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Pahlavi Texts, Part IV (SBE37), E.W. West, tr. [1892], at


1. The Spend 2 contains particulars about the origin and combination of the material existence, guardian spirit, and soul (nisman) of Zaratûst; how the creation of each one occurred in the spiritual existence, and in what mode it was produced for the worldly existence; how their connection with the parents arose, the coming of the parents together, the combination in the mother, and the birth from the mother; and whatever is on the same subject. 2. Also about the arrival of both spirits, the good one for developing, and the evil one for destroying; the victory of the good spirit, and the rearing of Zaratûst.

3. His attainment on maturity, at thirty years of age, to a conference with Aûharmazd; and the

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occurrence of seven conferences in ten years. 4. Many marvels, owing to him, are published therein, just as there are some which, collected and selected, are noticed by the Dinkard manuscript 1.

5. In seven sections (burînŏ), such as are called Spend, are the seven enquiries, in each instance a single enquiry; and the bestowal of the other Nasks, in these seven enquiries, was through speaking out in each one of the places of conference. 6. About the various enquiries, the period of the sitting and rising on each occasion, the nature of the sitting of the archangels, the coming forward of Zaratûst to that domestic conclave (handêmânîh), his position in that place, what there was to say to him, and what there was to exhibit to him.

7. The conferring of the wisdom of omniscience upon Zaratûst, and what was seen by Zaratûst of the past and future, and the perpetual amount of duration therein, through that wisdom 2. 8. The existence of that wisdom, and what that is which, after having subsisted in it, is again well recognised; such as, owing to it, are the highest and best of places, heaven and the various grades of position and reward of the righteous, according to their worthiness through the practice of good works; the most downward and worst of places, hell and the place of punishment of the wicked, according to their sin; and, between the two, the place of the ever-stationary, those having equal good works and

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sin; the Kînvad bridge 1, at which is the account as to good works and sin; and the future existence, in which is the consummation of every one, righteous and wicked, and the preservation of all good creations from every evil occurs.

9. Information also as to many other things which are marvellous, and as to a summary of the statements of these seven enquiries, which is derived from knowledge of every kind. 10. Likewise, about the communication of Zaratûst's knowledge of the Mazda-worshipping religion to the world, his attracting mankind to the religion, and the ages, after Zaratûst, until the renovation of the universe. 11. And about the nature of the advancement of the people of the period, the separation of centuries and millenniums, and the signs, wonders, and perplexity which are manifested in the world at the end of each millennium in the world.

12. Also as to the birth and arrival of Aûshêdar 2, son of Zaratûst, at the end of the first millennium 3, and a report of him and his time, and of the many destroyers of the organizers of the period between Zaratûst's millennium and the coming of Aûshêdar 4.

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[paragraph continues] 13. The arrival of Aûshêdar-mâh 1, son of Zaratûst, at the end of the second millennium; information about him and his time, and the destroyers of the organizers who were within the millennium of Aûshêdar. 14. The coming and arrival of Sôshâns 2, son of Zaratûst, at the end of the third millennium, the destroyers of the organizers who were within the millennium of Aûshêdar-mâh, the arrival of Sôshâns, and information about Sôshâns and his time. 15. Also, as to the renovation of the universe and the future existence, it is declared that they arise in his time.

16. Perfect is the excellence of righteousness.


31:2 Corresponding to the thirteenth word, angheus, in the Ahunavair, according to B. P. Riv.; and it is the thirteenth Nask in all Rivâyats. Spend means 'beneficent, or bounteous,' and is written Sfend, or Spentah, in the Rivâyats, which also state that it contained sixty kardah, or subdivisions.

32:1 In its seventh book which contains a full account of the birth and much of the life of Zaratûst, with a narrative of future events, all derived, no doubt, from the Spend Nask. Particulars connected with his birth will also be found in Bk. IX, Chap. XXIV.

32:2 See Byt. II, 5-9.

33:1 Av. kinvatô peretus, the route to the other world (see Bk. IX, Chap. XX, 3).

33:2 Commonly written Hûshêdar, but it is a corruption of Av. Ukhshyad-ereta. He is the first of the three posthumous sons of Zaratûst, who were expected to restore his religion and make it triumphant by three successive efforts, each preceded by a period of anarchy (see Bd. XXXII, 8, Byt. III 13, 43-50).

33:3 The millennium of Zaratûst, which, according to the chronology of the Bundahis, must have ended during the period A.D. 593-635 (see Byt. III, 11 n).

33:4 The occurrence of such an interval between the first millennium and the coming of Aûshêdar seems inconsistent with the previous p. 34 statement as to his arrival at the end of that millennium, but, from Byt. III, 44, it appears probable that he was expected to come in the 600th year of the next millennium (A.D. 1193-1235).

34:1 Commonly written Hûshêdar-mâh, but it is a corruption of Av. Ukhshyad-nemangh. He is the second of the expected posthumous sons (see Byt. III, 52, 53).

34:2 Av. Saoshyãs; the last of the posthumous sons, who is expected to complete the triumph of the religion, and prepare for the renovation of the universe (see Bd. XXX, 4, 7, 25, 27, Byt. III, 62).

Next: Chapter XV