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Pahlavi Texts, Part V: Marvels of Zoroastrianism (SBE47), E.W. West, tr. [1897], at

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1. For the gratification of the creator Aûharmazd, even through the complete superiority of the Mazda-worshipping religion, adorned by omniscience, in the world.

2. The seventh book is about the marvellousness of the greatest reminder of the Mazda-worshipping religion, Zaratûs1 of the Spîtâmas; also of the mindfulness of that illustrious one by Aûharmazd, and of his religion, arisen through the word of Aûharmazd, being blessed among those of the region of king Vistâsp; from the Exposition of the Good Religion 2.

3. But, before that, there is purposely written whatever was the progress of the character and effect of the good religion and its first acceptor in the spiritual and worldly existences; and, after that,

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the prophets, apostles, and upholders in the period as far as Zaratûst, whose guardian spirit is reverenced, and their religion, which is this, due to the utterance and splendour with which they have been blessed with prophecy among mankind 1.

4. According to the Mazda-worshipping religion and the Exposition of the Good Religion, it is the nature of Aûharmazd's disposition and his knowledge as to the complete obtainment of the first creature, the archangel Vohûmanô, and the first progress spiritually among the archangels and the other sacred beings of the spiritual and worldly existences, and materially in Gâyômard, the first man, through concurrent and complete acceptance from the creator Aûharmazd, and the needful atonement in his own period through meditation, and the smiting thereby of the fiend of that period and the opposition thereof, by thinking of the creator's teaching, that constitute the whole of that first utterance 2 of the religion of Aûharmazd.

5. According to the declaration of the good religion about the production of existence, which is the praise of him who was the causer of existence and creator, the beneficent spirit, the first craving among mankind was this, that 'we be happy and be the creation of Aûharmazd;' and the last, as regards the preservation of a remedy for mankind, is this, that 'the best is this, that the formation of lives be perfect now, though rendered sickly by him; and the spiritual existences of mankind be so now, though the destroyer has come to the creatures.' 6. For 

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human beings of the lineage of Gâyômard this is the one thing good, when they shall perform their duty and good works; and one's work is to smite one's own opposing fiend; an instance presentable to any of the lineage, that it is important for every one of you to smite his own opposing fiend, is the freedom from molestation which occurs thereby, and the non-contamination of the creatures by the destroyer; and it is that effect which the creator of creation has produced for it.

7. And this, too, is declared by the good religion, that through a true-spoken statement Gâyômard attained to the good spiritual lordship 1 of the archangels (that is, he was fit for the supreme heaven 2). 8. And after Gâyômard, at various periods until the ever-favouring 3 Zaratûst of the Spîtâmas, whose guardian spirit is reverenced; much also was his acquaintance with knowledge, and his work was the preservation of the mankind of that time in which he came into notice; moreover he became requisite for conference with the creator; and because of their superior carrying on of destiny 4, by command of the

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creator, it is declared in the good religion, that the combined titles of prophet (vakhshvar), acceptor, and promoter are enumerated of them.

9. As Gâyômard passed away, it 1 came to Masyê and Masyâôî 2, the second of worldly beings who were the progeny of Gâyômard, the first; and it is declared, by the word of Aûharmazd, that he spoke to them, when they had been produced by him, thus: 'You are the men I produce, you are the parents of the parents of all embodied existence; and so do you men not worship the demons, for the possession of complete mindfulness is the best thing produced by me for you, so that you may fully observe duty and ordinances with complete mindfulness.' 10. And the bountifulness of Aûharmazd was extolled by them, and they went on with their own duty; they also performed the will of the creator, enjoyed the advantage of the many duties of the world, and practised next-of-kin marriage for procreation, union, and the complete progress of the creations in the world, which are the best good works of mankind. 11. The creator showed them the sowing of corn, as declared in the words of Aûharmazd thus: 'This is thine, O Masyê! which is an ox; thine, too, is this corn; and thine those other appliances; henceforth thou shouldst know them well.'

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12. This, too, is declared by the good religion, that Aûharmazd spoke to Hadish 1, one of the sacred beings thoroughly worthy through righteousness, thus: 'O Hadish, who art thoroughly worthy through righteousness! thou shouldst proceed to Masyê and Masyâôî, thou shouldst procure thy 2 corn and bread from Masyê, and Masyâôî, and shouldst bless theirs thus: "This corn comes up owing to you, and, as it came unto you from Aûharmazd and the archangels, may the corn extend from you unto your descendants without disturbance from the demons;" and two Ahunavairs 3 are to be recited for the staying away of the demon and fiend.' 13. And Hadish, the thoroughly worthy through righteousness, went to Masyê and Masyâôî, and he procured his corn and bread from Masyê and Masyâôî, and it was given by them; he also blessed them thus: 'May this corn come up from you, as from the archangels! as it came unto you from Aûharmazd and the archangels, may it extend from you unto your descendants, without disturbance from the demons;' and two Ahunavairs were recited by him, for the staying away of the demon and fiend.

14. And, owing to the explanation of the sacred beings, Masyê and Masyâôî attained also to the manufacture of clothing, the tending of sheep, house-building, and primitive carpentry, the agriculture and husbandry of the ancients, and the memory of their original state; and these proceeded from them through their lineage, presenting an example and

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spreading in the world, to artificers among the plenitude of artificers.

15. And after that, the destiny to be carried on came to Sâmak 1, who was their son, and the descent of their collateral descendants was on to each region and each quarter of the world, to that extent which the creator chose for that region and quarter; and thereby there was a completion of the progress and spreading of mankind into the various regions and quarters.

16. At another time it came to Vâêgered and Hôshâng 2 of the early law (pês-dâd), for providing in the world the law of husbandry, or cultivation of the world, and of sovereignty or protection of the world. 17. And through their companionship and united force, given by religion, the sovereignty and cultivation of the world were prepared through progress and a succession of provisions of Aûharmazd's creatures, as well as the religion appointed by Aûharmazd. 18. And through that glory of destiny (gadâ) two-thirds of the demons of Mâzanô 3 and the seven evil-instructed ones 4 of Aêshm were destroyed by Hôshâng.

19. After that it came to Tâkhmôrup 5 the well-armed, and through that glory the demon and evil mankind, the wizard and witch, were smitten by him; idolatry was also cast out by him, and he propagated in his time the reverence and service of the creator; the evil spirit, converted into the shape of a horse, was also carrying him for thirty winters.

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20. And it came, at another time, for the conference with Aûharmazd, to Yim 1 the splendid, the son of Vîvang,ha; and owing to his accepting the four classes of the religion, which are priesthood, warriorship, husbandry, and artisanship, there are the four classes which are priesthood, warriorship, husbandry, and artisanship, and thereby the world was improved, extended, and developed; he also rendered even the creatures, in a measure, immortal, undecaying, hungerless, thirstless, plentiful, and fully-settled. 21. And in the good religion 2 it is declared, by the word of the creator Aûharmazd to Yim, thus: 'Then do thou widen my world! (that is, make up its measure more), then do thou extend my world! (that is, make it up larger), and then thou shouldst accept from me the protection, nourishment, and chieftainship of the world; and do thou effect such watchfulness over it, that no one shall be able to occasion the wounding or injury of another.' 22. And this was accepted and done by Yim, as Aûharmazd commanded him; and through the same glory he widened the earth three-thirds larger than that which it was theretofore. 23. And, in that realm of his, the cattle and men of the realm were made immortal by him, and the other creations, water, vegetation, and the various foods, imperishable. 24. And this, too, is declared by the good religion, that the world was made by him like the supreme heaven in pleasantness; also the enclosure made by Yim, constructed by him according to all the commands of the creator 3, about guarding the creatures from perishing through the winter of

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[paragraph continues] Mahrkûs, and likewise many other wonders are reported by the good religion.

25. And it came, at another time, by command of the creator, to Frêdûn the Âspîgân 1 when he was in the pregnant womb, owing to the share of husbandry in the avocations of the religion, through allotment from the glory of Yim, and through its triumphant splendour. 26. And Frêdûn, through that triumphant splendour, became a responder to Dahâk 2 from the pregnant womb, and that degraded fiend was averted and paralysed by him; having come to nine years of age, he proceeded about his destruction, and through that victory Dahâk was smitten by him 3, the creatures were saved and relieved thereby, those of Mâzandar and Mâda were smitten, their ravage and mischief were removed from the region of Khvanîras, and the region of Khvanîras was preserved for his three sons. 27. And owing to his husbandry, which is the third avocation of the religion, pestilence and disease were disturbed by the medical treatment even of pestilence itself, and he exhibited to mankind also many other wonders produced and useful occupation for the world.

28. And, in the life-time of Frêdûn, the same destiny came to Aîrîk 4, son of Frêdûn, owing to introduction by the creator, and was diffused in him, and he practised humility; the life. 5 which is perfect is brought through a prayer from his father Frêdûn,

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and that life 1 came to him from the creator through the blessing of Frêdûn.

29. And it came, through his mother, to a descendant of Frêdûn and descendant of Aîrîk; it proceeded with the angel Nêryôsang to Mânûskîhar 2, and its entire progress was in the lineage of Aîrîk. 30. And it came to Mânûskîhar, the monarch of Irân, and through it many wonder-wrought actions were performed by him; he smote Salm and Tûg in revenge for Aîrîk 3, he was a responder to the superfluities of foreign countries, he arranged the realm of Irân, improved and fertilised the land of Irân, and made the country of Irân victorious over foreigners.

31. At another time it came to Aûzôbô, son of Tûmâsp 4, a descendant of Mânûskîhar the monarch of Irân; and, through that destiny and glory combined, the new-born came to mature activity and the proportions of a man during childhood, through agriculture; he disclosed his lamenting mother to the countries of Irân, he marched on to the destruction of foreigners, to drive out and make them outcast from the land of Irân; he also defeated the village-terrifier of the country of Irân, the wizard who frightened his father and fellow-immortals, Frangrâsîyâk of Tûr 5; and he developed and fertilised

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the country of Irân, and increased the many streams and cultivated lands in the country of Irân.

32. At another time it came to Kerêsâspô the Sâmân 1, owing to the share of warriorship which is the second avocation of the religion, through allotment from the glory of Yim 2; and, through it, the serpent Srôbŏvar which was swallowing horses and swallowing men, the golden-heeled demon Gandarepô, and much other production of adversity by the demon and the fiend—the murderess of the creatures—were destroyed by him.

33. At another time it came to Kai-Kobâd 3, the progenitor of the Kayâns; through it he arranged the realm of Irân, he united the sovereignty with himself in the Kayân race, and he thereby occasioned much splendour and actions of advantage to the creatures.

34. And it came to Pâtakhsrôbô 4 son of Aîryêfshvâ 5, son of Tâz, who was king of the Arabs, through the mindfulness of the archangel Ashavahistô, and his enquiry about it from its own tribe 6for the demon of greediness (âzŏ), with one similarly

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destined, had rushed for the destruction of him who was very gentle to that tribe 1as he had a full inclination for the ascendancy of the portion whose guidance to the lofty priestly master was owing to the archangel Ashavahistô, just as the fish image 2 of that other portion was for falling into the river; and it is declared that he came to the ceremonial of Zaratûst.

35. At another time it came to Kaî-Arsh and his brothers 3, the descendants of Kobâd; through it they have been all-experienced and powerful, heedful and performing wonders; and the eldest brother of them, Kaî-Ûs, seized upon the sovereignty of the seven regions, and became very illustrious and full of glory. 36. At the same time it came to Aôshnar 4 who became fully sagacious (pûr-zîr), owing to the glory of Yim, when he was in his mother's womb, and many wonders were taught by him to his mother, through speaking from the mother's womb; also at his birth he vanquished the maleficent spirit by uttering answers to the questions of the deadly Frâkîh the demon-worshipper. 37. He also attained to the chancellorship (farmâdârîh) of Kaî-Ûs, and became administrator (râyînîdâr) in his realm of the seven regions; the frontier speech (vîmand-gôbisnîh) was also explained and taught by him,

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and much other learning of advantage to mankind who are unaffected by the utterance of replies of a foreigner; he also advised the Irânian country with the best-instructed counsel.

38. And its coming to Kai-Sîyâvakhsh 1 the illustrious, through the wondrous-formed Kangdez being held by him for the retention of protection for the much splendour and suitable glory of the religion, from which the restoration of time, the re-arrangement of the realm of Irân, and the reunion of power and triumph with the religion of Aûharmazd are manifest.

39. It came to Kaî-Khûsrôî 2, son of Sîyâvakhsh, and through it he smote and vanquished Frangrâsîyâk 3 of Tûr, the wizard, and his fellow-miscreation Kêrsêvazd 4 of those of Vakgir 5, and many other very evil devastators of the world; he also joined in the destruction of that idol-temple which was on the shore of Lake Kêkast 6, and demolished that fiendishness which was awful. 40. On account of the desirableness of means for the renovation of the universe, he is also on a throne (namîkŏ), which is assuredly selected by that destiny, at a secret place where there is an immortal preserver for his body until the renovation, through the will of the creator.

41. And it came from him, after Zaratûst of the Spîtâmas came to the conference of the creator

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[paragraph continues] Aûharmazd, and accepted from the omniscient creator Aûharmazd unmixed freedom from pollution, the comprehensive and also recited acquaintance with the knowledge and work of priesthood, warriorship, husbandry, and artisanship, and the separate portions of the Mazda-worshipping revelation (dênô) brought to king Kaî-Vistâsp by command of the creator, illuminated by the great splendour in that supreme sovereign of the sacred beings; and propagated by the learned of the region, in thee regions which are seven, through the good eloquence which is owing to the succession of creatures until the renovation of the universe. 42. And through its production by those who will be his sons, Aûshêdar, Aûshêdar-mâh, and Sôshâns 1, the renovation in the existence of the creatures of Aûharmazd is immortal; and a more remindful statement of its splendour, glory, and marvellousness is a statement that is written and found below 2.

43. And there have also been others before Zaratûst, the prophet (vakhshvar) of desired fame in the Mazda-worshipping religion; for it is declared that, at times, some came from the spiritual beings to him who was more of a leader, and mankind have become as captivated by the solicitation and interrogation of that affair, as now by the solicitation and interrogation of the religion; the necessity for that period is not now necessary, because all mankind

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are made acquainted with the religion, and Zaratûst of the Spîtâmas, whose guardian spirit is righteous, is to be reverenced.

44. Now, that which is declared in the world is written, about the splendour, glory, and marvellousness of the prophet of the Mazda-worshipping religion, the best of creations, whose guardian spirit is reverenced, Zaratûst of the Spîtâmas; and ten chapters are published here, as to the information from the Avesta, and in benediction of the religion of Aûharmazd 1.

45. That of it which is before the birth of that glorious one from his mother in the present world.

46. That of it which is from the birth of that illustrious one onwards, till his coming to a conference with Aûharmazd.

47. That of it which is from the conference onwards, till his pre-eminence over prophecy in the world, and the acceptance of the religion by the exalted Kaî-Vistâsp.

48. That of it which is onwards from that, till the departure (vîkhêzŏ) of that pure soul to the existence which is best.

49. That of it which is also successively after that, in the reign of the obedient king Kaî-Vistâsp.

50. That of it which is after that, until the collapse (angâvisnŏ) of the sovereignty of Irân.

51. That of it which is also after that, until the end of the millennium of Zaratûst and the arrival of Aûshêdar.

52. That of it which is also after that, until the end of the millennium of Aûshêdar and the arrival of Aûshêdar-mâh.

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53. That of it which is also after that, until the end of the millennium of Aûshêdar-mâh and the arrival of Sôshâns.

54. And that of it from the arrival of the Triumphant Benefiter, until the wonder of the renovation and future existence; a statement of them each separately.


3:1 Nearly always spelt Zaratûkhsht in the MS., the counterpart of the Persian form Zaratuhsht or Zaraduhsht.

3:2 This Nikêzŏ-î Vêh-dênô was evidently the name of an older book, from which the Dînkard quotes much of its information on religious matters.

4:1 This preliminary matter occupies the whole of Chap. I.

4:2 The Yathâ-ahû-vairyô, or most sacred religious formula of the Parsis.

5:1 Reading hû-ahûîh, Av. hvanghevi. This section is one of the numerous quotations from the Pahlavi version of a lost Avesta text. When we are furnished with a complete Pahl.-Av. vocabulary, it will be possible to recover much of the original Avesta of such quotations, with some degree of certainty.

5:2 Pahl. garôdmânîg. Such glosses and comments, inserted by the Pahlavi translator, are always marked as parenthetical.

5:3 Pahl. hamâî-bâhar; it might be read hamâî-bîdâr, 'ever vigilant.'

5:4 Reading vakhsh (= Pers. bakhsh), which is usually expressed by its Zvâris equivalent gadâ (traditionally gadman), and this means both 'destiny' and 'the star, or glory, of destiny' (Av. hvarenô, Pers. khura). Here the first letter of vakhsh is omitted, and this error converts the word into khayâ, the Zvâris of gân, 'life.' p. 6 This must have also occurred twice in a previous copy of the MS. in § 28, where the word is written gân, 'life,' in the MS. B. In S.B.E., vol. xxxvii, Dk. VIII, xii, 20, vakhsh has been erroneously translated 'word.'

6:1 The glorious destiny. §§ 9 and 10 have been previously translated in S.B.E., vol. xviii, pp. 411, 412.

6:2 Literally 'man and woman' who grew up as plants from the earth fertilized by Gâyômard, the prototype of the human race; see Bd. XV, 1-5.

7:1 Mentioned in Visp. I, 9: ii, II: ix, 5, and recognized as a spirit in Pahl. Visp. i, 31 (Sp.). The spirit who assists the husbandman, see Études irân. ii, 201.

7:2 The MS. has 'his,' as in § 13, by mistake.

7:3 Two of the sacred Yathâ-ahû-vairyô formulas.

8:1 See Bd. XV, 24-26.

8:2 Grandsons of Sâmak, see Bd. XV, 28, and Sachau's Albîrûnî's Chronology of Ancient Nations, pp. 206, 212.

8:3 The idolators of Mâzandarân. See Yt. XIX, 26.

8:4 Called 'seven powers' in Bd. XXVIII, 15.

8:5 See Bd. XXXI, 2, and Yt. XIX, 28, 29.

9:1 See Bd. XXXI, 3-5, and Yt. XIX, 31-33.

9:2 In Vd. II, 4.

9:3 As detailed in Vd. II, 22-31, 40, 41.

10:1 See Bd. XXXI, 7, 8, and Yt. XIII, 131; XIX, 36.

10:2 The Arab usurper, or usurping dynasty, that conquered Yim in his old age; see Bd. XXXI, 5, 6.

10:3 See Yt. XIX, 37.

10:4 See Bd. XXXI, 9, 10.

10:5 Probably 'destiny;' the initial letter of vakhsh, 'destiny,' has been omitted, and this blunder converts the word into khayâ, 'life.'

11:1 See note 5 on preceding page.

11:2 Here spelt Nêresang and Mânûsîr. The former is the usual spiritual messenger of Aûharmazd; and for the lineage of the latter see Bd. XXXI, 9-14. It appears that the glorious destiny was preserved by the angel Nêryôsang for some generations, and he conveyed it to the grandfather of Mânûskîhar (see Chap. II, 70).

11:3 The three sons of Frêdûn, among whom he divided his dominions, with the usual result of triumvirates.

11:4 See Bd. XXXI, 23 XXXIV, 6.

11:5 See Yt. XIX, 56-64, 77, 82, 93, and Bd. XXXI, 14, 15, 18, 21, 22, 35; XXXIV, 6; where the Av. form Frangrasyan is further p. 12 corrupted into Frâsîyâv, as it is also hereafter in Chap. II, 68; Zs. XII, 3.

12:1 A famous hero whose exploits, like those of Hercules, have given birth to many legends; see S.B.E., vol. xviii, pp. 369-382.

12:2 Compare § 25.

12:3 See Yt. XIX, 71; Bd. XXXI, 24, 25, 28; XXXIV, 7.

12:4 Or Pâtâsrôbô, spelt Pâtsrôbô in Pahl. Vd. XX, 4 (Sp.).

12:5 Or Aîryêfshnîg; evidently the same as Virafsang in Bd. XXXI, 6, which is spelt Avirafshanêg and Âirafshanig in two MSS. of the Irânian Bundahis. Hence we may conclude that Pâtakhsrôbô was a brother of Zâînîgâv, and a great-uncle of Dahâk; but how his daughters could have been married to the three sons of Frêdûn, as stated in the Kitradâd Nask (see Dk. VIII, xiii, 9), is a chronological difficulty that throws doubt upon this identification.

12:6 The people of the primitive faith, who are supposed to have p. 13 already practised most of the duties upheld by Zarathustra before his appearance as a reformer.

13:1 Indicating that the Arab subjects of the king had revolted, because he favoured those of the primitive faith who, no doubt, gained further favour by putting down the rebellion.

13:2 Or it may be 'fish priest,' as karapŏ, 'a heathen priest,' and kerpŏ 'shape, image,' are written alike in Pahlavi letters.

13:3 See Yt. XIX, 71; Bd. XXXI, 25.

13:4 See Yt. XIII, 131; Dd. XLVIII, 33.

14:1 See Yt. XIX, 71, 77; Bd. XXXI, 25; Byt. III, 25, 26.

14:2 See Yt. XIX, 74, 77, 93; Bd. XXXI, 25.

14:3 See § 31.

14:4 Brother of Frangrâsîyâk, see Yt. XIX, 77; Bd. XXXI, 15.

14:5 Reading Vakgiragânŏ, probably the inhabitants of the Bakyîr mountain, mentioned in Bd. XII, 2, 20 as a stronghold of Frâsiyâv (=Frangrâsîyâk).

14:6 See Bd. XVII, 7; Mkh. II, 95.

15:1 The Pahlavi transcripts of the Avesta names, Ukhshyad-ereta, Ukhshyad-nemangh, and Saoshyãs, of the three apostles expected to revive and renovate the Parsi religion in successive millenniums. According to the imperfect chronology of the Bundahis, the millennium of Aushêdar-mâh has now nearly one-fourth elapsed.

15:2 See Chap. XI, 7-II.

16:1 Then follow the headings of these ten Chapters (II to XI).

Next: Chapter II