Sacred Texts  Zoroastrianism  Index  Previous  Next 
Buy this Book at

Pahlavi Texts, Part IV (SBE37), E.W. West, tr. [1892], at


Varstmânsar Nask.

1. The twentieth fargard, Kad-môi-urvâ 4, is about anything whatever being begged as provision for the soul 5, and as to the speaking of Shatraver 6 to Zaratûst thus: 'Thou shouldst think thus, O Spîtâmân! that Aûharmazd assists thee.' 2. This, too, is said, that the creatures of Aûharmazd live through Khûrdad 7, are immortal through Amûrdad 7, possess complete mindfulness of Aûharmazd through

p. 292

[paragraph continues] Spendarmad 1, and possess him as ruler through Shatraver.

3. About wealth being begged owing to virtuousness there is this, too, that, to him who, owing to virtuousness, begs that which is not allowed to him owing to the oppressiveness of the vile, or on account of some other opposition, they then give essentially that reward, in the spiritual existence which is greater and better than that wealth. 4. About the cattle suitable for that warrior who possesses virtuous habits and strength 2, through the assistance of the will of the sacred beings and for the benefit of Irân and the defeat of the diminishing foreign force (kâstârîh-i an-Aîrânŏ).

5. About the seizure 3 of mankind for the advancement of the admonition and command of the sacred beings, so far as force is an assistant to them in knowledge due to the sacred beings 4; and their appropriation of the best existence through the advancement of that admonition and command. 6. About the assistance of the righteous, on the passage to the best existence, by the spirit of the wisdom of sovereignty, liberality, and truth, Aharîsvang 5 and the angel Hôm 6.

7. About the reason of the three steps walked forward by the Zôti from the place of the Zôti, while uttering the Avesta (avistâkŏ-gôbisnîhâ), after the

p. 293

end of the ritual for the fire, on delivering (parvâzisnŏ) the offering of holy-water to the water 1, being the leading up of the archangels, always at the end of an assembly of conference with Zaratûst, by three steps from the earth to the sun station, through the places of good thoughts, good words, and good deeds 2.

8. Advice to Zaratûst also as to the nature of the archangels; likewise a reminder to worship on their

p. 294

account after separation from the sight of them. 9. And this, too, is said, that there arises therefrom a conception (ham-giriftârîh), by him whose disposition and character are sagacious 1, also as to the adaptation of his own deeds to that nature of his. 10. And about the good affinity of Zaratûst, even for abundance of good works, there is this, too, namely: 'So, for all those deeds which thou hast to accomplish, and which are also accomplished, there is reward for thee through their righteousness, O Zaratûst!'

11. And about the advice to Zaratûst there is this, too, namely: 'Thou hast to become reverent to them 2, so that mankind may become reverent to thee.' 12. About considering the time of the days and nights as all for good accumulation in good works there is this, too, that whoever is diligent and always doing good works, and that whoever shall perform as many good works as is possible for him, is given as much reward 3 as is his desire.

13. It is righteousness that is perfect excellence.


291:1 See Pahl. Yas. XLVIII, 10 a, b, c and Bk. VIII, Chap. IX, 3n.

291:2 Ibid. 11 a, b.

291:3 Ibid. 12 b, d. In Pt4, Mf4, § b is as follows: 'Mûn Zaratûstŏ kîgûn lak Vohûman;' being correctly limited according to the Avesta text.

291:4 See Chap. XX, 1 n; it is here written kad-môg-ravakŏ in Pahlavi.

291:5 See Pahl. Yas. XLIX, 1 a.

291:6 An archangel who is a personification of the Avesta phrase khshathra-vairya, 'desirable dominion.'

291:7 For these three archangels see Chaps. XII, 25 n, XIX, 1 n. and Bk. VIII, Chap. IX, 3.

292:1 See note 7, preceding page.

292:2 See Pahl. Yas. XLIX, 3 a, c.

292:3 Ibid. 7 d.

292:4 This proviso implies some faint perception of the absurdity of trying to assist almighty beings by human force.

292:5 See Bk. VIII, Chap. IX, 3 n.

292:6 A personification of the Av. Haoma plant, an infusion of the dried twigs of which is used in the religious ceremonial. Yas. IX and X are devoted to his praise.

293:1 See Pahl. Yas. XLIX, 8 a. This refers to the proceedings of the chief officiating priest in the ceremonial, after the conclusion of the Âtas Nyâyis (Yas. LXII) and just before the beginning of the Âbân Nyâyis (Yas. LXV), during the recital of Yas. LXIV which chiefly consists of a repetition of §§ 6-11 of this Gâthic hâ (Yas. L-XLIX of the Pahlavi version). These proceedings are detailed in the rubrics, partially in J2 and more fully in Pt4, Mf4, as follows:—After reciting Av. Yas. L, 7 d 'the Barsôm (Av. baresman, see Bk. VIII, Chap. XLIV, 65 n) is to be taken up from the Mâh-rû,' or crescent-topped Barsôm-stand, 'and one step is to be set forth in the direction of the Frabardâr' (the imaginary assistant priest whose station is near the north-east corner of the ceremonial area, or to the left of the Zôti, see Chap. XXXIII, 5 n), 'at this place of taking up the Barsôm from the Barsôm-stand, and of going on to the position of the Frabardâr, a beginning of Yas. L, 8 a is to be made in walking towards the beginning of the fire place, until Yas. L, 11 d is to be uttered,' in the following manner:—After 'mad vau one step is to be set forth, and homage to be offered to the holy-water;' after 'padâis one step, and homage to be offered to the holy-water;' after 'yâ frasrûtâ îzayau one step is to be set forth, and he is to go on to the position of the Âbard' (the imaginary assistant priest whose station is near the south-east corner, so that the progress of the Zôti towards the fire is along the left-hand side of the ceremonial area), and, after reciting the rest of the Gâthic text to the end of Yas. L, 11 d, 'homage is to be offered to the fire, and he is to go away to the position of the Zôti.'

293:2 The three lower grades of heaven, intermediate between the earth and the best existence or supreme heaven (Garôdmân), and situated in the stations of the stars, moon, and sun, respectively (see AV. VII-X, Mkh. VII, 9-12).

294:1 See Pahl. Yas. XLIX, 9 d.

294:2 Ibid. 10 d.

294:3 Ibid. 11 d.

Next: Chapter XLIV