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Pahlavi Texts, Part IV (SBE37), E.W. West, tr. [1892], at


1. The Gâthas of the Yas1, as the first offspring of the Ahunavair, are a recitation of the source of sources of the religion, and in the compass (parvastârîh) 2 of the Gâthas, every word (mârîk)

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in it is the origin of a word. 2. The word ahû 1 of the beginning 2 is of a like kind with ahyâ 3, the beginning of the Gâthas; the end word, which is vâstârem 4, is of a like kind with vahyô 5, the end of the Gâthas; and the whole—which, though its nature is of one kind, is distributed (vakhtŏ) in what is selected therefrom—is stored up (avargûdŏ) in this compendium 6 of all parts of the Mazda-worshipping religion.

3. Likewise the purport (avorî-hastân) 7 of its verse (gâh), and the particulars of the primitive Vîspêrad 8 are to procure homage and praise, oblation and invocation; and the blessing 9, which is regulated by the sagacity of the creator, is adapted for the spiritual illustration of the lodgment of the ceremonial of the sacred beings therein. 4. All

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three are provisions for the first and last presentations 1 which one utters by means of the Stôd Yast.

5. It is perfect is the excellence of righteousness; it is perfect excellence that is righteousness; with the copy revised (râyînîdŏ).


169:1 Corresponding to the twenty-first word, vâstârem, in the Ahunavair, according to B. P. Riv.; but it is the first Nask in other Rivâyats. In Chap. I, 9, 12 it is called Stôd-yast, 'praise-ritual,' (Av. staota yêsnya); and Stûd-yast, or Yast, in the Rivâyats, which also state that it contains thirty-three kardah, or ʓûrat. In Sls. XIII, 1 we are told that Vîsâi ve-ameshâ-spentâ (Yas. XIV, 1) is the beginning of the Stôtân-yasnô; and, if we look for its end, we find Yas. LVIII, LIX both ending with special reverence of 'the whole collection of the Stôtân-yasnân.' We may therefore conclude that Yas. XIV-LIX, with its supplementary passages in Vîsp. V-XXIV, contains the whole of the Stôd-yast. But from this we must deduct Yas. XIX-XXI which are the first three fargards of the Bakŏ Nask, Yas. LII which is an interpolation, and Yas. LVI, LVII which are the Srôsh Yasts, lesser and greater; we must also consider the Yasna Haptanghâiti as a single section, in accordance with its treatment in Bk. IX, Chaps. XII, XXXV, LVII; and much of the Vîspêrad may not belong to the primitive text mentioned in § 3. Making these necessary deductions we have exactly thirty-three has of the Yasna left for the Stôd-yast, as stated in the Rivâyats.

169:2 This word can also be read fravistârîh (Av. fra + vid), 'interpretation,' or frôstârîh, 'handing down.'

170:1 The Ahunavair begins with the words yathâ ahû vairyô. The word ahû, in the MS., is written ahî as usual in Irân.

170:2 Assuming that barâ stands for bûn.

170:3 The first Gâtha, or sacred hymn, begins with the words ahyâ yâsâ nemanghâ (Yas. XXVIII, 1 a). There is, of course, no connection but that of sound between ahû, 'a spiritual lord,' and ahyâ, 'of this;' nor is there any other between the concluding words vâstârem, 'a protector,' and vahyô, 'better,' though the phrases in which these latter occur are of a very similar character, which fully justifies the comparison made in the text.

170:4 The Ahunavair ends with the words yim drigubyô dadad vâstârem.

170:5 The last Gâtha ends with the words yâ erezhegyôi dâhî drigaovê vahyô (Yas. LIII, 9 d).

170:6 The Gâthas apparently.

170:7 Or avar-gâstân, 'disseminations.'

170:8 The Vîspêrad service consists of the Yasna ritual with certain additional passages intermixed, which passages are called the Vîspêrad because the earlier ones invoke 'all the chiefs' (vîspê ratavô, Visp. II, 3) of creation.

170:9 Possibly Yas. LV.

171:1 Probably referring to Yas. XIV and LVIII.

Next: Chapter I