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Pahlavi Texts, Part IV (SBE37), E.W. West, tr. [1892], at


Varstmânsar Nask.

1. The seventh fargard, Ad-tâ-vakhshyâ 2, is regarding the maintenance of the worship and obeisance of the religion and the spirit of the liturgy; and this, too, that the spirit of the ceremonial of him who is a right-thinking, intelligent, and wise 3 man is quickly mixed up with the light of the sun, and connected with the accomplishment of the wishes and the joy of the archangels.

2. About the choice of will by mankind, and the existence of a way to reward through their decision. 3. About advice to mankind as to seeking that position in which it is possible to remain long with fondness, and as to reciting and teaching 4 the revelation of the sacred beings.

4. And, from the statement of Zaratûst, about the shouting of the demon Aresh 5 to mankind, thus:

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[paragraph continues] 'Aûharmazd and Aharman have been two brothers in one womb 1, and out of them the archangel 2 liked that which is evil 3, through what occurs when the understanders of it have mentioned the worship of the demons and this, that, after it, you should present cattle to the planetary bodies and the demons.' 5. About the falsity of the demon Aresh, the separate origin of light and darkness, the goodness of the material existence of light for determining what is done, and the evil of that of darkness.

6. The grumbling of the evil spirit thus: 'I am he whose thoughts are evil, O beneficent spirit! he whose words are evil, and he whose deeds are evil 4; what is dark is my garment which is very thick, with lower corners where, so far as many go, it is still darker 5; evil thoughts, evil words, and evil deeds are my food, and I love those of them who are in that place through evil thoughts, evil words, and evil deeds.' 7. And the speaking of Aûharmazd thus: 'I am he whose thoughts are good, O evil spirit! he whose words are good, and he whose deeds are good 6; the sky is my garment, which was first produced from that substance of the worldly existences which is created as the stone above all stones 7, that is, every jewel is set in it; good thoughts, good words, and good deeds are my food, and I love those of them who are in that place

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through good thoughts, good words, and good deeds.'

8. This, too, that true discrimination is not for them, the demons 1 astute in evil; and they never truly discriminate whose will is that of Akôman 2. 9. And about the sickening (vîmârînîdanŏ) of the patron spirits of mankind, by the demons 3, through the deceit of man towards man owing to the deceit of the demons; and the approach of mankind to evil proceedings on the part of the spiritual lordship, through those patron spirits 4.

Io. Also the sending of monarchy and the wisdom of religion, by Aûharmazd, for the preservation of the creatures; the recurrence of the mission 5 whereby there are injury and affliction for the demons and sovereignty again for Aûharmazd, and they possess the reward of Vohûman 6 and what is required by the sacred beings; and the predominance of man over demon, in the end, the good over the evil, and the righteous over the wicked; also about the nature of those who are producing the renovation of the universe. 11. This, too, that is a declaration: 'They are those, O Zaratûst the Spîtâmân! who shall produce the renovation, they have escaped (girekhtŏ) among the existences, they are

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vigilant 1 in seeking righteousness, and gentle-voiced; and, as regards righteousness in thought, they convert into righteousness anything virtuous which belongs to them.' 12. About the statement of those praised it is recited that it is thus mentioned in the Gâthas: 'So we are with those who are thine—that is, we are thine own—by us this renovation is to be produced in the existences 2.' 13. About the perpetual convocation held by the archangel regarding . the production of the future existence 3.

14. This, too, that he is an extender of the days of those who defeat the army of the fiend 4 and clothe themselves with deeds of shining light, and also those of a virtuous body, who are these: the priest, the warrior, the husbandman, and the man who is a ruler; with whom are Aharîsvang 5 and the spirit of liberality (râdîh) 6; they meditate with good thoughts (hû-mînisnîh) 7 and joy, and, with pleasure to themselves, they give the world into the guardianship of Aûharmazd, and also of Ashavahis8, when they possess the religion of Aûharmazd as a ruler. 15. This, too, that he, whose thoughts are through a high-priest who possesses a patron spirit, always thinks that which is virtuous, and his sagacity increases 9.

16. And about advice to mankind as to three things, through which the renovation and happy progress of the creatures arise, namely, seeking the

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true religion, abstaining from injuring the creatures, and striving for the benefit of mankind.

17. The excellence of righteousness is perfect.


241:2 See Chap. VII, 1 n; it is here written at-tâg-vakhshê in Pahlavi in both MSS.

241:3 See Pahl. Yas. XXX, 1 a, c.

241:4 Ibid. 2 c.

241:5 See Chap. XXXI, 6; the demon of envy, or malice, called Arêshk, or Arashk, in Bd. XV, 18, XXVIII, 16.

242:1 See Pahl. Yas. XXX, 3 a. This materialization of the Gâthic text, here reported as the utterance of a malicious demon, corresponds very closely with the statement of the Armenian Eznik quoted in Haug's Essays, p. 13.

242:2 That is, the arch-demon who was archangel of the demons.

242:3 See Pahl. Yas. XXX, 5 a.

242:4 Ibid. 3 h.

242:5 Referring to hell.

242:6 See Pahl. Yas. XXX, 3 b.

242:7 Ibid. 5 b.

243:1 See Pahl. Yas. XXX, 6 a.

243:2 Evil thought (see Bk. VIII, Chap. IX, 3).

243:3 See Pahl. Yas. XXX, 6 c.

243:4 The ahû, or patron spirit, having become diseased and incapable of true ahvôîh, or spiritual lordship, through the action of the demons.

243:5 Reading lakhvar petamî-hastanŏ (or petam gâstanŏ) which probably refers to the later missions of Aûshêdar, Aûshêdar-mâh, and Sôshâns (see Bk. VIII, Chap. XIV, 12-14).

243:6 See Pahl. Yas. XXX, 8 b.

244:1 Pahl. zên-hâvand = Av. zaênangha.

244:2 See Pahl. Yas. XXX, 9 a.

244:3 Ibid. 9 b.

244:4 Ibid. 10 a.

244:5 The female angel of perfect rectitude (see Bk. VIII, Chap. IX, 3).

244:6 See Chap. XXIV, 3.

244:7 See Pahl. Yas. XXX, 10 b.

244:8 Ibid. 10 c and Bk. VIII, Chap. XXXVII, 14.

244:9 See Pahl. Yas. XXX, 9 c.

Next: Chapter XXXI