortality of the soul. The dread of spilling salt was a general superstition.


They tell you that the Island was once much larger than it is at present; but that a magician, who had great power over it, and committed many wonderful and horrible things, being opposed by one who was a friend to the place, and at length, overcome by him, he, in revenge, raised a furious wind, not only in the air, but also in the bosom of the earth, which, rending it, tore off several pieces, which, floating in the sea, in process of time were converted into stone, and became those rocks which

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are now so dangerous to shipping. The smaller fragments, they say, are sands, which, waving up and down, are at sometimes to be seen, and at others, shift themselves far off the coast. They maintain that it was on one of these that the late King William had liked to have perished, and strengthen this suggestion by the trial of the pilot, who must infallibly have been hanged, if on strict examination of all the charts there had been in any of them the least mention made of any such sands, but, however, these floating ruins have ever since remained, and from thence are called, King William's Sands.--Waldron.


"Deeper than plummet ever sounded."--Shakespeare.

About a league and a half from Barrule, there is a hole in the earth, just at the foot of the mountain, which they call "The Devil's Den." They tell you, that, in the days of enchantment, persons were there confined by the magicians, and that it now contains a very great prince, who never knew death, but has for the space of six hundred years been bound by magic spells; but in what manner he lies, or in what form, none had ever courage enough to explore. They add, that if you carry a horse, a dog, or any other animal to the mouth of this hole, its hair will stand on end, and its eyes stare, and a damp sweat cover its whole body. Strange noises are also said to have been heard to issue from this place, and I knew a man once, who positively averred that his great-grandfather saw a huge dragon, with a tail and wings that darkened all the element, and the eyes that seemed two globes of fire, descend swiftly into it, and after that, heard most terrible shrieks and groans from within.--Waldron.


There was supposed to be a submerged island near Port Soderick which appeared every seven years. Train relates the story of one of these appearances as follows:--Many a time and oft had Nora Cain heard her old grandsire relate the tradition of the enchanted island at Port Soderick, while sitting spinning by the turf fire on a winter's evening. It was in the days of the Great Fin MacCooil, that mighty magician, who, for some insult he had received from the people who lived on a beautiful island, off Port Soderick, cast his spell over it, and submerged it to the bottom of the ocean, transforming the inhabitants into blocks of granite. It was permitted them, once in seven years, to come to the surface for the short space of thirty minutes, during which time the enchantment might be broken if any person had the boldness to place a Bible on any

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part of the enchanted land when at its original altitude above the waters of the deep.

On one occasion, it was about the end of September, on a fine moonlight night, Nora was sauntering along the little bay in sweet converse with her lover, when she observed something in the distance which continued to increase in size. It struck her to be none other than the enchanted isle she so often had heard of. It continued gradually rising above the surface of the water, when, suddenly disentangling herself from the arm of her lover, she hastened home with all the speed she could, and rushed into the cottage, crying out, and breathless with her haste, "The Bible, the Bible, the Bible!" to the utter amazement of the inmates, who could not at the moment imagine what had possessed her. After explaining what she had seen, she seized hold of the coveted volume and hastened back to the beach, but, alas! only just in time to see the last portion of the enchanted isle subside once more to its destined fate of another seven years' submersion.

From that night poor Nora gradually pined away, and was soon after followed to her grave by her disconsolate lover. It is said from that time no person has had the hardihood to make a similar attempt, lest, in case of failure, the enchanter in revenge might cast his club over Mona also.


                "With lips of rosy hue,
Dipp’d five times over in ambrosial dew,
She led them to their destruction."--Old Poet.

A famous enchantress, adjourning in this Island, had by her diabolical arts made herself appear so lovely in the eyes of men that she ensnared the hearts of as many as beheld her. The passion they had for her so took up all their hearts that they entirely neglected their usual occupations. They neither ploughed nor sowed, neither built houses, nor repaired them; their gardens were all overgrown with weeds, and their once fertile fields were covered with stones; their cattle died for want of pasture; their turf lay in the bowels of the earth undug for, and everything had the appearance of an utter desolation, even propagation ceased, for no man could have the least inclination for any woman but this universal charmer, who smiled on them, permitted them to follow and admire her, and gave everyone leave to hope himself would be at last the happy He. When she had thus allured the male part of the Island, she pretended one day to go a progress through the provinces, and being attended by all her adorers on foot, while she rode on a milk-white palfrey, in a kind of triumph at the head of them.

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[paragraph continues] She led them into a deep river, which by her art she made seem passable, and when they were all come a good way in it, she caused a sudden wind to rise, which, driving the waters in such abundance to one place, swallowed up the poor lovers, to the number of six hundred, in their tumultuous waves. After which, the sorceress was seen by some persons, who stood on the shore, to convert herself into a bat, and fly through the air till she was out of sight, as did her palfrey into a sea hog or porpoise, and instantly plunged itself to the bottom of the stream.

To prevent the recurrence of a like disaster, it was ordained that the women should go on foot and follow the men hence forth, which custom is so religiously observed, that if by chance a woman is seen walking before a man, whoever sees her cries out immediately, "Tehi! Tegi!" which, it would appear, is the name of the enchantress who occasioned this law.--Waldron.


Caillagh was the name given to an old woman, and, from the ugliness associated with old women, it came to mean a hag or witch. The most famous Caillagh was an old woman called Caillagh-ny-Ghueshag, "old woman of the spells," or the Sorceress. She was an adept at chiromancy--Faaishlaght--and could perform a charm or incantation--pisag; but her posthumous reputation arose mainly from her having foretold certain things, which, she said, were to happen before the end of the world. Such of her predictions as have been recorded certainly related to very trifling events. There was a small treen chapel called Cabbal-keeill-Vout, between the Foxdale river and Slieau-whallin, concerning which she is said to have predicted us follows

Tra Vees Cabbal-keeill-Vout ersooyl lesh-y-hooilley,
Cha bee cleïn Quirk Slieau-whallin veg sodjey

i.e., "When the Chapel Keeil-Vout shall be taken away by the flood the Quirk family will be no longer in Slieau Whallin." It is said that about 70 years ago the last fragment of the chapel and the last of the Quirks of Slieau Whallin disappeared simultaneously. The following sayings are also attributed to her:--Dy beagh chimlee caardagh ayns chooilley hie roish jerrey yn theill--"That there would be a smithy chimney in every house before the end of the world;" and that Dy nee ass claghyn glassey yoghe sleih nyn arran--"People would get their bread from grey stones." Like many other prophecies, these decidedly require an interpreter! Another saying that was attributed to her was that "the Manx and the Scotch will come so near as to throw their beetles at each other." Certainly, the Point of Ayre

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is extending slowly towards Scotland, but thousands of years would have to elapse, even if the same process continued steadily, before it could get there.--Harrison.


A story is told of a girl who was going to the Glencrutchery well for water, and met an old man, who had the reputation of being a sorcerer, 1 on her way. He asked her where she was going. "Going to your well for water," she said. "Is there no water in your well?" said he. She replied that there was, but that her mistress had sent her to get water from his well. He then gave her some money, and told her to take the water out of their own well. The girl took the money, which confirmed the charm, and went to the fair, which was going on that day, after fetching the water home. When she returned home in the evening her mistress asked her where she had got the water, as she had been churning all day without getting any butter.--Oral.


In a lonely part of the northern district of the Island stood the cottage of an old woman, who had been long suspected of being a practitioner of the "black art," to the detriment of many of her neighbours. A person of great courage having had occasion to pass that remote dwelling one night, at a late hour, and seeing a strong light within, on peeping through a chink in the door, perceived distinctly the old beldame busily turning an image before a large fire, and sticking pins into it occasionally, on which she muttered a cabalistic rhyme which he could not understand. Next morning, on hearing that the minister had been suddenly seized by a chronic disease on the preceding evening, which lasted till midnight, the man who had seen the crone at work at the very time the minister was tortured by racking pains, publicly charged her of being the sole cause of his indisposition, which was seemingly confirmed by the Captain of the Parish finding in her possession the image or supposed effigy of the minister, with an old bladder containing rusty nails, pins, and skewers. After having been tried and found guilty, she walked seemingly quite unconcerned to the common place of execution, and just before she was bound to the stake, confessed the crime for which she was about to suffer.--Train.

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                                     They say,
Lamentings heard i’ the air! strange screams of death.

About two miles from Peel, opposite to the Tynwald Mount, there is a hill called Slieu Whallian, said to be haunted by the spirit of a murdered witch, but, however, it does not appear to mortal eyes, but every night joins its lamentations to the howling winds. This woman was put into a barrel with sharp iron spikes inserted round the interior, pointing inwards, and thus, by the weight of herself and the apparatus, allowed to roll from the top of the hill to the bottom.

Many other persons have suffered here in a similar manner, one of whom was a man named Thomas Carran, who died protesting his innocence of the crime of which he was accused. In proof of this, as he is said to have predicted, a thorn-tree has since grown, and marks the fatal spot on the summit of the hill, where the cask, in which he was enclosed, in fulfilment of the sentence awarded against him, was pushed over the brow, to roll, and bound, and dash with headlong speed to the plain below.--Train.


The following story was told last year by a man who is now living:--One morning as he was returning from courting--courting it should be mentioned was, and still is in the country districts, carried on at night--he saw a woman, who was a reputed Witch, at the four cross-roads, near Regaby, sweeping a circle round her as large as that made by horses when threshing. He kicked her, and took her besom (broom) from her, and hid it till mid-day, when he and some boys collected some dry gorse, fired it, and put the besom on top. Wonderful to relate, when burning it made reports like guns going off, which could be heard at Andreas Church. This besom had on it "17 sorts of knots." Soon after its destruction the woman died.--Rhys.


One day a woman who was a reputed Witch, called at the door of a neighbouring farm-house when churning was going on, and asked the dairymaid for some buttermilk. Not having any, she refused and went on churning; hut from that moment it was of no avail, as the butter refused to come, and she got none at all, while the Witch, who kept only one cow, took sixteen pounds of butter to sell, the produce of her dairy, which was a common event with her when the farmers near her were unsuccessful.--Oral.

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The following extract from a poem by the Rev T. E. Brown, of Clifton, entitled "The Manx Witch," gives an excellent idea of the usual Manx notions about these creatures


A wutch 1, of coorse she was a wutch,
And a black wutch, the wuss that's goin’--
The white is--well, I’m hardly knowin’.
Is the lek in 2: but these ould things
That's sellin’ charms to sailors--rings,
Papers, ye know
I spose the most of ye’s got the lek
Somewhere hung about your neck.
But there's odds of charms; for some is just
A sort of a blessin’; but some is a cuss,
Most hither--brewed in the very gall
Of spite and hate, and’ll creep and crawl
Over your body and over your sowl,
Aye, man! aye! at laste so I’m tould;
And through and through, and making you sick,
And making you mad--aw, they know the trick!
Cussin’ your fingers and cussin’ your toes,
Cussin’ your mouth and cussin’ your nose,
Every odd jint, and every limb,
And all your inside--that's the thrim--
Cussin’ your horse and cussin’ your cow,
Cussin’ the boar and cussin’ the sow--
Everything that’s got a tail.
Aye, and your spade, and your cart and your flail,
Plough and harras 3, stock and crop,
Nets and lines--they'll navar stop.
     .     .     .     You'll be passin’ by,
And not a word, but the evil eye.--
There ye are! Your stuck, they’ve done ye!
They’ve got ye--you’re tuck! they’ve put it upon ye!
     .     .     .     And harbs! they picks them
The right time of the moon, and they’ll take and mix them.
Divils! divils! that’s what they are!
And should be tuk and burnt the way
They used to be.

The following stories refer to the popular antidotes to the effects of witchcraft, which, as stated above, are mainly the use of fire and dust, the former being used partly as a preventive to witchcraft, and partly as a means of detecting the Witch, while the latter is an antidote only. The sacrifice of cattle by burning, as a means of preventing witchcraft, has been common even in the present century, and is secretly practised in the remote districts even now:--

The cattle of a farmer, in the Parish of German, having been, in about 1834, attacked by a kind of murrain, which he

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attributed to witchcraft, he sought to stay the spreading of the disease by offering tip a living calf as a burnt sacrifice. The ashes of this unfortunate beast were collected and applied to the rest of the herd. A small chapel was afterwards built near the spot where this disgusting sacrifice took place, and was consequently called Cabbal yn oural losht, "Chapel of the burnt offering.--Oral.

A similar case occurred near the Union Mills in 1843.

The Manx Sun newspaper describes the sacrifice of a calf in the Parish of Maughold, in 1853, as follows:--The calf was dragged to an eminence not far from the highway, a large quantity of peat and straw was provided, and, a light having been applied, the calf and pyre were consumed."

There was an oural losht in the Parish of Jurby in 1880, and even within the last five years there have been several sacrifices, but it is difficult to obtain any particulars. One of them was that of a young horse which was supposed to have been bewitched to death, which was burned in order to see the Witch come by, and she was, accordingly, seen through the smoke.

Some thirty years ago, cattle which were afflicted with "black-leg" were thrown into the sea at the Lhen-vuirr, in the hope that, as the tide carried them out, so would the disease be prevented from seizing their fellows.

It was not only on land that burning some animal or thing to detect or exorcise witchcraft was resorted to, but at sea also, for when a boat was unsuccessful during the fishing season. the cause was ascribed by the sailors to witchcraft, and, in their opinion, it then became necessary to exorcise the boat by burning the Witches out of it. Townley, in his journal, relates one of these operations, which he witnessed in Douglas harbour in 1789, as follows:--They set fire to bunches of heather in the centre of the boat, and soon made wisps of heather, and lighted them, going one at the head, another at the stern, others along the sides, so that every part of the boat might be touched." Again he says, "there is another burning of witches out of an unsuccessful boat off Banks's Howe--the flames are very visible to the top of the bay." Feltham, writing a few years latter, also, mentions this practice.

We now come to some stories relating to the use of dust, the great antidote to the effects of witchcraft. "If a person," says Train, "wishes to purchase an animal, but will not give the price demanded, the disposer lifts earth from the print made by the person's right foot on the ground, where he stood to drive the bargain, and rubs the animal all over with it, to prevent the effects of what is called by the Islanders, 'overlooking.'" The following stories will illustrate this:--

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A farmer and his neighbour were in treaty for the purchase of a pony; but, differing about the price, his neighbour, vexed at his disappointment, put an evil eye upon the beast, who instantly, and without visible cause, became so lame as to be wholly useless, and so continued for twelve months; when, by extraordinary good luck, another person called on him, who had on his part the power to discern these unrighteous influences, and to do away with them by a counter-charm. No sooner had this man cast his eye on the animal than he pronounced his lameness to have originated with the malignant purchaser, and, after performing certain ceremonies, he assured the farmer that the spell was broken, and that within a few hours, the pony would be restored to perfect soundness and strength, all which, in course, happened as foretold.--Waldron.

A farmer in the parish of Braddan sold a calf to a Douglas butcher; but his wife, nut being aware of this, had sold the same calf to another person of the same trade, who, upon concluding the bargain, paid the price agreed on, and then took away the calf and killed it. As soon as the farmer discovered the mistake made by his wife, he called on the butcher to whom he had sold the calf; and, after explaining the circumstances, offered to refund the price which his wife had received from the other butcher, which was more than the price which the first butcher had agreed to pay. This he not only refused; but instituted an action against the farmer for the unlawful disposal of his property. During the continuance of this law suit, the mother of the disputed calf ceased to give milk, and became hide-bound, as did all the rest of the farmer's cows. This led to the belief that they were all bewitched, and they were not cured till a servant maid was obtained, from the north of the Island, who was skilful in applying the antidotes to witchcraft.--Train.

Mr Karran, the late Captain of the Parish of Marown, had a fine colt, to which a person in Baldwin took a particular fancy, and was very anxious to purchase it, though Mr Karran had no intention of parting with the animal. On the evening of the last refusal, the colt became suddenly ill; and although every possible means were resorted to for its recovery, it continued to grow worse. On the third day, a friend accidentally called at Mr Karran's house, and on being told the circumstance thus related of the colt, undertook the cure of it. He immediately started off for Baldwin, in the hope of meeting the person whose evil-eye had infected it; he did so; and when the person with the evil eye had passed Mr Karran's friend, the latter gathered the dust of the road out of his footsteps, and returned with it in his pocket-handkerchief. On rubbing the colt all

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over with the dust, it presently partook of food and rapidly recovered, to the surprise of the proprietor and many of his neighbours.--Train.

In the following there is no purchase:----A hare, or rather a Witch in the shape of a hare, was crossing a field and stood still to stare at a team of horses employed in ploughing, when, to the horror of the ploughman, they instantly dropped dead on the ground. Fortunately, however, he retained his presence of mind, and, remembering that what had occurred was doubtless the result of the "Evil Eye," he collected some of the dust from where the hare had stood and threw it over the horses, who were at once restored to life.--Oral.

The use of dust against the influence of the "Evil Eye" has not been uncommon during the last fifty years. Quite recently a man on the south side of the Island, finding his calf suddenly taken ill, and observing an old woman crossing a field where it was, hurried after her, took up the dust from the place where she had passed, and then rubbed the calf with it till it recovered. It should be remembered that touching or lifting the earth was in many countries considered a remedy for diseases, especially for those of the eye. Earth taken from the spot where a man was slain was prescribed in Scotland for a hurt to an ulcer.

Having given an account of the remedies against witchcraft made use of by amateurs, we will now proceed to describe the skill of the regular practitioners, or Charmers, in the same direction. The two following stories relate to two of the best known of them, the first being about the famous Teare, of Ballawhane:--

In the spring, when the doctor is called professionally to more places than he can accomplish in the time required, many respectable farmers will suspend for days the operation of sowing, although the land should be fully prepared, and even in the most precarious weather, rather than run the risk of committing the seed to the soil without his accustomed benediction. Seer Teare had power over the birds of the air as well as over the beasts of the field. In July, 1833, the great Fairy Doctor had just entered the house of Mr Fargher, innkeeper, of Laxey, and seated himself in an old arm-chair, when he was greeted by the landlord, "Well, Ballawhane, I am glad to see you; my little field of wheat is nearer ripe than any grain in the glen, and the sparrows feed on it in such flocks, notwithstanding all I can do to prevent them, that they will have all the grain carried away before the straw is fit for the sickle." "I am quite aware of

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that," replied Mr Teare, "and I am just come to try if I can put them away for you." After returning from the cornfield, where he had performed some ceremonious rites, he remarked to the innkeeper "these sparrows know well to take advantage of corn that has not been seen by me before it was sown, but I have sent them all away now, and I think they will not again venture into your field this season." This singular exorcism of the sparrows soon became known throughout Laxey; the paper-makers and the miners in the neighbourhood were the only persons who had any doubt as to the doctor's power in such matters, and, for the purpose of satisfying themselves, they narrowly watched the field during the remaining part of the season. To their great surprise, however, though the sparrows flocked round Mr Fargher's field in greater numbers than before, casting many a wistful eye to the waving grain, yet not one of them dared to enter the charmed precincts.--Train.

Another of these Charmers, who lived in Ballaugh, was specially noted for his skill in bringing luck in fishing to those who applied to him. One of these was told by the old fellow that he could not put the fish in their nets; but he could remove anything that might cause him to be unsuccessful. He then gave him a lot of herbs, which he was to pound and boil, and mix with a pint of whisky. Of this compound, a glass was first to be taken by the captain of the boat, and then by each man in it, and the rest was to be sprinkled over the boat and nets. On one occasion he was sent by his fellows, after a spell of ill-luck in the fishing, to see the old charmer; but, being somewhat sceptical, he spent the charmer's fee in drink, and compounded the nostrum himself; though quite ignorant of the proper herbs, the result was a magnificent haul that night; but he never dared tell his comrades of the trick he had played on them.--Rhys.

But these powers may be taken away for having been made use of when unnecessary, as witness the following story:--A man near Laxey had the power of being able to stop any effusion of blood by a charm he possessed. On one occasion he was taunted by an unbeliever with being unable to stop the bleeding of a pig which he was about to kill. The moment the creature's throat was cut, the incantation was pronounced; but the power of the charmer was gone from henceforth.--Oral.

We now append a list of such of the charms as we have been able to discover.



Farraneagh yn uill ghoo, myr doo naght jiarg; goym’s eh, as bee eh aym, as cha derrym geill da ny smoo.

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"The black blood running, as black as red; I will take it, and it shall be mine, and I will take no further heed of it."


Phillip va Ree ny Shee, as Bahee yn yen echey; yinnagh ee Brearey gys Jee, nagh beagh dy bragh lackal er aeg ny shenn. Goym’s spyrryd firrinagh, as jiooldym voym yn doo spyrryd; as goym’s eh, as bee eh aym, as cha beem dy bragh yn drogh spyrryd.


"Philip was the king of peace, and Bahee his wife; she would vow to God, that there never would be want to young or old. I will take the true spirit, and cast from me the black spirit; and I will take it, and it shall be mine, and I shall never be the evil spirit."


Three Moirraghyn hie dyn Raue, ny Ke imee as ny Cughtee, Peddyr as Paul, dooyrt Moirrey jeu, shass, dooyrt Moirrey jeu, shooyl, dooyrt Moirrey elley, Dy gast yn uill shoh, myr chast yne uill haink as lottyn Chreest: mish dy ghra eh, as mac Voirrey dy chooilleeney eh.

Three Maries went to Rome, the Spirits of the Church stiles and the Spirits of the houghs, 1 Peter and Paul, a Mary of them said, stand; a Mary of them said, walk; the other Mary said, may this blood stop 2 as the blood stopped which came out of the wounds of Christ: me to say it and the son of Mary to fulfil it."


The following is a printed form having blank spaces for the insertion of names by the Charmer:--


Three deiney chranee haink voish y Raue--Chreest, Peddyr, as Paul. Va Creest y Chrosh, yn uill echey shilley, as Moirrey er ny glioonyn yn ec liorish. Ghow for jeu yn er-obbee ayns e lau yesh, as hayrn Creest crosh 2 harrish eh. Three mraane aegey haink harrish yn ushtey, dooyrt unnane jeu, seose, dooyrt, nane elley, fuirree--dooyrt yn trass-unnane sthappyms fuill dooinney ny ben. Mish dy ghra eh, as Chreest dy yannoo eh, ayns ennym yn Ayr, as y Vac as y spyrryd Noo.

N.B.--On repeating "crosh," you are to draw a cross with the thumb of your right hand over the bleeding part.

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"Three godly men came from Rome--Christ, Peter, and Paul. Christ was on the cross, his blood flowing, and Mary on her knees close by. One took the enchanted one in his right hand, and Christ drew a cross † over him. Three young women came over the water, one of them said, "up," another one said, "stay," and the third one said, "I will stop the blood of man or woman." "Me to say it, and Christ to do it, in the name of the Father, and the Son, and the Holy Ghost."


Ta mee dy rheynn eh ayns ennym yn Ayr as y Vac as yn spyrryd Noo, eddyr eh ve roig shee, ny roig Ree, dy jean yn chrou rheynnit shoh skeayley'n dourin shoh er geinnagh ny marrey.


"I am to divide it in the name of the Father, and of the Son, and of the Holy Ghost; whether it be a sprite's evil, or a King's evil, may this divided blemish banish this distemper to the sand of the sea."


The following charm, written on a scrap of paper or parchment, and stitched securely into the inner garments, is a certain means of prevention as well as cure:--

                Saint Peter was ordained a saint
                Standing on a marble stone,
                Jesus came to him alone,
And saith unto him, "Peter, what makes thee shake?"
Peter replied, "My Lord and Master it is the toothache."
Jesus said, "Rise up and be healed, and keep these words for my sake,
And thou shalt never more be troubled with toothache."


Sanguis mane in te,
Sicut Christus in se;
Sanguis mane in tuâ venâ,
Sicut Christus in suâ pœnâ;
Sanguis mane fixus.
Sicut erat Christus,
Quando fuit crucifixus.

The consequence of interpreting this would be that its efficacy would be lost for ever! The same charm was in use in the West of England, and is to be found in Pepys's Memoirs.

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(This is called in Manx, Cadley-Jiargan.)

       "Ping, ping, prash,
Cur yn cadley-jiargan ass my chass

A translation of this would spoil the effect.

Another charm to stop blood is as follows:--O Hiarn eaisht rish my phadjer! Ayns dty ynrickys cur geill da, my aghyn! As ayns dty ynrickys jean hoilshaghey mieys; son cha vel dooiney bio oddys ayns dty hilley's ve ynrick as er ny heyrey gys yn jerrey 1. Ta mee credjal dy ren Adaue as Eve chur er, hoshiaght yn cheid peccah. Ayns ennym Adaue ta mish eisht cur fo harey dagh giarey as bine jeh fuill yn, {dooiney, ben} shoh dy scuirr Amen. Amen.

"O Lord hear my prayer! In Thy faithfulness give heed to my petitions! And in thy faithfulness manifest goodness; for no man living in Thy sight can be perfect and justified to the end. I believe Adam and Eve did begin the first sin. In Adam's name I then do charge each gash and drop of this [man's, woman's] blood to stop. Amen. Amen."


Shee Yee as shee ghooinney,
Shee Yee er Columb-Killey
Er dagh uinnag, er dagh ghorrys,
Er dagh howl joaill stiagh yn Re-hollys.
Er kiare cornelllyn y thie
Er y ooayl ta mee my lhie
As shee Yee orrym-pene

"Peace of God and peace of man,
Peace of God on Columb-Killey,
On each window and each door,
On every hole admitting moonlight,
On the four corners of the house,
On the place of my rest,
And peace of God on myself."

NOTE.--It will be observed that in this charm the name of the famous St. Columba, Columcille or Columb-Killey, is mentioned. There are two Keeills dedicated to him in the Island.

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One of the most efficacious charms to prevent milk being bewitched, was to place a branch of the cuirn, or mountain-ash, in the cow-house on May-eve. Written charms were believed to prevent people from taking diseases if they were carried about sewn in the clothes. Great virtue was supposed to attach to red flannel for curing coughs. The virtue lay in the colour, not in the flannel.

The following charms are for curing warts:--Take a half-penny and smear it over with fat. bacon; then rub the wart with the halfpenny; after doing this, bury both the bacon and the halfpenny, and by the time the bacon has decayed the wart will have passed away.

Procure a piece of woollen thread and tie as many knots upon it as there are warts. Throw it away, or bury it in some place that the patient is ignorant of; and as the thread rots, the warts will die away. It is essential that no tie of blood exist between the operator and the patient.

Steal (the stealing is necessary) a piece of raw beef, and rubbing it nine times backwards over the warts, secretly bury it in a dry sandy place, when, as the beef decays, the warts will disappear; but perfect secrecy must be preserved, not even the patient's wife is to receive a hint of it, if a successful result is desired.

The following case of a successful "charming" operation was reported in the Mona's Herald newspaper, in 1853:--A man named John Kaighan, employed at the landing pier works, was hammering an iron rod, when he missed his stroke, and the iron rod pierced one of the arteries in his left arm. The blood flowed freely from the wound, and he was taken to the hospital; but all efforts to stop the flow of blood were fruitless, and it was feared the man would bleed to death. In this state of affairs, his relatives had recourse to a certain person who bears the reputation of being a blood charmer; and when this person had repeated his incantation over the wound, strange to say the flow of blood shortly afterwards ceased.

The following extraordinary charm emanated from a woman who was much better educated than such practitioners usually are. She lived at Ballasalla, fifty years ago, and produced a number of religions pamphlets, which for the most part consisted of wild prognostications, and of invocations to the Deity. Her mind seems to have been affected, and she was at times subject to hallucinations. She was called the Prophetess of Ballasalla, and was much respected and feared by her neighbours:

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"WHERE is the JEHOVAH ELSHADDAI, the LORD GOD of ELIJAH?" See 2d. Kings, 2d. Chapter, 14th Verse.

"Behold, I give you power to tread on serpents and scorpions," and over all the power of the enemy: and nothing shall by any means hurt you."--See Saint Luke, 10th Chapter, 19th Verse.

"And, Lo, I am with you alway, even to the end of the world. Amen." See Saint Matthew, 28th Chapter, 10th Verse.

In the Name of the FATHER, and of the SON, and of the HOLY GHOST, In the Name of GOD the FATHER, and of GOD the SON, and of GOD the HOLY GHOST, the most HIGH GOD HELION ELSHADDAI, Whose Name alone is JEHOVAH, and through the GRACE, and by the POWER of our LORD JESUS CHRIST, I, a Baptised Papist, and a poor unworthy Servant of the LORD JESUS CHRIST, do now command all devils, and all damned spirits, and all evil, wicked and bad spirits, and all Fairies, and all Wizards, and all Witches, and every evil eye, and each, all and every evil bad devilish satanick power and powers of evil whatsoever, Not to hurt, Not to harm. Not to injure, Nor do any devilish evil bad wicked mischief in anywise whatsoever unto thee [Margaret C------ alias C------, Nor unto thy Husband, Nor unto any one of all your Children,] Nor unto any thing that ever did, or that now doth, or that hereafter shall and may both Justly and Lawfully belong in any-wise whatsoever unto thee [Margaret, or unto Thy Husband, or unto your Children, (And now especially) as unto Thy Child Elizabeth Anna C------] so long as the Almighty Lord Jesus Christ, the Holy Son of God with Power, Liveth and Reigneth God over all, God blessed for evermore. Amen. even so Lord Jesus, Amen; if it be Thy Holy Godly Blessed Will; for the alone sake of Thy most Holy Atoneing, Redeeming Propitious Blood, and justifying Righteousness, and Holy Sanctifying saving Grace of God the Holy Ghost, the Blessed gift of God the Father Jehovah, To them that believe through saving Grace.--Wherefore, none of all the powers of evil, shall not again be able to hurt thee [Margaret,] in anywise whatsoever, so long as thou believeth in the Lord Jesus Christ, to be the Son of God, with Power. Amen. Lord Jesus, Amen. For thy great Almighty Name's sake.

May Jesus Help thee [Margaret, and Help all of Them.] May Jesus Save thee, [and Save all of Them;] and, O, May Christ the Lord Jesus, both Bless, Prosper, and Keen thee, both now and forever more, even forever. Amen. Lord Jesus Christ, our God and only Saviour. Let it be so, according to Thy Promise, and our Faith in Thee; and give us Faith alone in Thee. Amen, Almighty Lord Jesus Christ.



76:1 Poem of Snorro Sturlson (Johnstone's Translation.)

76:2 Polychronicon, A. D. 5487. Rolls Series.

77:1 The genitive of this word, droata, has been deciphered by Professor Rhys in the Ogam character on a stone at Ballaqueeney, near Port St. Mary.

79:1 Specimens of these are given at the end of this chapter.

79:2 Even now it is no uncommon thing for any one who has a cut, or a burn, to seek the nearest Charmer and have a charm 'put on it.'

83:1 During the perambulations of the parishes on Ascension Day.

86:1 Leviticus ii., 53.

90:1 There seems to be practically no distinction between Sorcery, when deprived of the prophetic element, and Witchcraft.

92:1 Witch.

92:2 If the like exist.

92:3 Harrows.

97:1 Or, cliffs by the sea.

97:2 Or, heal.

99:1 These words are almost identical with those of the first two verses of the 143rd Psalm.

Next: Chapter VI. Customs and Superstitions Connected With the Seasons