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Pahlavi Texts, Part IV (SBE37), E.W. West, tr. [1892], at


1. The Kitradâd 2 contains particulars about the race of mankind; how the formation of the first

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man, Gâyômard 1, by Aûharmazd was for the manifestation of the bodily form (kerpîh); and in what manner the first couple, Mashya and Mashyôî 2, arose. 2. About their progeny and lineage during the entire progress of mankind in the central region of Khvanîras 3, and the distribution from them into the six 4 regions which are around Khvanîras. 3. The various races, which are specially enumerated, were ordered to disperse by the attracting or banishing command of the creator, to each separate race, as to the place where it went to; and whose life and soul (nisman) are appointed from yonder world. 4. Also the original description of their descent into the various regions, of those, too, who are on the frontiers of Khvanîras, and those who also made their habitation in the intermediate places; and the customs of each one of the species of mankind which was produced among the original races.

5. The original establishment of law and custom; that of village superintendence (dihânkânîh) 5, for the cultivation and nourishment of the world, based upon the traditional early law (vâsarîdsdŏ); and that of monarchy, for the protection and government

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of the creatures, upon Hôshâng the Pêsdian 1. 6. A report of the lineage of Hôshâng, who was the first, and Tâkhmô-rupô 2 who was the second ruler of the seven regions; and an enumeration of reports of lineage from the original creation even unto Yim 3. 7. A report of the lineage of Yim, the third ruler of the seven regions; information as to his period, and the progress (sakisnŏ) of time from the original creation till the end of the reign of Yim.

8. A report of the ill-informed evil ruler of the seven regions, Dahâk 4; his lineage back to Tâz 5, the brother of Hôshâng and father of the Tâzîks (Arabs); information as to him and his period, the progress of time from the end of the good reign of Yim till the end of the evil reign of Dahâk, and the lineage from Yim as far as Frêdûn 6.

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9. A report of Frêdûn, the ruler of Khvanîras; as to the smiting of Dahâk, the conquering of the country of Mâzendarân 1, and the allotment of Khvanîras among his three sons, Salm, Tûg, and Aîrîk 2; their union with the daughters of Pât-srôbô 3, and the king of the Arabs and descendant lineage and report of them, each separately. 10. The reign of Mânûskîhar of Irân, descendant (nâpŏ) of Aîrîk. 11. The expiating 4 monarch Frâsîyâv of Tûrân, and Aûzôbŏ 5 the Tûmâspian, monarch of Irân.

12. The descendant of Mânûskîhar, Kavî-Kavâd, who was progenitor of the Kayâns and ruler of Irân; and the expiating ruler Keresâsp 6. 13. Kâî-Ûs, grandson 7 of Kavâd, ruler and maintainer of royalty (kaî-dânŏ) in the seven regions. 14. Kaî-Khûsrôî who was son of Sîyâvakhsh 8 and ruler of

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[paragraph continues] Khvanîras. 15. And a special report of many particulars of the races of Irân, Tûrân, and Salmân 1, even unto the ruler Kaî-Lôharâsp 2 and the monarch Kaî-Vistâsp 3. 16. The prophet (vakhshvar) of the Mazda-worshipping religion, Zaratûst the Spîtâmân, and the progress of time from the beginning of the reign of Frêdûn till the coming of Zaratûst to conference with Aûharmazd 4.

17. And many races and statements, onwards from that time, are enumerated in the same Nask as having existed, and are characterized by it for existence, such as the Sasanians—whom it reckons as the well-created—and their sovereignty. 18. In the race of Mânûskîhar, Nôdar 5, Yôskŏ Fryânŏ 6, and

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[paragraph continues] Namûn, son of Spend-shêd 1, is included the father of Avarethraba2, Âtûr-pâd son of Mâraspend; and its existence, even then, remains for the future. 19. Also about the many qualities of capability and glory of the selfsame sovereignty, which are promoting the renovation of the universe destined for the races; and its fortune and splendour which are shed upon the race, and are not severed from it till the renovation 3.

20. About the original knowledge of the professions, care, and industry of the period; the great acquaintance of mankind with the putting aside of injury from the adversary, the preservation of the body, and the deliverance of the soul; the government

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necessary for the world, even before the coming of Zaratûst by order of the creator; the bringing of the word 1 from the sacred beings, and all occurrences to the leaders of religion at various times; and whatever is on the same subjects.

21. Perfect righteousness is excellence.


25:2 Corresponding to the twelfth word, shyaothananãm, in the Ahunavair, according to B. P. Riv.; but it is the fourteenth Nask in other Rivâyats. Kitradâd means 'the races produced,' a name of the same form as Dâmdâd, but it is read Kîdrast, Kirast, or Girast in the Rivâyats, which also state that it contained twenty-two kardah, or subdivisions.

26:1 The original human being who was created as the source whence mankind were to spring, in the same way as 'the sole-created ox' was to be the origin of all other animals (see Bd. III, 14, 17, 19-23, IV, r, XV, I, 31).

26:2 Literally 'man and woman,' here written masyê va-masyâôî. The mode of their origin from Gâyômard and the development of man upon the earth are detailed in Bd. XV.

26:3 See Chap. VIII, 2.

26:4 The MS. has 'seven' by mistake.

26:5 A more probable reading than gehânakânîh in the sense of 'colonization.'

27:1 This 'Hôshâng of the early law,' Av. Haoshyanghô paradhâtô, is considered to have been the great-grandson of Mashya and first monarch of the world, being the founder of the Pêsdian dynasty (see Bd. XV, 28, XXXI, I, XXXIV, 3, 4).

27:2 Here written Tâkhmô-rîpô, Av. Takhmô-urupa; the great-grandson and successor of Hôshâng (see Bd. XXXI, 2, 3, XXXI V, 4).

27:3 Av. Yimô khshaêtô, the Gamshêd of the Shâhnâmah; the brother and successor of Tâkhmô-rupô (see Bd. XXXI, 3-5 XXXIV, 4).

27:4 Also called Az-î Dahâk, Av. azis dahâkô, 'destructive serpent,' a name applied to a foreign dynasty, considered as a single king who conquered Yim and succeeded him, being traditionally his third cousin once removed (see Bd. XXXI, 5, 6, XXXIV, 5). Further details are given in Bk. IX, Chap. XXI, 1-13. Dahâk was the last ruler of all the seven regions, excepting Kâî-Ûs.

27:5 See Bd. XV, 26-28.

27:6 Av. Thraêtaonô, son of Athwyô, and, traditionally, the ninth in descent from Yim (see Bd. XXXI, 7, 8); nine generations being assumed necessary to allow for the thousand years’ reign of the Dahâk dynasty which he put an end to. His rule was confined to the central region of Khvanîras.

28:1 The land on the southern coast of the Caspian belonging to the Mâzainya daêva (demons, or idolators) of the Avesta.

28:2 The last of whom was slain by his brothers, and was avenged by his descendant Mânûskîhar (see Bd. XXXI, 9-I2).

28:3 Possibly the celebrated individual of that name who is mentioned, in Pahl. Vend. XX, 4, as an instance of opulence. The Shâhnâmah speaks only of the three daughters of the king of Yaman.

28:4 Or 'plundering;' but Tûg-hômônd here, and Tûgâvand in § 12, may perhaps mean 'descended from Tûg,' as Frâsîyâv was the sixth in descent from Tûg (see Bd. XXXI, 14).

28:5 Said to have been a great-grandson of Mânûskîhar (see Bd. XXXI, 23).

28:6 Probably the hero who was sixth in descent from Tûg, and third cousin of Frâsîyâv (see Bk. IX, Chap. XV; Bd. 26, 27); though placed by Firdausî as a king Garshâsp preceding Kaî-Qubâd.

28:7 As appears from Bd. XXXI, 25.

28:8 The son of Kâî-Ûs, who did not become king.

29:1 The people of the Airya, Tûirya, and Sairima provinces, mentioned in Yt. XIII, 143.

29:2 Fifth in descent from Kavî-Kavâd, and third cousin once removed of his predecessor Kaî-Khûsrôî (see Bd. XXXI, 25, 28).

29:3 Son of Kaî-Lôharâsp (see Bd. XXXI, 29).

29:4 The historical legends contained in the Avesta end with the sons of king Vistâsp, and other contemporaries of Zaratûst; not a word being said of any succeeding monarch. Similarly, Bd. XXXI and this historical Nask fail to carry on the details of the royal line beyond Vistâsp; ignoring the Achæmenians, Alexander, and the Askânians, they leap over an evident gap in history (very insufficiently bridged in the more modern chapter, Bd. XXXIV) to the Sasanians. This gap, between Avesta legends and the later undoubted Persian history, is a very weak point in the continuity of the two periods. And as the mode of bridging over this gap in Bd. XXXIV occurs in a chapter 'on the computation of years of the Arabs' (see S.B.E. vol. v, p. xxxvii) it must be considered as more of an Arab than a Persian contribution to history.

29:5 Av. Naotara; a son of Mânûskîhar (see Bd. XXXI, 13, 23, XXX III, 5).

29:6 Doubtful; if the second name be a patronymic, the combination suggests the Yôistô yô Fryânanãm of Yt. V, 8,, XIII, 120, regarding whom the tale of Yôst-î Fryânŏ is told. No son of p. 30dar with a corresponding name is known, so that we are not dealing with a complete pedigree.

30:1 Probably intended for Spend-dad, and we should perhaps read 'Vohûmanô, son of Spend-dâd,' whose reign is celebrated as the silver age in Byt. II, 17 (see also Bd. XXXI, 29, XXXIV, 8).

30:2 This name, or surname, is given in Pâzand, and is also to be found in Yt. XIII, 106, as follows: 'we reverence the guardian spirit of the righteous Avarethrabau, son of Râstare-vaghant.' If the latter epithet were a surname of Âtûr-pâd, the famous prime minister of Shahpûhar II, as the text intimates, we must conclude that the former epithet was a surname of his only son, Zaratûst, mentioned in his Pandnâmak. These surnames, and others of their time, might have been easily interpolated in the long list of uncouth names included in the Fravardîn Yast, when the Avesta books were revised during the reign of Shahpûhar II, and the Nasks were 'reckoned,' as stated in the fourth book of the Dinkard (see Haug's Essay on Pahlavi, pp. 146, 152).

30:3 §§ 17-19 refer to text which must have been written either in the time of Shahpûhar II, or at some later period during Sasanian rule. Whereas §§ 1-16 are descriptive of an older record which, though consistent with the extant Avesta texts, could not have been compiled from them alone. And § 20 describes text that might have been written at any time.

31:1 Reading vakhsh in the same Avesta sense as in vakhshvar, 'a prophet;' it may, however, mean 'gain, fortune, gifts.' A similarly-written word, vâyâ, 'air, breath,' is used in Sg. XIII, 7 to translate the 'Spirit' of God in Gen. i. 2.

Next: Chapter XIV