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Pahlavi Texts, Part IV (SBE37), E.W. West, tr. [1892], at


Varstmânsar Nask.

1. The eighth fargard, Tâ-ve-urvâtâ 1, is about advice as to reciting 2 the revelation, the information therefrom for the faithful, about which they have to report to the unfaithful, by mentioning conspicuous specimens and explanatory knowledge, and by thinking of anything whatever which they have to accept, or even which they have not to accept 3; also, for one called to the religion, the advantage owing to the attraction of mankind to the numerous actual disciple-hood of the religion, and the increasing greatness materially, and further reward spiritually, owing to the numerous disciplehood; and the progress of the religion of Aûharmazd even among the irreligious (adênôân) 4 and actual apostates 5.

2. This, too, that the life of the creatures of Aûharmazd and also all other benefit are owing to Aûharmazd 6 and the inclination (kâmvarikakŏ) of Aûharmazd thereto; moreover, reward and recompense come from Aûharmazd. 3. And the creatures of Aharman proceed from Aharman, all misery is owing to Aharman, and Aharman becomes worse and more oppressive and a further producer of misery when they worship him.

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4. About the continuance and arranging of both spirits as to their own creations (stî) and the self-acting of their own appliances; the achievement of each one through his own natural resources and through the trifling (gadagânîk) operation of the other; the spiritual lordship and priestly authority, true confession and the progress of the good religion, being from Aûharmazd, and, through enmity to the creatures of Aûharmazd, Aharman is contesting these. 5. Aûharmazd, for setting aside that contester, is the producer of true intelligence, and gave language and also the ritual of ordeal 1; the invocation of the sacred beings 2 for assistance, and the arrival of an angel for the assistance of the invokers; the overcoming of their affliction, the production of their immunity and even righteousness, and also of that good ruler 3 who is a reminder of Aûharmazd, and the restoration of bodies, which is the hope of all good creations, are through the sacred beings being invoked for assistance and their arrival where the diffusion 4 is that of virtuous knowledge through Vohûman 5, the good religion which is whatever may be the knowledge 6 of all those who are, and were, and will be.

6. About the shouting of the demon Aresh 7 to

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[paragraph continues] Zaratûst and the reply of Zaratûst as to the advice of Aûharmazd and whatever is on the same subject, just as revelation (dênô) states it, that the demon Aresh spoke to him thus: 'Then the Franâmam 1, O Zaratûst! is applicable to the assembly of demons who sit in the same place three nights and four days on account of thee.' 7. Zaratûst enquired of him thus: 'O Aresh, thou most deceitful to me! what recompense would there be for it to me, if I should worship you in words?' 8. And Aresh, the most deceitful of demons, spoke to him thus: 'Thou wouldst become predominant among mankind, through producing at will among the existences just as is requisite for thyself; and thou wouldst become immortal, O Spîtâmân! 9. Zaratûst also enquired of him thus: 'O Aresh, most deceitful of demons! as to the people by whom you are worshipped, whether for the birth of a son, or even for a concubine sought for enjoyment, so that the favour is considered by them as your property, how can any one of them be immortal?' 10. And Aresh, the most deceitful of demons, could not tell him who had the more intelligence. 11. So Zaratûst spoke thus: 'I am for that being and I like him, that is, I am his

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own and would transact his affairs, and I will recite the law and the benedictions of the sagacious Aûharmazd, the gratifier of desires.'

12. About the deliverance of all creatures through the liturgy 1, and, so long as it is continued by them, it is for the power through which the immortality of the separate creations is prepared in the renovation of the universe; the increase of the good creatures through the complete continuance of the liturgy, and the existence of purity and development of goodness in the world when he who is a good ruler arrives.

13. The arising of the spiritual creation, the first thought of Aûharmazd; and, as to the creatures of Aûharmazd, first the spiritual achievement, and then the material formation and the mingling of spirit with matter; [the advancement of the creatures thereby, through his wisdom and the righteousness of Vohûman being lodged 2 in the creatures,] and all good creatures being goaded (zakhamî-hastanŏ) thereby into purity and joyfulness. 14. This, too, that a complete understanding of things arises through Vohûman having made a home in one's reason (vârôm).

15. About the great reward of him who shall produce benefit for cattle 3; also the deceitfully and seductively assuming of religion and colouring of thought, talking of righteousness and adopting evil practices, through the recitation of righteousness even hypocritically (davânsîhâ-k); and an instance of the reward of an undutiful (avar’zîdâr)

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apostate 1. 16. About the work of the creator; and, for the completion thereof, the most eminent is understood to be when the world and religion were formed 2 by him, when life was given by him to those possessing bodies 3, and 4 he provides instruction and employment 5 for it, and when spiritual life (hûkŏ) 6 was given by him to the wishful man, so that he may more fully appropriate a share of the worldly and spiritual existences.

17. He who makes complete mindfulness 7 lodge in his body consults complete mindfulness, and 8, through the much investigation of his spiritual life (ahvô) and mind into the attraction of both spirits—that which is good and also that which is evil—each separately for its own appliances, and into the duties of the religion of Aûharmazd, is explaining the inefficiency of mankind, as regards the dissipation of their sin, because Aûharmazd is aware of all they practise, that which is public and that, too, which is concealed 9. 18. The great reward of him who is liberal of gifts (dâsar) from his own property to a

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righteous man 1, and this, too, that whoever gives him who is wicked 2 a gift, for the sake of improper expectations, assists darkness and not light.

19. This, too, that the worst ruler is he of evil religion and evil deeds, who even for a bribe 3 would not occasion happiness; he who is a destroyer of an innocent man; also the grievous state of punishment of that person, in hell, who shall make that wicked one a ruler 4. 20. And advice to mankind as to providing a judge and guardian over every dwelling, the probation of a man for appointment to that important duty, and the development of all creations in the world when its ruler is sagacious 5.

21. Also causing the disturbance (va-siklinîdanŏ) of the evil spirit for satisfying a man who is rightly thinking, rightly speaking, and rightly acting; the opposition to a righteous man of a wicked one belonging to the evil spirit, who is an evil-reciting and improperly-disputing apostate; the enticement (lûsinîdanŏ) of mankind to devious ways (âvârîhâ), by an apostate, being more than that which attracts to the true way for a righteous man; and afterwards also, in the end, the defeat of the army of the fiend by him who is beneficial to mankind. 22. Advice to mankind about abstaining from the suite of him who is an apostate, not hearing and not solemnizing the Avesta and Zand of the sacred beings from him 6; also the evil behaviour (dûs-barisnîh), slander, strife, death, and fear in the world owing to apostates 7. 23. Advice to upholders of the religion about the means of thoroughly understanding apostates,

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and preparing and keeping a weapon for them 1, so that he who is authorised and fearless may be more eager for truthful speaking; and, when the religion of Aûharmazd is liked by him, his truthful speaking and other righteousness have then allured (kâmakînîdŏ) 2.

24. Also what happens in the three nights 3, for the assistance and preservation of the righteous, through what is accomplished by the propitious fire 4; and the progress of his lamentation who deceives and vexes a righteous man 5, and is leading the wicked by their own befitting deeds to hell 6. 25. This, too, that the complete worthiness which exists in Khûrdad and Amûrdad 7 arises in him who maintains the prerogative which is his 8 through virtuousness, who must become such a friend of whatever is his own spirit, through his actions 9, as the creator is of his own creatures. 26. This, too, that whatever is thus in the world is perfect, when every one thinks, speaks, and shall act just like his spiritual lord and high-priest 10; so that a good ruler is he with whom virtuous speaking arises, as well as proper action 11. 27. And this, too, that the lodgment of Aûharmazd in the worldly existence is most in the person of that ruler 12, and that lodgment in him is manifest.

28. The excellence of righteousness is perfect.


245:1 See Chap. VIII, 1 n; it is here written tâg-va-ratŏ in Pahlavi in both MSS.

245:2 See Pahl. Yas. XXXI, 1 a.

245:3 B omits these last eight words

245:4 K has akdênôân, 'infidels.'

245:5 See Pahl. Yas. XXXI, 1 c.

245:6 Ibid. 2 c.

246:1 See Pahl. Yas. XXXI, 3 b, c.

246:2 Ibid. 4 a, b.

246:3 Ibid. 4 c.

246:4 K has 'ceremonial.'

246:5 See Pahl. Yas. XXXI, 5 b.

246:6 K has hû-dânâkîh, 'sagacity.'

246:7 The demon of envy, as in Chap. XXX, 4. The occurrence of his dialogue with Zaratûst in this place explains the word which is found twice in Pahl. Yas. XXXI, 5 b, and has been read hû-vârîh, 'good judgment,' or hû-vaharîh, 'good fortune.' In the MSS. called Pt4 and Mf4, in Geldner's edition of the Avesta, this Pahlavi word is both times separated into two thus: which may be read avŏ Aresh, 'to Aresh,' and the whole p. 247 § 5 b may be translated as follows:—'The gift of understanding through Good Thought is that which thou shouldst give unto me (that is, that wisdom thou shouldst proclaim to me as virtuousness), which is to me (through what pertains to it) that which is for Aresh (that is, through that wisdom which is virtuousness it shall become possible for me to give a reply to Aresh).' The reply here mentioned appears to be that given in § 11 of our text; and the name Aresh explains the word ereshi in the original Avesta text as meaning 'envy' and being equivalent to araska.

247:1 The Mazda-worshipper's profession of faith, beginning with the word Av. fravarânê (Yas. I, 23) = Pahl. franâmam.

248:1 See Pahl. Yas. XXXI, 6 b.

248:2 Ibid. 6 c. The passage in brackets occurs only in K.

248:3 Ibid. 10 a, b.

249:1 See Pahl. Yas. XXXI, 10 c.

249:2 Ibid. 11 a.

249:3 Ibid. 11 b.

249:4 So originally in B, but altered into 'when,' by the repairer of the MS., so as to agree with K.

249:5 See Pahl. Yas. XXXI, 11 C.

249:6 B has kâmak, 'desire,' with 'the wishful' in the plural, and this might agree better with Pahl. Yas. XXXI, 11 c, but not with the next clause in the sentence here, where both nominative and verb are in the singular.

249:7 See Pahl. Yas. XXXI, 12 c. This term is the Pahl. equivalent of Av. ârmaiti which is usually personified as the female archangel Spendarmad.

249:8 The MS. K is left unfinished at this point, merely adding the words expressed by 'into the attraction of,' in this translation. For the remainder of Bk. IX the only known MS. authority is B.

249:9 See Pahl. Yas. XXXI, 13 a.

250:1 See Pahl. Yas. XXXI, 14 b.

250:2 Ibid. 14 c.

250:3 Ibid. 15 b.

250:4 Ibid. 15 a.

250:5 Ibid. 16 a.

250:6 Ibid. 18 a.

250:7 Ibid. 18 b.

251:1 Pahl. Yas. XXXI, 18 c.

251:2 Ibid. 19 b.

251:3 After death.

251:4 See Pahl. Yas. XXXI, 19 c and Chap. XII, 4.

251:5 Ibid. 20 a.

251:6 Ibid. 20 c.

251:7 Ibid. 21 a and Chap. XIX, 1.

251:8 Ibid. 21 b.

251:9 Ibid. 21 c.

251:10 Ibid. 22 a.

251:11 Ibid. 22 b.

251:12 Ibid. 22 c.

Next: Chapter XXXII