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Pahlavi Texts, Part III (SBE24), E.W. West, tr. [1885], at


1. The sage asked the spirit of wisdom (2) thus: 'How is it possible to seek the maintenance and prosperity of the body [without injury of the soul, and the preservation of the soul without injury of the body 2]?'

3. The spirit of wisdom answered (4). thus: 'Him who is less than thee consider as an equal, and an equal as a superior, (5) and a greater than him as a chieftain 3, and a chieftain as a ruler. 6. And among rulers one is to be acquiescent, obedient, and true-speaking; (7) and among accusers 4 be submissive, mild, and kindly regardful.

8. 'Commit no slander; (9) so that infamy and wickedness may not happen unto thee. 10. For it is said (11) that slander is more grievous than witchcraft; (12) and in hell the rush of every fiend 5 is to the front, but the rush of the fiend of slander, on account of the grievous sinfulness, is to the rear.

13. 'Form no covetous desire; (14) so that the

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demon of greediness may not deceive thee, (15) and the treasure of the world may not be tasteless to thee, and that of the spirit unperceived.

16. 'Indulge in no wrathfulness; (17) for a man, when he indulges in wrath, becomes then forgetful of his duty and good works, of prayer and the service of the sacred beings, (18) and sin and crime of every kind occur unto his mind, and 1 until the subsiding of the wrath (19) he 2 is said to be just like Aharman 3.

20. 'Suffer no anxiety; (21) for he who is a sufferer of anxiety becomes regardless of enjoyment of the world and the spirit, (22) and contraction happens to his body and soul.

23. 'Commit no lustfulness; (24) so that harm and regret may not reach thee from thine own actions.

25. 'Bear no improper envy; (26) so that thy life may not become tasteless.

27. 'Commit no sin on account of [disgrace] 4; (28) because happiness and adornment 5, celebrity (khanîdîh) and dominion, skill and suitability are not through the will and action of men, but through the appointment, destiny, and will of the sacred beings.

29. 'Practise no sloth; (30) so that the duty and good work, which it is necessary for thee to do, may not remain undone.

31. 'Choose a wife who is of character; (32)

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because that one is good who in the end is more respected.

33. 'Commit no unseasonable chatter 1'; (34) so that grievous distress may not happen unto Horvadad and Amerodad, the archangels 2, through thee.

35. 'Commit no running about uncovered 3; (36) so that harm may not come upon thy bipeds and quadrupeds, and ruin upon thy children.

37. 'Walk not with one boot 4; (38) so that grievous distress may not happen to thy soul.

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39. 'Perform no discharge of urine (pêsâr-vâr) standing on foot 1'; (40) so that thou mayst not become a captive by a habit of the demons, (41) and the demons may not drag thee to hell on account of that sin.

42. 'Thou shouldst be (yehevûnes) diligent and moderate, (43) and eat of thine own regular industry, (44) and provide the share of the sacred beings and the good; (45) and, thus, the practice of this, in thy occupation, is the greatest good work.

46. 'Do not extort from the wealth of others; (47) so that thine own regular industry may not become unheeded. 48. For it is said (49) that: "He who eats anything, not from his own regular industry, but from another, is such-like as one who holds a human head in his hand, and eats human brains."

50. 'Thou shouldst be an abstainer from the wives of others; (51) because all these three would become disregarded by thee, alike wealth, alike 2 body, and alike 2 soul.

52. 'With enemies fight with equity. 53. With a friend proceed with the approval of friends. 54. With a malicious 3 man carry on no conflict, (55) and do not molest him in any way whatever. 56. With a greedy man thou shouldst not be a partner, (57) and do not trust him with the leadership. 58. With

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a slanderous man do not go to the door of kings. 59. With an ill-famed man form no connection. 60. With an ignorant man thou shouldst not become a confederate and associate. 61. With a foolish man make no dispute. 62. With a drunken man do not walk on the road. 63. From an ill-natured man take no loan.

64. 'In thanksgiving unto the sacred beings, and worship, praise, ceremonies, invocation, and performing the learning of knowledge thou shouldst be energetic and life-expending. 65. For it is said (66) that: "In aid of the contingencies (gahisnŏ) 1 among men wisdom is good; (67) in seeking renown and preserving the soul liberality is good; (68) in the advancement of business and justice complete mindfulness is good; (69) and in the statements of those who confess (khûstîvân) 2, with a bearing on the custom of the law 3, truth is good. 70. In the progress of business energy is good, (71) for 4 every one to become confident therein steadfastness is good, (72) and for the coming of benefit thereto thankfulness is good. 73. In keeping oneself untroubled (anaîrang) 5 the discreet speaking which is in the path of 6 truth is good; (74) and in keeping away the disturbance of the destroyer 7 from oneself employment is good. 75.

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[paragraph continues] Before rulers and kings discreet speaking is good, and in 1 an assembly good recital; (76) among friends repose and rational friends 2 are good; (77) and with an associate to one's own deeds the giving of advantage (sûkŏ) is good. 78. Among those greater than one (agas masân) mildness and humility are good, (79) and among those less than one flattery 3 and civility are good. 80. Among doers of deeds speaking of thanks and performance of generosity are good; (81) and among those of the same race the formation of friendship (hûmânŏîh) 4 is good. 82. For bodily health moderate eating and keeping the body in action are good; (83) and among the skilled in thanksgiving performance is good. 84. Among chieftains unanimity and seeking advantage are good; (85) among those in unison and servants good behaviour and an exhibition of awe are good; (86) and for having little trouble in oneself contentment is good. 87. In chieftainship to understand thoroughly the good in their goodness and the vile in their vileness is good; and to make the vile unseen, through retribution 5, is good. 88. In every place and time to restrain oneself from sin and to be diligent in meritorious work are good; (89) and every day to consider and keep in remembrance Aûharmazd, as regards creativeness, and Aharman, as regards destructiveness, is good. 90. And for dishonour not to come unto one a knowledge of oneself is good." 91. All these are proper

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and true and of the same description, (92) but occupation and guarding the tongue (pâd-hûzvânîh) 1 above everything.

93. 'Abstain far from the service of idols 2 and demon-worship. 94. Because it is declared (95) that "If Kaî-Khûsrôî 3 should not have extirpated the idol-temples (aûgdês-kâr) which were on the lake of Kêkast 4, then in these three millenniums of Hûshêdar, Hûshedar-mâh, and Sôshâns 5—of whom one of them comes separately at the end of each millennium, who arranges again all 6 the affairs of the world, and utterly destroys the breakers of promises and servers of idols who are in the realm—the adversary 7 would have become so much more violent, that it would not have been possible to produce the resurrection and future existence."

96. 'In forming a store 8 of good works thou

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shouldst be diligent, (97) so that it may come to thy 1 assistance among the spirits.

98. 'Thou shouldst not become presumptuous through any happiness of the world; (99) for the happiness of the world is such-like as a cloud that comes on a rainy day, which one does not ward off by any hill.

100. 'Thou shouldst not be too much arranging the world; (101) for the world-arranging man becomes spirit-destroying.

102. 'Thou shouldst not become presumptuous through much treasure and wealth; (103) for in the end it is necessary for thee to leave all.

104. 'Thou shouldst not become presumptuous through predominance; (105) for in the end it is necessary for thee to become non-predominant.

106. 'Thou shouldst not become presumptuous through respect and reverence; (107) for respectfulness does not assist in the spiritual existence.

108. 'Thou shouldst not become presumptuous through great connections and race; (109) for in the end thy 2 trust is on thine own deeds.

110. 'Thou shouldst not become presumptuous through life; (111) for death comes upon thee 3 at last, (112) the dog and the bird lacerate the corpse 4, (113) and the perishable part (segînakŏ) 5 falls to the ground. 114. During three days 6 and nights

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the soul sits at the crown of the head of the body 1. 115. And the fourth day, in the light of dawn—with the co-operation of Srôsh the righteous, Vâê the good, and Vâhrâm the strong 2, the opposition of Astô-vîdâd 3, Vâê the bad 4, Frazîstô the demon, and Nizîstô the demon 5, and the evil-designing action of Aeshm 6, the evil-doer, the impetuous assailant—

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[paragraph continues] [it goes] 1 up to the awful, lofty Kindvar 2 bridge, to which every one, righteous and wicked, is coming 3. 116. And many opponents have watched there, (117) with the desire of evil of Aeshm, the impetuous assailant, and of Astô-vîdâd who devours creatures of every kind and knows no satiety, (118) and the mediation of Mitrô 4 and Srôsh and Rashnû, (119) and the weighing of Rashnû, the just, (120) with the balance 5 of the spirits, which renders no favour (hû-girâî) on any side 6, neither for the righteous nor yet the wicked, neither for the lords nor yet the monarchs. 121. As much as a hair's breadth it will not turn, and has no partiality; (122) and he who is a lord and monarch 7 it considers equally, in its decision, with him who is the least of mankind.

123. 'And when a soul of the righteous passes upon that bridge, the width of the bridge becomes as it were a league (parasang) 8, (124) and the

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righteous soul passes over with the co-operation of Srôsh the righteous. 125. And his own deeds of a virtuous kind 1 come to meet him in the form of a maiden, (126) who is handsomer and better than every maiden in the world.

127. 'And the righteous soul speaks (128) thus: "Who mayst thou be 2, that a maiden who is handsomer and better than thee was never seen by me in the worldly existence?"

129. 'In reply that maiden form responds (130) thus: "I am no maiden, but I am thy virtuous deeds, thou youth who art well-thinking, well-speaking, well-doing, and of good religion! 131. For when thou sawest in the world him who performed demon-worship, then thou hast sat down, and thy performance was the worship of the sacred beings. 132. And when it was seen by thee that there was any one who caused oppression and plunder, and distressed or scorned a good person, and acquired wealth by crime, then thou keptest back from the creatures their own risk of oppression and plunder; (133) the good person was also thought of by thee, and lodging and entertainment provided; and alms were given by thee to him (134) who came forth from near and him, too, who was from afar; and wealth which was due to honesty was acquired by thee. 135. And when thou sawest him who practised

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false justice and taking of bribes, and false evidence was given by him, then thou hast sat down, and the recitation of truth and virtue 1 was uttered by thee. 136. I am this of thine, the good thoughts, the good words, and the good deeds which were thought and spoken and done by thee. 137. For when I have become commendable, I am then made altogether more commendable by thee; (138) when I have become precious, I am then made altogether still more precious by thee; (139) and when I have become glorious, I am then made altogether 2 still more glorious by thee."

140. 'And when he walks onwards from there, a sweet-scented breeze comes then to meet him, which is more fragrant than all perfume. 141. The soul of the righteous enquires of Srôsh (142) thus: "What breeze is this, that never in the world so fragrant a breeze came into contact with me?"

143. 'Then Srôsh, the righteous, replies to that righteous soul (144) thus: "This breeze is from heaven, which is so fragrant."

145. 'Afterwards, on his march, the first step is set 3 on the place of good thoughts, the second on that of good words, the third on that of good deeds 4, (146) and the fourth step reaches up unto the endless light 5 which is all-radiant. 147. And angels

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and archangels of every description come to meet him, (148) and ask tidings from him (149) thus: "How hast thou come, from that which is a perishable; fearful, and very miserable existence, to this which is an imperishable existence that is undisturbed, thou youth who art well-thinking, well-speaking, well-doing, and of good religion?"

150. 'Then Aûharmazd, the lord, speaks (151) thus: "Ask ye from him no tidings; for he has parted from that which was a precious body, and has come by that which is a fearful road. 152. And bring ye unto him the most agreeable of eatables, that which is the midspring butter 1, (153) so that he may rest his soul from that bridge pf the three nights, unto which he came from Astô-vîdâd and the remaining demons 2; (154) and seat him upon an all-embellished throne."

155. 'As it is declared (156) that: "'Unto 3 the righteous man 4 and woman, after passing away 5, they bring food 6 of the most agreeable of eatables—

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the food of the angels of the spiritual existences— that which is the midspring butter 1; and they seat them down on an all-embellished throne. 157. For ever and everlasting they remain in all glory with the angels of the spiritual existences everlastingly."

158. 'And when he who is wicked dies, his soul then rushes about for three days and nights in the vicinity of the head of that wicked one, and sobs 2 (159) thus: "Whither do I go, and now what do I make 3 as a refuge?" 160. And the sin and crime of every kind, that were committed by him in the worldly existence, he sees with his eyes in those three days and nights. 161. The fourth day Vîzaresh 4, the demon, comes and binds the soul or the wicked with the very evil noose 5; (162) and with the opposition of Srôsh, the righteous, he leads it up to the Kindvar bridge 6. 163. Then Rashnû 7, the just, detects that soul of the wicked through its wickedness.

164. 'Afterwards, Vîzaresh, the demon, takes that

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soul of the wicked, and mercilessly and maliciously beats and maltreats it. 165. And that soul of the wicked weeps with a loud voice, is fundamentally horrified 1, implores with many supplicating 2 entreaties, and makes many struggles for life disconnectedly 3. 166. Whom 4—when his struggling and supplication are of no avail whatever, and no one comes to his assistance from the divinities (bagân) 5, nor yet from the demons—moreover, Vîzaresh, the demon, drags miserably 6 to the inevitable 7 hell.

167. 'And then a maiden who is not like unto maidens comes to meet him. 168. And that soul of the wicked speaks to that evil maiden (169) thus: "Who mayst thou be, that never in the worldly existence was an evil maiden seen by me, who was viler and more hideous than thee?"

170. 'And she 8 speaks in reply to him (171) thus: "I am not a maiden, but I am thy deeds 9, thou monster who art evil-thinking, evil-speaking, evildoing, and of evil religion! 172. For even when thou sawest 10 him who performed the worship of the sacred beings, still then thou hast sat down, and demon-worship was performed by thee, (173) and the demons and fiends were served. 174. And also when thou sawest him who provided lodging and

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entertainment, and gave alms, for a good person who came forth from near and him, too, who was from afar 1, (175) then thou actedst scornfully and disrespectfully to the good person, and gave no alms, and even shut up the door. 176. And when thou sawest him who practised true justice, took no bribe, gave true evidence, and uttered virtuous recitation, (177) even then thou hast sat down, and false justice was practised by thee, evidence was given by thee with falsehood, and vicious recitation was uttered by thee. 178. I am this of thine, the evil thoughts, the evil words, and the evil deeds which were thought and spoken and done by thee. 179. For when I have become uncommendable, I am then made altogether still more uncommendable by thee; (180) when I have become unrespected, I am then made altogether still more unrespected by thee; (181) and when I have sat in an eye-offending 2 position, I am then made altogether still more really eye-offending (kashm-kah-îktar-ik) by thee."

182. 'Afterwards he enters 3, the first step on the place of evil thoughts, the second on that of evil words, the third step on that of evil deeds 4, (183) and the fourth step rushes into the presence of the

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wicked evil spirit and the other demons 1. 184. And the demons make ridicule and mockery of him (185) thus: "What was thy trouble and complaint, as regards Aûharmazd, the lord, and the archangels, and the fragrant and joyful heaven, when thou approachedst for a sight of Aharman and the demons and gloomy hell, (186) although we cause thee misery therein and do not pity, and thou shalt see misery of long duration?"

187. 'And the evil spirit shouts to the demons (188) thus: "Ask ye no tidings from him (189) who is parted from 2 that which was a precious body, and has come on by that which is a very bad road. 190. But bring ye unto him the foulest and vilest of eatables, the food which is nurtured in hell."

191. 'They bring the poison and venom of 3 the snake and scorpion and other noxious creatures that are in hell, (192) and give him to eat. 193. And until the resurrection and future existence he must be in hell, in much misery and punishment of various kinds 4. 194. Especially that it is possible to eat food there only as though by similitude 5.'

195. The spirit of innate wisdom spoke to the sage (196) thus: 'This which was asked by thee, as to the maintenance of the body and concerning the preservation of the soul, is also spoken about by me, and thou art admonished. 197. Be virtuously

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assiduous about it, and keep it in practice; (198) for this is thy chief way for the maintenance of the body and preservation of the soul.'


9:2 The passage in brackets is omitted by K43, and is here supplied from L19.

9:3 In L19 the text is corrupt, but has nearly the same meaning.

9:4 L19 has 'associates,' which seems equally appropriate; the two words are much alike in Pahlavi writing.

9:5 The word drûg, 'fiend,' is usually supposed to mean a female demon, and is often understood so in the Avesta, perhaps because it is a feminine noun. It is usually an impersonation of some evil passion (see Chap. XLI, 11).

10:1 L19 omits 'and.'

10:2 L19 has 'wrath;' making § 19 a separate sentence.

10:3 The evil spirit, Av. angra mainyu.

10:4 K43 omits 'disgrace,' by mistake.

10:5 L19 omits 'adornment.'

11:1 A free translation of the name of the sin which is usually called drâyân-gûyisnîh, 'eagerness for chattering;' here, however, K43 omits the latter y, so that the name may be read drâyân-galisnîh, 'chatteringly devouring,' and a similar phrase is used in AV. XXIII, 6. The sin consists in talking while eating, praying, or at any other time when a murmured prayer (vâg) has been taken inwardly and is not yet spoken out; the protective spell of the prayer being broken by such talking. If the prayer be not taken inwardly when it ought to be, the same sin is incurred (see Sls. V, 2, Dd. LXXIX, 8).

11:2 Instead of amahraspend, 'the archangel,' L19 has Mârspend, the angel of the 'righteous liturgy;' but this is probably a misreading, due to the fact that, when the chattering interrupts prayer, the angel of the liturgy would be as much distressed as the archangels Horvadad and Amerodad, who protect water and vegetation (see Sls. XV, 25-29), would be when it interrupts eating and drinking. These archangels are personifications of Av. haurvatâd, 'completeness or health,' and ameretâd, 'immortality.'

11:3 That is, moving about without being girded with the Kustî or sacred thread-girdle, which must not be separated from the skin by more than one thin garment, the sacred shirt (see Sls. IV, 7, 8).

11:4 We should probably read 'without a boot,' as aê-mûkŏ and amûkŏ are much alike in Pahlavi; otherwise we must suppose that walking with only a single covering for the feet, and without outer boots, is meant. At any rate, walking or standing on unconsecrated ground with bare feet is a serious sin for a Parsi, on account of the risk of pollution (see Sls. IV, 12, X, 22).

12:1 Whereby an unnecessary space of ground is polluted; hence the sin.

12:2 K43 has hômânam, 'I am,' the Huzvâris of am, used by mistake for ham, 'alike,' which is written exactly like am in Pahlavi.

12:3 K43 has kîkvar, instead of kênvar, but this is doubtless a miswriting.

13:1 L19 has zahisn, 'issue, proceedings.'

13:2 L19 has read aûstîkân, 'the steadfast,' by mistake.

13:3 Reading dâdŏ-khûk-barisnŏîhâ. L19 has 'conveying intercession (gâdangô = dâdŏ-gôk);' this small difference in reading may be a clerical error in K43. The Sans. version omits the phrase altogether.

13:4 L19 omits pavan, 'for.'

13:5 Nêr. has 'unblemished.'

13:6 L19 omits 'path of;' and it may possibly be superfluous.

13:7 Or it may be 'the destroyer and adversary,' as in L19; the last word being defective in K43.

14:1 L19 omits pavan, 'in.'

14:2 L19 has 'friendship.'

14:3 Or 'adaptation.'

14:4 L19 has humatî, 'good intention.'

14:5 L19 has 'to cause the reward of the good and the punishment of the vile.'

15:1 L19 has 'preserving pure language.'

15:2 More correctly 'temple-worship,' as aûzdes means 'an erection.'

15:3 Av. Kavi Husravangh, the third of the Kayân kings, who reigned sixty years, and was the grandson of his predecessor, Kâî-Ûs, and son of Sîyâvakhsh (see Bd. XXXI, 25, XXXIV, 7).

15:4 The present Lake Urumiyah according to Bd. XXII, 2. This feat of Kaî-Khûsrôî is also mentioned in Bd. XVII, 7, and his exploits in the same neighbourhood are stated in Âbân Yt. 49, 50, Gôs Yt. 18, 21, 22, Ashi Yt. 38, 41, 42; but it is possible that the Avesta name, Kkasta, may have been transferred to Lake Urumiyah in later times.

15:5 The three future apostles who are supposed to be sons of Zaratûst, whose births have been deferred till later times (see Bd. XXXII, 8). Their Avesta names are Ukhshyad-ereta, Ukhshyad-nemangh, and Saoshyãs.

15:6 L19 omits 'all.'

15:7 The evil spirit.

15:8 L19 has 'in always doing;' having read hamvâr, 'always,' instead of ambâr, 'a store.'

16:1 K43 omits 'thy.'

16:2 L19 omits 'thy.'

16:3 L19 omits 'thee.'

16:4 Referring to the mode of disposing of the dead adopted by the Parsis (see Sls. II, 6 n, Dd. XV, 5, XVII, 17, XVIII, 2-4).

16:5 L19 has ast, 'bone.'

16:6 Including the day of death. The fate of the soul after death, as detailed in §§ 114-194, is also described in Vend. XIX, 90-112, Hn. II, III, Aog. 8-19, AV. IV-XI, XVII.

17:1 Reciting a passage from the Gâthas or sacred hymns (see Hn. II, 4, 5, III, 3, 4, AV. IV, 9-11, XVII, 6, 7).

17:2 These three angels are personifications of Av. sraosha, 'listening, obedience,' vaya or vayu, 'the upper air (uncontaminated by the evil spirit),' and verethraghna, 'victorious, triumphant;' the last is more literally 'demon-smiting,' that is, 'smiting Verethra (the demon),' Sans. vritrahan.

17:3 Av. Astô-vîdhôtu, 'the bone-dislocator,' or demon of death who binds the parting soul (see Vend. V, 25, 31); in later. writings, such as the Book of Dâdâr bin Dâd-dukht, he is said to throw a noose over the neck of the soul to drag it to hell, but if its good works have exceeded its sins, it throws off the noose and goes to heaven; and this noose is also mentioned in Bd. III, 22, Dd. XVIII, 3. In Bd. XXVIII, 35 this demon is said to be the same as the bad Vâê, but all other authorities consider them as distinct beings. It may be noted that a different demon of death is usually mentioned when the soul is wicked (see § 161).

17:4 Av. vaya or vayu, 'the lower air (vitiated by the evil spirit).' Just as the wind (vâd) may be either an angel or a demon, according as its strength makes it a refreshing breeze or a violent hurricane, so may the air be a good or evil being, according as it retains its original purity or has been vitiated by the evil spirit. That the angel Vâê is the upper air appears from its epithet uparô-kairya, 'working aloft,' in the Râm Yt.; and that it is only the lower air that is vitiated by the evil spirit is in accordance with the division of the sky into three thirds, of which the uppermost is inaccessible to the evil spirit (see Dd. XXXVII, 24-31). But this distinction between a good and bad Vâê is not made in Vend. V, 25, 31, where we are told that Vayô conveys the soul when bound by Astô-vîdhôtu.

17:5 These two demons have not been recognised elsewhere.

17:6 The demon of wrath, Av. Aêshmô daêva, appears to be the Asmodeus of the Book of Tobit.

18:1 K43 omits this verb.

18:2 Or, perhaps, Kingvar, a partial translation of Av. Kinvad (gv being a mispronunciation of v or w, as in gvâd for vâd, 'wind;' and Pers. var translating Av. vad). The Pâzand writers have Kandôr. It is the bridge of ever-varying breadth which leads to heaven (see Vend. XIX, 100, 101, AV. III, 1, IV, 7, V, 1, 2, XVII, 1, Bd. XII, 7, Dd. XX, XXI), but it is not mentioned in Hn.

18:3 Literally, 'is a corner.'

18:4 The angel of the sun's light; being a personification of friendship and good faith he is specially concerned in calling the soul to account (see Dd. XIV, 3).

18:5 In which the actions of men are weighed by Rashnû, the angel of justice, to ascertain whether the good or the evil preponderate.

18:6 1.19 has 'who makes no unjust balance of the spirits on either side.'

18:7 K43 adds rad, 'master,' but this is evidently an abortive beginning of the next word, levatman, which has been left unerased.

18:8 Nine spears (about 126 English feet) in AV. V, 1, Dd. XXI, 5. p. 19 The parasang is probably used here as an equivalent for Av. hâthra, 'a mile.'

19:1 L19 has 'his own virtuous deeds.' The conscience of the soul meets it in the form of a damsel, beautiful in proportion to the goodness of its deeds. In AV. IV, 18-36, Dd. XXIV, 5, XXV, 5 the conscience meets the soul before it attempts the bridge.

19:2 More literally, 'what may be thou?' as the verb is in the third person here, though not so in the similar phrase in § 169.

20:1 Meaning probably the recitation of the Avesta texts.

20:2 K43 omits barâ, 'quite, altogether,' in this third clause.

20:3 L19 has 'afterwards, he rests the first step;' but awar ârâmed, 'he rests,' is a misreading of madam khârâm dâd, 'on the march is set.'

20:4 These are the three lowermost grades of heaven, hûmat, hûkht, and hûvarst (see Chap. VII, 12).

20:5 The highest grade of heaven, where Aûharmazd and the angels are supposed to dwell (see Chap. VII, 11).

21:1 The Maidhyô-zarm rôghan, which is explained in Dd. XXXI, 14 as the spiritual representative of butter made during the Maidhyô-zaremaya, 'mid-verdure,' festival, which was considered the best of the year. This festival is held on the forty-fifth day of the Parsi year, which was about 4th May when the year was fixed to begin at the vernal equinox as described in Bd. XXV, 3-7, 20. The heavenly food which goes by this name is not to be confounded with the Hûsh which is expected to be prepared at the resurrection, from the fat of the ox Hadhayôs and the white Hôm, for the purpose of making mankind immortal (see Bd. XXX, 25); although some such confusion appears to exist in AV. X, 5. K43 has rûbân, 'soul,' instead of rôghan, 'butter.'

21:2 See §§ 114-123.

21:3 K43 omits 'unto.'

21:4 Literally, 'male.'

21:5 L19 adds 'from the body and consciousness.'

21:6 Reading kazag, instead of kazad, both here and in the next clause of the sentence. L19 has 'the angels of the spiritual existences p. 22 bring the most agreeable of eatables,' by omitting the first kazag, and misreading the second one.

22:1 K43 has rûbân again, as in § 152, for rôghan. Although this sentence resembles Hn. II, 38, 39, it is evidently quoted from some other source, as its difference is more striking than its resemblance.

22:2 This verb is Huz. bekhûnêd = Pâz. giryêd, but Nêr. has read bângînêd, 'laments,' and has written vãgined.

22:3 Or it may be 'take,' as these two verbs are written alike in Huzvâris. This exclamation is a quotation from the Gâthas or sacred hymns, being the first line of Yas. XLV, 1.

22:4 The Av. Vîzaresha of Vend. XIX, 94, who carries off the souls of the wicked; he is also mentioned in Bd. XXVIII, 18, Dd. XXXII, 4, 7, XXXVII, 44.

22:5 Reading saryâtar sûlan. L19 has vad band, 'an evil tie.'

22:6 See § 115.

22:7 See §§ 229, 120.

23:1 Instead of burz-vângîhâ bekhûnêd, bun râmêd, L19 has burzâvandihâ vãgîned u vârâmed, 'loudly shrieks and weeps.'

23:2 Reading lâpakŏ-karîhâ.

23:3 Instead of apadvandîhâ, L19 has apatûihâ, 'fruitlessly.'

23:4 L19 has 'and.'

23:5 L19 has vehã, 'the good.'

23:6 Instead of âk-hômandîhâ, L19 has anaomedihâ, 'hopelessly.'

23:7 Reading nagirz, but this is uncertain; L19 has azer, 'lower.'

23:8 L19 has 'that evil maiden.'

23:9 L19 has 'evil deeds.'

23:10 L19 adds 'in the world.'

24:1 In L19 the words 'near' and 'afar' change places.

24:2 Literally, 'eye-consuming,' the reading adopted by Nêr., but, though it gives a satisfactory meaning, it is not quite certain that it represents the Pahlavi text correctly.

24:3 For dên vazlûnêd, 'he goes in,' L19 has andar zrôved, indicating that the first letter, va, of vazlûnêd had been omitted in the Pahl. MS. used by Nêr., which misled him into reading the remaining letters as a new Pâz. verb zrôved, as already by Nŏldeke in Gŏt. gel. Anz. 1882, p. 975.

24:4 These are the three uppermost grades of hell, dûs-hûmat. dûs-hûkht, and dûs-hûvarst (see Chap. VII, 20).

25:1 In the lowermost grade of hell (see Chap. VII, 21).

25:2 L19 has 'for he has parted from,' as in § 151.

25:3 L19 has 'and.'

25:4 L19 has 'he is in much misery and punishment of kinds worthy of hell.'

25:5 So that starvation is one of the punishments of hell. L19 has 'and especially that the food there can be only like putrid blood.'

Next: Chapter III