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1. On the nature of lakes it says in revelation, that thus many fountains of waters have come into notice, which they call lakes (var); counterparts of the eyes (kashm) of men are those fountains (kashmak) of waters; such as Lake Kêkast, Lake Sôvbar, Lake Khvârizem 3, Lake Frazdân, Lake Zarînmand, Lake Âsvast, Lake Husru, Lake Satavês, Lake Urvis.

2. I will mention them also a second time: Lake Kêkast 4 is in Âtarô-pâtakân, warm is the water and opposed to harm, so that nothing whatever is living in it; and its source is connected with the wide-formed ocean 5. 3. Lake Sôvbar is in the upper district and country on the summit of the mountain of Tûs 6; as it says, that the Sûd-bâhar 7 ('share of benefit') is propitious and good from which abounding

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liberality is produced. 4. Regarding Lake Khvârizem 1 it says that excellent benefit is produced from it, that is, Arshisang 2 the rich in wealth, the well-portioned with abounding pleasure. 5. Lake Frazdân 3 is in Sagastân; they say, where a generous man, who is righteous, throws anything into it, it receives it; when not righteous, it throws it out again; its source also is connected with the wide-formed ocean. 6. Lake Zarînmand is in Hamadân 4. 7. Regarding Lake Âsvast it is declared that the undefiled 5 water which it contains is always constantly flowing into the sea, so bright and copious 6 that one might say that the sun had come into it and looked at Lake Âsvast, into that water which is requisite for restoring the dead in the renovation of the universe. 8. Lake Husru 7 is within fifty 8

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leagues (parasang). of Lake Kêkast. 9. Lake (or, rather, Gulf) Satavês 1 is that already written about, between the wide-formed ocean and the Pûtîk. 10. It is said that in Kamîndân is an abyss (zafar), from which everything they throw in always comes back, and it will not receive it unless alive (gânvar); when they throw a living creature into it, it carries it down; men say that a fountain from hell is in it. 11. Lake Urvis is on Hûgar the lofty 2.


85:3 Pâz. Khvârazm both here and in § 4.

85:4 Av. Kkasta of Âbân Yt. 49, Gôs Yt. 18, 21, 22, Ashi Yt. 38, 41, Sîrôz. 9. The present Lake Urumiyah in Âdarbîgân, which is called Khegest, or Kegest, by ’Hamdu-l-lâh Mustaûfî.

85:5 Implying that the water is salt.

85:6 The Kôndrâsp mountain (see Chap. XII, 24). This lake is probably a small sheet of water on the mountains near Meshhed.

85:7 Evidently a punning etymology of the name of this lake.

86:1 The province of Khvârizem was between the Aral and Caspian, along the ancient course of the Oxus (see Chap. XVII, 5). This lake has been identified with the Aral.

86:2 Av. ashis vanguhi, 'good rectitude,' personified as a female angel whose praises are celebrated in the Ashi Yast; in later times she has been considered as the angel dispensing wealth and possessions. She is also called Ard (Av. areta, which is synonymous with asha), see Chap. XXVII, 24.

86:3 The 'Frazdânava water' of Âbân Yt. 108 and Farhang-i Oîm-khadûk, p. 17. Justi identifies it with the Âb-istâdah ('standing water') lake, south of Ghaznî. It is here represented as a salt lake.

86:4 K20 adds, 'they say.' This lake cannot be the spring Zarînmand of Chap. XX, 34.

86:5 Pâz. avnasti transcribed into Pahlavi is avinastag, 'unspoiled,' the equivalent of Av. anâhita in Yas. LXIV, 1, 16, Visp. I, 18.

86:6 K20 has 'glorious' as a gloss to 'copious.'

86:7 The Av. Haosravangha of Sîroz. 9, 'the lake which is named Husravau' of Zamyâd Yt. 56. It may be either Lake Van or Lake Sevan, which are nearly equidistant from Lake Urumiyah.

86:8 M6 has 'four leagues.'

87:1 See Chap. XIII, 9-13.

87:2 See Chaps. XII, 5, XIII, 4.

Next: Chapter XXIII