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Pahlavi Texts, Part IV (SBE37), E.W. West, tr. [1892], at


1. Of the three divisions of the Hâdôkht 3, as it exists in its 133 sections, the first is of thirteen 4 sections, and contains particulars about the nature of the recital of the Ahunavair 5, which is the spiritual benefit from chanting it aloud, and whatever is on the same subject 6. 2. Advice about selecting and

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keeping a spiritual and worldly high-priest, performing every duty as to the high-priest, and maintaining even those of various high-priests.

3. About the twenty-one chieftainships, spiritually through Aûharmazd and materially through Zaratûst, through which the ceremonial of the sacred beings and the government of the members of the community (dâhmânŏ râyînîdârîh) exist. 4. About the duties in the five periods 1 of the day and night, each separately, and the bridge-judgment of him who shouts out 2 in the ceremony of a season-festival 3; likewise of him who does not provide the preparations for the feast of a season-festival, and who also becomes worried (sûdakŏ) in other ceremonials of the sacred beings.

5. About how to consider and what to do with a sacerdotal leader and a man of the superior classes (pîsakîkânŏ), him who atones for unimportant sin, and him who does not atone even for that which is important; and whatever is on the same subject. 6. About the means through which membership of the community (dâhmîh) is prepared. 7. About the manifestation of virtuous manhood, and the merit and advantage from well uttering the words of blessing at eating and drinking food and drink, and from despising the inward talk of the demons.

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[paragraph continues] 8. About the recitations at the five periods of the day, the ceremonial invocation by name of many angels in each separately, and great information on the same subject.

9. The worthiness of a man restrained (vandak) by authority, the devotion of life and body to the sacred beings, the good rulers, and their examination and satisfaction; also the blessing and winning words which are most successful in carrying off the affliction that is owing to the fiend. 10. About all-pleasing creativeness and omniscience, every precedence 1, leadership, foresight 2, worthy liberality, perspicacity (vênâkîh), and all proper cause and effect of righteousness; the individuality (khûdîh) of righteousness, the opposition to the demons of Aûharmazd's law, and also much other information in the same section.

11. The middle division is of 102 sections containing particulars about spiritual and worldly diligence, the leadership of the diligent and their mighty means, all the former deeds of righteousness. 12. Righteousness kindling the resolution is the reward of merit, each for each, and is provided by it for that which one mentions thus:—'It is the Hâdôkht which is the maintenance of righteousness, so that it may make righteousness more abiding in the body of a man.'

13. The last division is of nineteen sections containing a trusty remedy, that is, a remedy whose utterance aloud by the faithful is a chief resource (afzârtûm) for the creatures of the sacred beings.

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[paragraph continues] 14. Also the nature of sayings full of humility (pûrpâstîh), well-favoured, most select, and adapted for that which one mentions thus:—'I reverence that chief, the beneficent and eminent Hâdôkht, out of which is the sustainment of the strength of every word of Zaratûst they trust in.'

15. It is perfect excellence that is righteousness.


166:3 Corresponding to the twentieth word, dadad, in the Ahunavair, according to B. P. Riv.; but it is the twenty-first, and last, Nask in other Rivâyats. Its name occurs in the Avesta, in the form hadhaokhta, and it is called Hâdukht in the Rivâyats, which also state that it contained thirty kardah, or fargards, which differs considerably from the number stated in this chapter. Yts. XXI, XXII are traditionally supposed to belong to the Hâdôkht, but there is hardly a trace of either of them in this chapter. Yt. XI is also distinguished by the same title.

166:4 As the total of the 13 + 102 + 19 sections (mentioned in §§ 1, 11, 13) is 134, instead of 133, there must be an error in one of the four numbers given in the MS. This clerical error can hardly have been made in writing 19, and is unlikely in 102; but 133 may possibly stand for an original 134, though the writing of 13 instead of 12 is more probable. The Rivâyats give no assistance in settling this question, as they all divide this Nask into 30 kardah. On the whole, it will be safest to read 'twelve,' instead of 'thirteen,' until some better authority becomes available.

166:5 Compare Yt. XI, 3.

166:6 It is just possible that this may refer to Yt. XXI which, though specially alluding to the recitation of the Ashem-vohû, or praise of p. 167 righteousness, also mentions that of the Ahunavair in its § 4. With regard, however, to Yt. XXII, there seems no possibility of identifying its text with any portion of the Hâdôkht Nask as described in this chapter.

167:1 See Chap. XXIX, 9.

167:2 Reading barâ drâyêdŏ, but it may be barâ girâyêdŏ, 'is zealous.'

167:3 See Chap. VII, 1.

168:1 Assuming that pesâgîh stands for pêsagîh.

168:2 Assuming that pes vônâkîh stands for pês vênâkîh.

Next: Chapter XLVI