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Pahlavi Texts, Part IV (SBE37), E.W. West, tr. [1892], at


1. About a selection from the whole Yas3 referring to the developer (vakhshînîdâr-hômônd).

2. Those are beneficial who increase for the developer, that is, they shall occasion benefit (nêvakîh) for him who would occasion that benefit which is for others 4. 3. Thus the righteous man who produces perfect thought is he who comes upon it through Vohûman 5, and the benefit of him who is an open annoyer 6—the righteous man who is a smiter of the wicked, and who developes as to what is Aûharmazd's and as to what is Zaratûst's—is that he slays in moderation.

4. Regarding him who is an oppressive man who is righteous, the reply spoken is thus: 'The reward of the smiter and developer—that man of whom one

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knows the smiting and developing—is the very evil reward of him who is wicked; just as his smiting, as an evil reward for him from those two spirits, is that very evil practice loved by him who is wicked; even for this reason every righteous individual is Gâthic 1, because, when privileged (padôkhshâî), he who is wicked is thus he who is righteous, and also he who is privileged is unprivileged 2.'

5. Zaratûst proceeded with the smiting at the wicked, and as to that proceeding Aûharmazd spoke thus: 'Thou shouldst thus proceed with smiting at the wicked by ordinance (dâdistân), because thus they have thee and the righteous of every kind as ruler. 6. Also through my decree (pavan-ik man vigîr) one produces the ritual of ordeal, which realizes that which is real, so that one may make that which is dark fully light. 7. Thine, too, is so much the sovereignty of Aûharmazd, thus through worship, that its requisite (khvâstakŏ) privilege is thus maintained through virtue, because thou, who art thus, art more unconfined (anâkôsîdar) to the world through the furtherance and development of righteousness; great, indeed, is he who trusts the righteous man for righteousness, and great is he who trusts the wicked man for wickedness.'

8. As to that utterance (farmâyisnŏ) Zaratûst spoke thus: 'An open annoyer is the righteous man—the benefiter disclosed by Aûharmazd—that loves the embodied world of righteousness, and demands its reverence (tarsakâyîh) for the proportion of righteousness therein, that is, he knows the proportion of duty and good works.' 9. Regarding

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the worldly existence, the reply spoken is thus: 'That which is again contaminated (gûmîkhtêd) by the demons becomes abundant so long as that which is proper is again contaminated with the demons; and, so long as there is a developer, they subsist for their own substances, so that it is possible for them to seek benefit for their own, and they are smiters of the righteous.'

10. Regarding him who is a wise smiter, Sôshâns 1 spoke in reply thus: 'It arises through his way when it is again contaminated.'

11. As to that mischief (drûgisnŏ) Aûharmazd spoke thus: 'Happy is he from whom there is no mischief.' 12. Regarding 2 him who has come, the Yim of splendour 3, he spoke thus: 'He attains his reward who is no smiter and no developer, not privileged and not unprivileged.'

13. As to that disclosure (hâkisnŏ) Vohûman 4 spoke thus: 'I aggrandize that spiritual lord and that priestly master who is my righteousness in person.'

14. As to that utterance Spendarmad 4 spoke thus: 'So do thou perfect (barâ vadîdûn) him whose information subsists—a man that becomes wise—who is as an emblem of my religion; because he has worshipped that which is ours, so that he has retained property in our possession, through whose words there is a furtherance of the world of righteousness. 15. That is my arrangement, and that my wish—that is, what is necessary for me—and I

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love that which thou fully understandest, that is, that arrangement which is righteousness; also whatever discourse and perfect performance, thou askest of us, O Zaratûst! in complete mindfulness, I now practise by the work of each hand; observe thoroughly that which I am performing, and thou, too, art accomplishing. 16. In worship thou, O Zaratûst! art liberal, who art liberal in ceremonial; for thee, whose body believes, controversy is not lavish (râd) for the sake of the wealth bestowed; the reward of Zaratûst the developer is for developing, the reward of Zaratûst the smiter is for smiting, and the reward of Zaratûst the smiter and developer is for smiting and developing. 17. At the bridge judgment of him whose name the fire calls for participation, as when they repeatedly pour the melted ore upon him in the throat, thou shouldst pray near him alive—him whose love is for virtue—so that he may perform duty and good works with fearlessness; with his desire, too, it is expedient to know that it is done by him on account of necessity.'

18. As to that utterance Aûharmazd spoke thus: 'Such is the upward attraction (lâlâ-hangisnîh) of Shatraver 1 for him who is ours.' 19. As to that question (frashnŏ) Aûharmazd spoke thus: Such has happened to him who is ours through Vohûman; he ought to come to our religion through virtue. 20. Truly he, O Zaratûst! is privileged for the sovereignty, who confines his ears to this religion, that he may make it fully progressive; who is given immortality through this, and kind regard for the will of him who is the best of that religion of mine,

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[paragraph continues] O Zaratûst! and who assists the furtherance of this world of mine in righteousness.'

21. As to those of that other one 1 Aûharmazd spoke thus: 'As regards that which is great evidence, when wicked they consider it as unattested for him who is wicked himself; and the thoughts 2 of him, whose deeds are those of that other one, are due to Akômanô 3. 22. Owing also to this, when both Khûrdad and Amûrdad 4 are given to thee, it is in that way—when thou art of the propitious spirit and the best thought—that what thou understandest thou shouldst be accomplishing, and what thou dost not understand thou askest again.'

23. Of him whose wisdom exists (aîtŏ)—of Aûharmazd—he whose wisdom arises (yehevûnêd)—Zaratûst—enquired concerning him who is unreal (an-aîtŏ) and who does not subsist (yehevûnêd) hereafter, who has thus never become a material existence for those on the side of virtue, and does not subsist for them henceforth.

24. As to that reverse description (padîrakŏ-nisânisnîh) Aûharmazd spoke thus: 'Among men of every kind say unto the righteous who are smiting the wicked, that we improve the measure of any milk they propitiate, even by the holy-water which is the sustenance (barisnŏ) of milk, in order to cause much happiness of life.'

25. As to that utterance Aûharmazd spoke thus: 'Happy is he from whom there is no complaint, and a life which is like this the text Gerezôi . . .

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âkhsô . . . 1 implores. 26. To thee, O Zaratûst! my protection is given in the reply of the Kem-nâ 2 which, before the companionship of Kaî-Vistâsp 3—that righteous friend of mine 4was a published thing of those which are used, and of those such as it is requisite to use. 27. The talk of a man which is immoderate is false, everything immoderate is so for this reason, everything is not that which the good man possesses, because, when privileged, the wicked one is he who is righteous, and he who is privileged becomes unprivileged; he who is righteous is thus he who is wicked, and becomes him who is privileged and unprivileged, so that he is fully incriminated, and they shall carry off his possessions.'

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28. Regarding the benefiters the reply spoken is thus: 'They are owing to the reward of the smiter and developer; those are beneficial whose smiting and developing are those of the developer Aûharmazd, who understands smiting and development.'

29. When through smiting by Aûharmazd, on account of the wicked, a question (frashnŏ) about it arose, the reply spoken, as to the smiting of the present world by means of him who is ruler, was: 'The reward which the judgment that is perfect teaches is thus, that he who is the smiter and developer, Sôshâns 1, shall make the decision.' 30. Zaratûst spoke in reply thus: 'He gives a reward.' 31. And that wise smiter, Sôshâns, spoke in reply thus: 'He shall inflict punishment.'

32. Even he who is an ox of many cattle has openly and publicly wailed this complaint 2 on account of the righteous one: 'How long is it till the time when a developer arises, even he who is an irresolute ruler (akâmakŏ khûdâî)? How long is the time till he arises, until the wicked one who is a smiter and privileged corrupter is he who is unprivileged?' 33. Because, for the sake of producing resolution (kâmak-dahîh), he complains that, until the developer shall arise, even he who is irresolute is ruler, that is, until he who is the developer shall become privileged.

34. As to that complaint of his Aûharmazd spoke thus: 'Not so as by this complaint is the obtainment of spiritual lordship (ahûîkih), for this reason, when they do not consider the ruler as a ruler, and there is no giving of priestly authority (radŏîh) by any

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righteousness whatever 1, it is requisite, on account of the many righteous, to speak henceforth, until the time when the developer arises, even of him who is an irresolute ruler.'

35. On account of the many statements of the spirits, even as to thought, word, and deed, it is requisite to say that they shall always render an account until even some obtainment of a smiter and developer, privileged or unprivileged. 36. Some arise of whom it is requisite to ask this question (frashnŏ) 2 while he who is righteous and he who is wicked are two witnesses, and they make the righteous one manifest by his evidence, or they molest him who is righteous by smiting. 37. Some arise when it is requisite to speak this reply 3 during the smiting of the maintainer of strife and of the kinsman. 38. And some arise while that individual 4 is loved, though a righteous one and a developer arise, and it is requisite to produce a provider of benefit on account of the many, both wicked and righteous, so long as a wicked one of the smiting which is maintaining strife is privileged.

39. Because, regarding the production of resolution, it is proclaimed that it is so that they shall fully understand that Aûharmazd discriminates truly, and Aharman does not discriminate truly. 40. And that it is so that they shall fully understand that the punishment of the wicked is for teaching them that they will attain to the existence of darkness, that even to him who belongs to the ever-stationary they may give his reward, that they are for smiting the wicked one, that they are very powerful to give, that

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they should kill the apostate, that one has to be converted from vileness to goodness, that he who would be wicked is made to believe by the tongue, that for the sake of proper nurture of the creatures next-of-kin marriage is provided, that the demons are despised, that thus he who is evil-ruling is wicked, and that they are approaching the place where Aûharmazd shall provide for the account of sin and good works.

41. They shall become more diligent in the performance of duty and good works, and abstain more from sin, always until one attains even to some acquirement for those in life and those in a lifeless state 1. 42. And they shall not inflict their punishment completely in the embodied state, and the fiend does not pity the worldly existence; every individual is counted up, and every one is fully completed for the affairs of Aûharmazd, but the fiend is not smitten, and they shall not fully inflict the punishment.

43. No one thinks thou shouldst remain for the propitious Aûharmazd, and no one completely presents himself; they attack through the fiend, and arise for the foolish one. 44. No one arises for the goodness of him who is good, but for the vileness of the fiend they destroy what is good, and do not understand evil and good; they recite the revelation for a wicked one, they do not bestow friendship for labour, but are for the evil-doer.

45. And the righteous one, who is the best of spiritual and worldly existences, becomes a privileged

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developer, even he who is an irresolute ruler 1; and so he who is wicked, even he who is privileged, becomes unprivileged, at that time when one gives the soul of every one unto the supreme heaven 2, and when thou shouldst, every one, know that the affliction of the annoyers arises 3, so that when, owing thereto, they beseech the sacred beings, it is only hell that they supply.

46. When every one shall provide the ceremonial of the archangels unworriedly, and when every one knows that Gôs-aûrvan complained 4—so that he who is the fashioner of cattle enquired thus: 'Whose is the guardianship of cattle 5?' and 'Not without annoyance' was the reply of Ashavahist, 'that is, they shall inflict his punishment 6'—every one also knows that in their light is joyfulness for the sight 7.

47. When every individual (kolâ aîs-1) becomes aware of the priestly authority of Aûharmazd; and when every individual knows that his remedy for the devastation owing to the evil spirit is comprehensibly stated 8; when every individual knows that Aûharmazd fashioned the propitiousness in the liturgy 9; and when every one knows that the priest is perfect, that Aûharmazd enhances both of them in spirituality 10, that Vohûman is the offspring of Aûharmazd 11, that Spendarmad is Aûharmazd's own 12, that all three of them are the life of him who

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has wandered forth 1—that is, life is given by the thought and wisdom 2 which are his own—and that the sacred beings are they who are supporting it.

48. When every one of this existence must act for the sake of that other existence, and knows how to act; when every one is a friend, through deeds, of the spirit which is his own 3; and when every one becomes a person supporting Aûharmazd 4. 49. When every individual knows that they give no reward to him in whose body a demon is lodging who is not listening 5; when every one shall make his own soul immortal 6; and when every one has advantage through possession of Aûharmazd 7.

50. When every one becomes a Zôti unsullied in righteousness 8; when every one gives a sacred cake to the archangels 9; when every one knows that co-operation is due to him who is their servant; and when they are together in soul 10. 51. When every individual gives his body 11; when every one proceeds to their ceremonial and glorification 12; when every individual knows that 'other than they' is meant by naêkîm tem anye13; and when every one knows

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that, through that sovereignty of his, the renovation of the universe is produced by his will among the existences 1.

52. When every one knows the elucidation (rôshanŏ) of the religion; when every one considers the religion as governor and serf 2; when every one knows that the manifestation of this ought to arise in him; when every one thinks Aûharmazd auspicious 3; and when every one knows that, when it occurs, benefit is produced, through resolute sovereignty 4, where and when it gives him a reward for the performance of the duty and good works they should call for. 53. When every one gives 5 the sacred beings and the good a sheep; when every one knows that, for him whose righteousness is in action, immense and complete mindfulness arises 6; when every one thinks of much assistance from Aûharmazd 7; when every one speaks to restore his temper 8; when every one speaks to provide the ceremonial 9; and when every one produces that advantage by liberal giving 10. 54. When every one knows that one grants him the obeisance which is due to him when in a condition for the supreme heaven (amat dên garôdmânîkîh) 11; when every one knows that it is done by those in the realm of Aûharmazd 12; and when every individual knows

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that, so long as the religion of the first creation 1 shall exist (ae), this characteristic is to be considered thus: Hvô zî dregvau, &c. 2

55. When every individual keeps no wealth for a high-priest of the apostates 3; when every one knows that, when above, there is righteousness 4; when they shall make intercession 5 for every individual, and when every individual becomes aware 6 of it; when every individual sees that he is a father of righteousness 7; and when every individual knows that the propitious spirit is in him 8. 56. When every one knows that, when a supplicant, he is more a smiter of the wicked 9; when every individual utters the salutation (nîyâyisnŏ) of Aûharmazd 10; when every individual knows that that is our comfort 11, and that it is Aûharmazd's own creature 12; and when every individual is taught 13, and every individual joins in the perfect religion 14.

57. When every individual knows that Vohûman

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guards the creatures 1; when every individual becomes privileged by will 2 for the reward; when every individual knows that gain is through giving away 3; when every individual transacts, or shall transact, the affairs of the archangels 4; and when every individual knows that when he who is intelligent speaks to him 5, it becomes a possession for the benefit of righteousness 6.

58. When, for equal meritoriousness, it is necessary to give sooner to Magian men 7—so that on account even of the Magianship of Kaî-Vistâsp he was suitable for the sovereignty 8, that Zaratûst was given a wife by Frashôstar 9, that it was the learned Gâmâsp 10 that Aûharmazd gave—and that every individual shall provide the ceremonial of Aûharmazd 11. 59. And when every individual knows that they are the best prayers which are the words of Zaratûs12, and, even so, his is a wise reward for those which are yours 13.

60. It is perfect is the excellence of righteousness; it is perfect excellence that is righteousness.


384:3 The twenty-first Nask, or original Yasna (see Bk. VIII, Chap. XLVI, 1). It is not very clear, from this chapter and from what is stated about it in Chap. I, 2, whether this selection was compiled by the author of the Dinkard, or by some earlier writer. So far as its statements have yet been traced, nearly all of them originate in the Gâthas, or in the Yasna Haptanghâiti; but § 45 quotes a passage from the Bakŏ Nask (Yas. XIX).

384:4 Compare Pahl. Yas. XLII, 1 a.

384:5 Compare Pahl. Yas. XXVIII, 2 a, where J2, Pt4, Mf4 have barâ yehamtûnânê pavan Vohûman.

384:6 Compare Pahl. Yas. XLII, 8 b.

385:1 See Bk. VIII, Chap. I, 5 n.

385:2 See Chap. LXI, 11.

386:1 See Bk. VIII, Chap. XIV, 14.

386:2 Assuming that lâ, 'not,' stands for râî.

386:3 Av. Yimô khshaêtô (see Bk. VIII, Chap. XIII, 6, 7).

386:4 See Bk. VIII, Chap. IX, 3.

387:1 See Chap. XLIII, 1. It is here written Shatrôver.

388:1 The followers of Aharman.

388:2 Assuming that mânisnŏ, 'dwelling,' stands for mînisnŏ.

388:3 See Bk. VIII, Chap. IX, 3 n.

388:4 See Chap. XIX, 1.

389:1 Yas. XLVI, 2 c-e; its Pahlavi version (Pahl. Yas. XLV, 2 c-e) may be translated as follows:—'I complain to thee, behold it and this one, O Aûharmazd! (that is, seek a remedy for me); that pleasure is my desire, which a friend gives to his friend; through the instruction of Vohûman (when I am instructed in virtue) is the coveted thing of righteousness (thou shouldst give me).' The words in parentheses have no equivalents in the Avesta text.

389:2 Yas. XLVI, 7; its Pahlavi version (Pahl. Yas. XLV, 7 a-e) may be translated as follows:—'Who is given to me (and mine, my disciples) as protector by thee, O Aûharmazd! when that wicked (Aharman) retains malice for me in possession (that is, maintains malice with me? Who shall provide me protection), other than thy fire and Vohûman? (Because I know that they would provide me protection for your sake) when I nourish righteousness through deeds for them, O Aûharmazd! (that is, should I perform duty and good works, who shall provide me protection?) Thou shouldst proclaim to me that high-priest of the religion; (this thou shouldst state thus: "Maintain the religion as high-priest").'

389:3 See Pahl. Yas. XLV, 13 e, and Bk. VIII, Chaps. XI, 1 , XIII, 15.

389:4 Compare Ibid. 14 a which is given in Pt4, Mf4, as follows:—Zaratûstŏ mûn lak aharûbŏ dôstŏ.

390:1 See § 10.

390:2 Compare Pahl. Yas. XXIX, 1, 9.

391:1 See Pahl. Yas. XXIX, 6 b.

391:2 That in § 32.

391:3 That in § 34.

391:4 The irresolute ruler.

392:1 By accumulating more good works than are necessary to balance one's own sins.

393:1 See Pahl. Yas. XIX, 58, XX, 10.

393:2 See Pahl. Yas. XXVIII, 4 a.

393:3 Ibid. 6 c.

393:4 See Pahl. Yas. XXIX, 1 a, and Chap. XV, 3.

393:5 Ibid. 2 a.

393:6 Ibid. 3 a, and Bk. VIII, Chap. XXXVII, 14.

393:7 See Pahl. Yas. XXX, 1 c.

393:8 See Pahl. Yas. XXIX, 6 a.

393:9 Ibid. 7 a.

393:10 See Pahl. Yas. XXXI, 7 c.

393:11 Ibid. 8 a.

393:12 Ibid. 9 a.

394:1 See Pahl. Yas. XXXI, 10 a.

394:2 Ibid. 11 b, c.

394:3 Ibid. 21 c.

394:4 Ibid. 22 c.

394:5 Compare Pahl. Yas. XXXIII, 4 a, XLIII, 13 c.

394:6 See Pahl. Yas. XXXIV, 1 a.

394:7 Ibid. 3 a.

394:8 See Pahl. Yas. XXXIII, 6 a, and Bk. VIII, Chap. VII, 5.

394:9 Ibid. 8 c.

394:10 Ibid. 9 c.

394:11 Ibid. 10 c.

394:12 See Pahl. Yas. XXXIV, 6 c.

394:13 Yas. XXXIV, 7 c, the Pahlavi version of which may be translated as follows:—'I am aware of no one (above), other than you (that is, I know no one from whom my benefit is such as from you, and when they shall cause) righteousness (that is, they shall perform duty and good works, it) thus produces shelter for us.' The MS. has naêkîd.

395:1 See Pahl. Yas. XXXIV, 15 c.

395:2 See Pahl. Yas. XXXV, 22.

395:3 See Pahl. Yas. XLII, 7 a.

395:4 Ibid. 8 d.

395:5 Assuming that yehevûnêd, 'becomes,' stands for yehabûnêd.

395:6 See Pahl. Yas. XLIII, 6 c.

395:7 Ibid. 7 d.

395:8 See Pahl. Yas. XLIV, 3 a.

395:9 Ibid. 6 a.

395:10 Ibid. 7 a.

395:11 Ibid. 8 e.

395:12 Ibid. 9 c.

396:1 See Pahl. Yas. XLV, 6 e.

396:2 Yas. XLVI, 6 c-e; its Pahlavi version (Pahl. Yas. XLV, 6 c-e) may be translated as follows:—'For he is wicked whose best nature is for the wicked, and he is righteous whose homage (franâmisnŏ in Pt4, Mf4) is for the righteous (in any doubtfulness, whoever gives anything to the wicked is to be considered as wicked, and whoever gives to the righteous is to be considered as righteous) so long as the religion of the first creation, O Aûharmazd! (until the time when Sôshâns arrives one is ever to be considered in this way).'

396:3 See Pahl. Yas. XLV, 8 a. The MS. has 'the righteous' by mistake.

396:4 Ibid. 12 a.

396:5 Compare Pahl. Yas. XLVIII, 6 a.

396:6 Compare Pahl. Yas. XLV, 17 e.

396:7 See Pahl. Yas. XLVI, 2 d.

396:8 Ibid. 3 a.

396:9 Ibid. 4 d.

396:10 See Pahl. Yas. XLVII, 1 d.

396:11 Ibid. 6 a.

396:12 Ibid. 7 d.

396:13 Ibid. 12 c.

396:14 See Pahl. Yas. XLVIII, 9 c.

397:1 See Pahl. Yas. XLVIII, 10 a, b.

397:2 See Pahl. Yas. XLIX, 9 c.

397:3 See Pahl. Yas. L, 1 b. The MS. has bûn, instead of barâ, by mistake.

397:4 Ibid. 3 c.

397:5 Ibid. 8 a.

397:6 Ibid. 8 b.

397:7 Ibid. 15 a.

397:8 Ibid. 16 a, and Bk. VIII, Chap. XI, 1.

397:9 Ibid. 17 a, and Bk. VIII, Chap. XXXVIII, 68.

397:10 Ibid. 18 a.

397:11 Ibid. 20 c.

397:12 See Pahl. Yas. LII, 1 a.

397:13 Ibid. 7 a.

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