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Pahlavi Texts, Part IV (SBE37), E.W. West, tr. [1892], at


Varstmânsar Nask.

1. The nineteenth fargard, Ad mâ-yavâ 2, is about the protection by a protector for the protection of the distressed ones of the renovation of the universe 3. 2. About the impossibility of convincing those who have not attained to the fundamental reason (bûn kim) of belief, before making them comprehensibly reliant upon the existence of the creator, which is the fundamental reason of belief.

3. About the grievous suffering (vîmârîh) of the religion owing to him who is a wicked judge, whose effusions (rêzîdanŏ) on the judgment seat are injudicious, malevolent, and enemies of wisdom; also his wounding is owing to truth 4, and his annoyance owing to the truthful, and the evil spirit is lodging in him; likewise the advantage to the religion and the great reward of just judges, and the introduction

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[paragraph continues] (madam-barisnîh) of a desire for leadership in virtuousness 1. 4. About separation from the friendship of a wicked, ill judging, unintelligent, and idle person, in whom wrath and envy are coiled up (avarpêkŏ) 2. 3. About the good government of securers of their own necks (kavarman) from viciousness, and the bad government of those repeatedly culpable (lakhvâr-âhûgân) owing to viciousness. 6. And this, too, that the wicked themselves are wicked to their own and make them fit for hell, even as to those who 3 are precious to them and more beloved than righteousness; and their reign, too, is a scanty protection (gasûkŏ srâyisnŏ).

7. About the praise of Zaratûst there is this, too, namely: 'Thy sweetness and mildness are shown to the worldly existences, thy leadership of the religion is through Vohûman, and thou art well conversant with righteousness 4.' 8. About the praise of Frashôstar's ardour in the leadership of good works, in virtuousness 5, listening to instruction, and truthful speaking, and in pasturing (fshegîh), cultivating the world, achieving benefit (sûdŏ tâshîdârîh), and not giving leadership to villains 6. 9. About the praise also of the energy and high-priestship of Gâmâsp 7. 10. About the protection of the good

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creations by Vohûman, and that, too, of the souls of the righteous by Spendarmad also 1.

11. About the punishment of the wicked ruler who is seizing anything unlawfully in his realm. 12. Also about the grievous punishment of the wicked, evil-thinking, evil-speaking, evil-doing, heretical (dûs-dênô), evil ruler in hell 2. 13. About the reply of the archangels to Zaratûst, as to the reward begged by him, to make him satisfied about it 3.

14. It is righteousness that is perfect excellence.


289:1 The capability of expelling fiends.

289:2 See Chap. XIX, 1 n; it is here written ad-mâg-yûv in Pahlavi.

289:3 See Pahl. Yas. XLVIII, 1 a.

289:4 Ibid. 2 a, b.

290:1 See Pahl. Yas. XLVIII, 3 b, c.

290:2 Ibid. 4 a.

290:3 Assuming that amat stands for mûn, their Irânian equivalents being much alike.

290:4 See Pahl. Yas. XLVIII, 5 a, b, c.

290:5 Ibid. 8 a, b, c and Bk. VIII, Chap. XXXVIII, 68 n.

290:6 Ibid. 9 a, b, in which Pt4, Mf4 have tâshîdâr instead of the khvâstâr of K5, J2; regarding fshegîh (= Av. fsheng’hyô) see Bk. VIII, Chap. XXII, 6 n.

290:7 Ibid. 9 d and Bk. VIII, Chap. XXXVIII, 68 n.

Next: Chapter XLIII