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Pahlavi Texts, Part V: Marvels of Zoroastrianism (SBE47), E.W. West, tr. [1897], at


1. About the marvellousness which is after the end of the millennium of Aûshêdar and the arrival of Aûshêdar-mâh, until the end of the millennium of Aûshêdar-mâh and the arrival of Sôshâns; and as to tidings of the same period.

2. The marvellousness of Aûshêdar-mâh as to birth 1, glory of person, sayings, and actions; the standing of the sun amid the sky twenty days long 2; and the increase of the milk of cattle arrives at a maximum (avartûm), just as what it says, that one milks only one mature cow (tôrâ az) for a thousand men, and that he brings as much milk as a thousand men require; also the feebleness of

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hunger and thirst is just as it says, that by only a single ration one becomes satisfied for three nights, and whoever eats a leg of mutton has plenty for himself for three days and nights. 3. The diminution of decay and extension (vêshîh) of life, the increase of humility and peace, and the perfection of liberality and enjoyment in the world.

4. Like this which revelation states, that, when the first ten winters in the last millennium pass away, the Mazda-worshippers then make enquiry together thus: 'Are we really more hairy-headed (sar-vars-ik-tar) than occurred before, owing to the well-yielding cattle, so that food and clothing are less necessary for us? Has affection come to us more completely, owing to those cattle, than it was ours before? Have we grown up less deteriorated in the hair, by old age, than those grown up before? Are the thoughts, words, and deeds of our women and children more instructed than they were before? 5. And has this thing occurred, that he is classed as disqualified who in training a child has become quite retrogressive (pas-ûruzd), and is his penalty arranged? Does the fiend think of the Karap class, and are they utterly destroyed by her through those whose thoughts are most evil, devoid of righteousness, and devoid of a liking for righteousness? 6. Near here, in the disturbance of the existences, does that happen as heard by us from the ancients, when listening to the true proclaimers of the Mazda-worshippers? And now, even when our numbers are so greatly maintaining this dispensation, do we sanctify (aharâyînem) righteousness (that is, do we perform duty and good works) more vociferously and more strenuously?'

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7. This, too, it says, even that no one passes away in the last millennium, other than those whom they smite with a scaffold weapon 1, and those who pass away from old age. 8. When fifty-three years of that millennium of his have remained, the sweetness and oiliness in milk and vegetables are so completed that, on account of the freedom of mankind from wanting meat, they shall leave off the eating of meat, and their food becomes milk and vegetables. 9. When three years have remained, they shall leave off even the drinking of milk, and their food and drink become water and vegetables.

10. And in his millennium are the breaking (lânakŏ) of the fetters of Dahâk 2, the rousing of Kerêsâspô 3 for the smiting of Dahâk, the arrival of Kai-Khûsrô 4 and his companions for the assistance of Sôshâns in the production of the renovation of the universe, and the provision of most of mankind with the Gâthic disposition and law; also the occurrence of many other wonders and marvels is manifest in that millennium of his.

11. And this, too, it says, namely: 'When that millennium has fully elapsed, which is the second of the religion of the Mazda-worshippers, what is the separation after the first century?' 12. And Aûharmazd spoke thus: 'The sun conceals itself.' 13. 'And what is the separation after the second,

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third, fourth, fifth, sixth, seventh, eighth, ninth, or tenth century?' 14. And Aûharmazd spoke thus: 'The sun conceals itself.'

15. And when thirty winters of the tenth century are unelapsed, that maiden, who is Gôbâk-abû 1, walks up to the water; she that is the mother of that testifying Sôshâns who is the guide to conveying away the opposition of the destroyer, and her former lineage is from Vôhû-rôkô-î Frahânyân 2 in the family of Îsadvâstar, the son of Zaratûst that is brought forth by Arang. 16. 'That maiden whose title is All-overpowerer is thus all-overpowering, because through giving birth she brings forth him who over-powers all, both the affliction owing to demons, and also that owing to mankind 3.' 17. Then she sits in that water, when she is fifteen years old, and it introduces into the girl him 'whose name is the Triumphant Benefiter, and his title is the Body-maker; such a benefiter as benefits (savînêdŏ) the whole embodied existence, and such a body-maker, alike possessing body and possessing life, as petitions about the disturbance of the embodied existences and mankind 4.' 18. Not before that has she associated with men; nor yet afterwards, when she becomes pregnant, has she done so before the time when she gives birth 5.

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19. When that man becomes thirty years old, the sun stands still in the zenith of the sky for the duration of thirty days and nights, and it arrives again at that place where it was appointed by allotment.


112:1 See Chap. IX, 18-20.

112:2 See Chap. IX, 21.

114:1 Reading pavan dâr snesh, as in some modern copies; but the old MS. of 1659 has run the last two words together, so as to produce pavan dârêgûsh, 'as destitute,' which must be wrong.

114:2 For details see Byt. III, 55-57; Bd. XXIX, 9; Dd. XXXVII, 97; Dk. IX, xv, 2. It may be noticed that this release of the demoniacal tyrant is expected to follow the triumph of strict vegetarianism.

114:3 See further Byt. III, 59-61; Bd. XXIX, 7, 8.

114:4 See Mkh. XXVII, 59-63; LVII, 7; Dd. XXXVI, 3.

115:1 'Having a testifying father,' the Pahlavi of Av. Eredad-fedhri, Yt. XIII, 142.

115:2 See Chap. VIII, 55-57.

115:3 The Pahlavi version of Yt. XIII, 142, latter clause.

115:4 From the Pahlavi version of Yt. XIII, 129.

115:5 Compare the summary in Dk. VIII, xiv, 14, 15, as follows:—'The coming and arrival of Sôshâns, son of Zaratûst, at the end of the third millennium, the destroyers of the organizers who were within the millennium of Aûshêdar-mâh, the arrival of Sôshâns, p. 116 and information about Sôshâns and his time. Also, as to the renovation of the universe and the future existence, it is declared that they arise in his time.'

Next: Chapter XI