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Pahlavi Texts, Part IV (SBE37), E.W. West, tr. [1892], at

p. 237


Varstmânsar Nask.

1. The sixth fargard, Khshmaibyâ 1, is about the complaint of Gôs-aûrvan 2 to Aûharmazd, when she sat at the creation in the assembly of the archangels, as regards the abundant disease and misery which she saw spiritually would come upon her in a bodily existence, through beating, slaughtering, and wounding, stealing, plundering, and presenting, by him of vicious actions and worse desires, as a bribe to him who is an evil-ruling villain (mar), and the operation thereof: the bad ownership, wrongful investigation, false evidence, and making captive (vardakŏ), by him who is wrathful and oppressive through greed and envy, from the warm cowshed and the effective and diligent guardianship of the herd's dog (pasûs-haûrvô), to that which is a cold and hastily-constructed place; or by him who is seeking meat with a merciless hand through making her distantly separated from her young. 2. Also their explanation and extenuation (kâstanŏ) 3, and the causing of misery of many kinds thereby, 'which is no affliction to them when the wind that is cold 4, or even that which is hot, comes upon me; which is no affliction to them when, the untimely offspring of

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my womb being cast away, they slaughter me; and is no affliction to them when the serpent, the leech (khun-garâî) 1, or even the foulest of noxious creatures gnaws me.' 3. And the petition of Gôs-aûrvan was thus: 'Do not appoint me to a worldly existence and that awful misery, or, if thou appointest me to a worldly existence, produce it for me without life (aûzûstânîhâ), so that I may be without feeling and may want that distressing 2 pain; it is created for the mighty, through whose assistance there is a capability of affording protection to me, even though the Kaî and Karap 3 exist.'

4. And, together with the just complaint of Gôs-aûrvan, and the compassion of the archangels as to that complaint, there is then the creation of the creatures, among whom the greatest and best 4 is mankind, for fighting and subduing the destroyer, even though joined together with a complaint of wounding and affliction like that ofs-aûrvan, ands-aûrvan arose with greater judiciousness than an absence of creation even with freedom from disturbance by the Kaîs 5; on account of the necessity of preparing for the living of mankind through the assistance of cattle, Gôs-aûrvan was produced for the material bodily existence and assistance of mankind. 5. And, on account of little feeling for her worldly misery, the breeding (mâyînîdanŏ) of cattle was the arraying

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of strife; the advancement of the Mazda-worshipping religion of Zaratûst in the world by Gôs-aûrvan, on the production of Zaratûst for the assistance of cattle; and the preservation of cattle and other good creations through complete satisfaction at the progress of the religion.

6. This, too, was said to Gôs-aûrvan, that is: 'I assert unto thee the passing away of devastation, that is, the existence of a remedy for the misery owing to the evil spirit 1, for which no creature would be produced by me—me who am Aûharmazd—when a remedy for the misery owing to him had not been known to me.' 7. This, too, that the wish of the evil spirit was thus: 'Thou shouldst never produce a creature, O Aûharmazd! and there should be here no spiritual lordship, no priestly authority, and no desire for perfect righteousness, or necessity for duty and good works.' 8. The enquiry of Gôs-aûrvan, thus: 'For whom am I appointed and formed? 2' and the reply to her, thus: 'For him who is diligent and moderate 3.'

9. Also the friend and nourishment (srâyisnŏ) begged for cattle bys-aûrvan, the righteous man produced for the assistance of cattle by Aûharmazd, and the sweetness in water and plants for the nourishment of cattle, so that he is privileged to feed and keep cattle who gives them pasture in reality, and is also diligent in the production of cattle, that is, he gives them pasture, and is thereby proclaimed a cattle-guardian (pasûs-haûrvô) for them who makes the cattle fully develope 4; and also

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he who gives the wicked Wrath, the foreigner, a beating, so that he may make him stupefied 1. 10. The development of cattle by Aûharmazd, advice to mankind as to moderate eating 2, and the grievous bridge judgment of him who has unlawfully produced distress for the cattle whom Gôs-aûrvan is kindly regarding, with loving eyes 3, in the spiritual existence, in bodily contact with (ham-kerpŏ-î) the archangels and in bodily contact with the light of the sun, so that her hands are more powerful; she who replies to the sacred beings, and the sacred beings reply to her 4.

11. About the statements of Aûharmazd there is this, too, that is: 'I am a calculator of those words 5 by which they assert that the existence of worldly beings is for the sake of that of both existences; I am aware of the actions which are practised by those in the material existence, both demons and men; of whatever they practise 6 I am the decider and lord, and it is such as my will requires 7, even for the last change of existence; and I look upon all that with that wisdom and sagacity of mine which was, which is, and which ever will be.'

12. The formation of a reward for worldly beings by Aûharmazd, through the propitious liturgy (mânsarspend) 8 which has become the precursor of the benefiters; that is, their high-priest, who has

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a propitiousness and intelligence that are all-beneficial, is he with the liturgy. 13. And about the uniqueness and incomparableness of Zaratûst among mankind, through his desire for righteousness and his understanding the means of defeating the destroyer 1 and teaching the creatures.

14. Righteousness is perfect excellence.


237:1 See Chap. VI, 1 n; it is here written khshmâîbâ (B) and khshmâîbê (K) in Pahlavi.

237:2 See Chap. XV, 3; Pahl. Yas. XXIX, 1.

237:3 Or it may be 'fining and beating,' as K has kûstanŏ.

237:4 B has 'when some of that which is cold,' writing aîtŏ for vâdŏ in this first clause, and amat min for amatam in the first and third clauses.

238:1 Doubtful.

238:2 K has 'ill-passing.'

238:3 See Bk. VIII, Chap. XXXV, 13 n.

238:4 B has 'of whom the best.'

238:5 The obnoxious tribe, or class, mentioned in § 3. After the word 'affliction' K completes the clause to this point as follows:—'just as Gôs-aûrvan arose with greater judiciousness than an absence of creation even with an adversity of the primitive tendency.'

239:1 See Pahl. Yas. XXIX, 6 a.

239:2 Ibid. 1 a.

239:3 Ibid. 6 c.

239:4 Ibid. 2 b.

240:1 See Pahl. Yas. XXIX, 2 c.

240:2 Ibid. 7 b.

240:3 Pahl. kâmakŏ-dôîsar = Av. vouru-dôithra, an epithet of Râta, 'liberality' (see Chap. XXIV, 3), and Saoka, 'prosperity;' but here applied to Gôs-aûrvan.

240:4 Some words in § 10 occur also in Pahl. Yas. XXIX, 3.

240:5 See Pahl. Yas. XXIX, 4 a.

240:6 Ibid. 4 b.

240:7 Ibid. 4 c.

240:8 Ibid. 7 a.

241:1 See Pahl. Yas. XXIX, 8 c.

Next: Chapter XXX