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Pahlavi Texts, Part IV (SBE37), E.W. West, tr. [1892], at


Varstmânsar Nask.

1. In the twenty-first fargard, Vohû-khshathrem 4, it is said by Aûharmazd thus: 'I produced, O Zaratûst! the desire for a good ruler 5;' and this, too, is said, that, when there is a desire for a

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good ruler suitable for a share of the world, whoever is suitable for a share of the world [is a development of that character also, owing to the share which is given him, and by him who is himself also developing the character, by giving him a share] 1, giving the share is producing a helper (vigîdâr), production of a helper is a perfect action 2, and superiority of action is owing to thought and speech.

2. About the place where the best wealth is the produce of water, earth, and plants; also its best supplication is lamentation for the religion, and the sovereignty is liberality. 3. About favours being begged from the sacred beings, even with words controverting the response of the sacred beings; the favours for the worthy are to be contended for worthily. 4. About the connection of the power of intelligent remembrance and wise discrimination, one with the other. 5. About the attraction of the mercy of the spirit and leadership 3, together, into the supreme heaven (garôdmânô), for observation regarding the good creatures.

6. About the begging and teaching of that intelligence which is with the increase of good works; also the imperceptible acquirement 4 of wealth occurs thereby. 7. This, too, that whoever gives himself up, with humility and reverence, to him who is a high-priest of the true religion, is proficient (far’zânakî-aîtŏ) in the religion 5; and the benefit produced by him, for him who is good, is the liberality

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which is provided for the sacred beings 1. 8. About Aûharmazd having created water, plants, animals 2, and the law of the primitive religion for the nourishment, arrangement, and succession of the creatures. 9. About the comfort of the spirit of the liturgy of the religion when he who is a man of credible wisdom and superior disposition utters it 3.

10. This, too, that the wicked one who does not believe the deception that he teaches to others, which is his through his own spiritual lord, yet, when he teaches multitudes (kabedân), is convinced by it, attains—as the end of that teaching—eminence (padgahîh) for bare-faced deceit (barâhnakŏ fradîpîh), public falsehood, and disjointed belief.

11. And about mankind being bodily prepared also for the future existence by fire and melted ore 4; in the worldly existence the acquitted and incriminated, as regards the law, have become thereby manifest 5, and, in the future existence, the torment of the wicked and the gratification of the righteous 6. 12. About Vohûman and Ashavahist being invoked 7 for assistance also in danger from the wicked, and about appropriating the best existence through righteousness alone. 13. And this, too, that a happy coming of men to the supreme heaven exists for the righteous, but no 8 coming of any one from the wicked.

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14. About the enmity of the Kaî 1 sodomite (vâêpŏ) 2 Akht, the heretic of the dark existence 3, to Zaratûst; and the causing of disturbance (siklinîdanŏ), by him and the wicked of similar kinds to him, among those who follow Zaratûst is extreme, and the primeval hellish existence is for them 4. 15. About the closing of the abode of the Kai and Karap from virtuousness 5; and this, too, that they do not develope the worldly existences, nor attend to the spirit, but they contract the world and dissipate the spirit 6.

16. About the worthiness of the sovereignty of Kai-Vistâsp 7, on account of great ability and activity, apart even from superintending. 17. About the praise of Frashôstar 8 for his having given Hvôbŏ 9 in marriage to Zaratûst, the praise of Hvôbŏ for her complete reverence of Zaratûst, and admonition to Zaratûst as to making Hvôbŏ privileged for the post of house-mistress 10. 18. About the praise of Gâmâsp 11 for begging fortune and for wisdom in appropriating the excellence of the primitive righteousness; also his affection for the sovereignty and for the recitation of revelation, in which there is assistance of Zaratûst through command of

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[paragraph continues] Vohûman 1. 19. About the praise of Maîdôk-mâh 2 for his accepting and exercising—and on account of his exercising—the upholding and propagation of the religion; also the yelling, united assault, evil food, and other affliction owing to the wicked in the earlier half of the night, which is that which Zaratûst had, for a like reason, to bear; and the reciting of the law of Aûharmazd 3, for the joy of the sacred beings, and his appropriation of the best existence.

20. About the abounding of Zaratûst in complete mindfulness of the origin of learning, and its development by him 4; both the object and the advantage of knowledge—which is the reigning of Vohûman in the body—being the means of developing the world in righteousness 5. 21. About the perfection of the ceremonial 6 and obeisance of Zaratûst, and the superiority 7of his recompense 8; also advice to him as to worshipping Aûharmazd pre-eminently, and the primeval angels by their own names 9 according to their greatness.

22. It is the excellence of righteousness that is perfect.


294:4 See Chap. XXI, 1 n; it is here written vohû-khshatar in Pahlavi, and is called the 22nd fargard by mistake.

294:5 See Pahl. Yas. L, 1 a.

295:1 The passage in brackets was at first omitted in the MS. by mistake, and subsequently interlined and written in the margin with a different ink.

295:2 See Pahl. Yas. L, 1 c.

295:3 Ibid. 4 a.

295:4 Ibid. 5 a.

295:5 Ibid. 5 c.

296:1 See Pahl. Yas. L, 6 a.

296:2 Ibid. 7 a.

296:3 Ibid. 8 c; nêvagtâr is written by mistake for nêvagtar, 'superior,' in the MS.

296:4 Ibid. 9 b and Chap. XXXII, 25.

296:5 Ibid. 9 a.

296:6 Ibid. 9 c.

296:7 Ibid. 10 c.

296:8 Assuming that râî stands for lâ.

297:1 See Bk. VIII, Chap. XXXV, 13 n.

297:2 See Pahl. Yas. L, 12 a.

297:3 Akhtyô duzdau temanguhau of Yt. V, 82; the wizard Akht of the tale of Yôst-î Fryânô.

297:4 See Pahl. Yas. L, 14 c.

297:5 Ibid. 14 a.

297:6 Ibid. 14 b.

297:7 Ibid. 16 a and Bk. VIII, Chap. XI, 1.

297:8 Ibid. 17 a and Bk. VIII, Chap. XXXVIII, 68.

297:9 Ibid. 17 b. Av. Hvôvi of Yt. XIII, 139, XVI, 15; she was daughter of Frashôstar and wife of Zaratûst.

297:10 Ibid. 17 c.

297:11 Ibid. 18 a and Bk. VIII, Chap. XXXVIII, 68.

298:1 See Pahl. Yas. L, 18 b.

298:2 Ibid. 19 a and Chap. XXIV, 1.

298:3 Ibid. 19 c.

298:4 Ibid. 21 a.

298:5 Ibid. 21 b.

298:6 Ibid. 22 a.

298:7 Assuming that avartîh stands for avartarîh.

298:8 See Pahl. Yas. L, 22 b.

298:9 Ibid. 22 c.

Next: Chapter XLV