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Pahlavi Texts, Part V: Marvels of Zoroastrianism (SBE47), E.W. West, tr. [1897], at


1. In the pure light and equal to the archangels—collected together and reckoned together, since the original creation, and completely unmixed—Zaratûst was spiritually fashioned and provided undefectively for the acceptance and propagation of the religion in the world 1. 2. And when he is sent for the manifestation of restrained saintliness (môkîh) and bodily substance, great glory and radiance become as much discernible in him as the same had come into the posterity of Yim who are Pôrûshâspô 2, his father, and Dûkdâûb 3 who is his mother; and also while he is being born and for the duration of life, he produced a radiance, glow, and brilliance from the place of his own abode, that issued intensely and strongly, like the splendour of fire, to distant lands 4.

3. Also about the wizards and witches, tyrants, Kîgs, and Karaps, and other miscreants who have produced outrage for him during his birth and child-hood, with desire for his destruction; who have manifestly come about his death or disablement, and even so far as those who have come into the visible assembly about the destruction of his glory and other causes of helplessness 5. 4. And also including the wolves and other wild beasts, to whom he was

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cast forth by those of Pôrûshâspô's kinsmen who were wizards, and the kindred of those frequenting demon-worship, but only as a test 1.

5. In like manner it is declared that, on account of Vohûmanô being welcome to him, he laughed out-right at birth 2. 6. His coming for conference with Aûharmazd 3, and owing to his accepting the religion, Aharman and many demons and fiends have come to him with exhibition of fear, offering of service, and the argument and entreaty of supplicants; and all these have returned from him disapprovingly, defeatedly, and confusedly, through the pure proclamation of his Avesta, the unique perfection of Aûharmazd's will 4, and the indication of a prepared armament (vîrâstŏ-zênîh), a declared reward, a powerful sovereignty, and a way of injury to the destroyer.

7. Also the triumph of the sacred beings in the end, and the peculiarity of the joint control of the demons; how, before that, they rushed openly into the world and have dwindled, their bodily forms are shattered 5, and they are so converted into secret decay, that their supplicants, deceived and deceivers, became awful disputants through confession of it.

8. And when, through completely accepting the religion from Aûharmazd, he came to the obedient king Kaî-Vistâsp to attract those of the world, he exhibited glorious actions of many kinds and the

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smiting of demons and fiends; and he openly spoke the thoughts of king Vistâsp and many of the multitude about hidden matters 1, thus: 'A person is possessing life only by destiny, and without his body, but with a like destiny, the person possessing life is restored;' he was also opposing many wizards, demon-worshippers, demon-consulters, and those seduced by 2 deceivers who are awful disputants. 9. And this was the utterance of those twelve stars whose names are those of the twelve zodiacal constellations, and the primitive learned of Bâpêl 3, that have come to these, who are asking questions of the chief rulers of Khvanîras, have to justify it, in the controversy, with the spiritual and material customs and rude observances which are diversely manifested, onwards from the time of Yim the splendid; and the evidence of it, discernible with him, was that of Vohûmanô, Ashavahistô, the fire, and some other good spirits 4.

10. Afterwards, too, the estimating and weighing of the whole utterance of the religion of Aûharmazd were held out by him to Vistâsp and those of the world, as very accountably a wonder; and further, too, he remained as it were more conflicting with fellow-disputants than his own words opposing the fellow-disputants.

11. Also when, through the effect of glory and the struggle for being saved, every class of apostles and prophets and manifestation of tokens and such-like were, with certain and striking evidence, casting down blessings, even thereupon the obedient king

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[paragraph continues] Kaî-Vistâsp's fear of the adversary of religion, and also other causes, arose, on account of which he was then accepting the propagation of the religion 1, when its great glory and beauty 2 were seen by him. 12. At first, Zarîr 3, Spend-dâd 4, Frashôstar, and Gâmâsp 5, several of the realm who were noble, conspicuous, and well-acting, the good and princes of mankind, beheld visibly the will and desirableness of Aûharmazd and the archangels, and the progressive religion of the creatures, fit for those completely victorious (hûkîragânîg).

13. Lastly, the seizure and capturing (gîrinisnŏ) by the demons are beheld and watched; and they have remained opposing, owing to the number of idolators competing wranglingly. 14. And much conflict and slaughter occurred, which arose purely, so that the mingling of the religion in the world proceeded 6.

15. There are also his pure new bringers and complete controllers of the same religion, Aûshêdar 7, Aûshêdar-mâh 8, and Sôshâns 9; and through the complete progress of this religion of Aûharmazd, all the good creatures become without disturbance and all-radiant 10.


122:1 Dk. VII, ii, 1, 2, 14-21, 36-42, 46, 47; Zs. XIII, 4.

122:2 Ibid. 13.

122:3 Ibid. 3-8; Zs. XIII, 1-3.

122:4 Ibid. 56-58; Zs. XIV, 7.

122:5 Dk. VII, 5-14; Zs. XVI, 1-7.

123:1 Dk. VII, 15-19; Zs. XVI, 8-11.

123:2 Ibid. 2; Zs. XIV, 12, 13.

123:3 Ibid. 60-iv, 1; Zs. XXI, 11-XXII, 13.

123:4 Dk. VII, iv, 36-41, 61, 62.

123:5 Ibid. 42. 44-46, 63.

124:1 Dk. VII, iv, 65, 71.

124:2 B has 'and demon-separatists (va-shêdâ-gvîdakân).'

124:3 Dk. VII, iv, 72.

124:4 Ibid. 74, 85; Zs. XXIII, 7.

125:1 Dk. VII, iv, 87.

125:2 K43 has varâzŏ; but B, omitting the first letter, has lâfô, 'praise.'

125:3 A brother and commander-in-chief of Vistâsp, killed in the battle with Argâsp, see Bd. XXXI, 29; YZ. 54-56.

125:4 A son of Vistâsp; see Dk. VII, vii, 5; YZ. 82-85.

125:5 Two brothers, see Chap. III, 4; Dk. VII, vi, 12; Zs. XXIII, 10.

125:6 See Chap. III, 1.

125:7 Dk. VII, viii, 55-ix, 13.

125:8 Dk. VII, ix, 18-x, 10.

125:9 Dk. VII, x, 15-xi, 5.

125:10 Dk. VII, xi, 6-11.

Next: Chapter III