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Pahlavi Texts, Part I (SBE05), E.W. West, tr. [1880], at

p. 83


1. In revelation they mention seventeen 2 species of liquid (mâyâ), as one liquid resides in plants  3; second, that which is flowing from the mountains, that is, the rivers; third, that which is rain-water; fourth, that of tanks and other special constructions; fifth, the semen of animals and men; sixth, the urine of animals and men 4; seventh, the sweat of animals and men; the eighth liquid is that in the skin of animals and men; ninth, the tears of animals and men; tenth, the blood of animals and men; eleventh, the oil in animals and men, a necessary in both worlds 5; twelfth, the saliva of animals and men, with which they nourish the embryo 6; the thirteenth is that which is under the bark 7 of plants, as it is said that every bark has a liquid, through which a drop appears on a twig (têkh) when placed four finger-breadths before a fire 8; fourteenth, the milk of animals and men. 2. All these, through growth, or

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the body which is formed, mingle again with the rivers, for the body which is formed and the growth are both one.

3. This, too, they say, that of these three rivers, that is, the Arag river, the Marv river, and the Vêh 1 river, the spirits were dissatisfied, so that they would not flow into the world, owing to the defilement of stagnant water (armêst) which they beheld, so that they were in tribulation through it until Zaratûst was exhibited to them, whom I (Aûharmazd) will create, who will pour sixfold holy-water (zôr) into it and make it again wholesome; he will preach carefulness 2. 4. This, too, it says, that, of water whose holy-water is more and pollution less, the holy-water has come in excess, and in three years it goes back to the sources 3; that of which the pollution and holy-water have both become equal, arrives back in six years; that of which the pollution is more and holy-water less, arrives back in nine years. 5. So, also, the growth of plants is connected, in this manner, strongly with the root 4; so, likewise, the blessings (âfrîn) which the righteous utter, come back, in this proportion, to themselves.

6. Regarding the river Nâhvtâk 5 it says, that Frâsîyâv of Tûr conducted it away; and when 6

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[paragraph continues] Hûshêdar 1 comes it will flow again suitable for horses; so, also, will the fountains of the sea Kyânsîh 2. 7. Kyânsîh 2 is the one where the home (ginâk) of the Kayân race is.


83:1 This chapter is evidently a continuation of the preceding one.

83:2 Only fourteen are mentioned in the details which follow.

83:3 Most of these details are derived from the Pahl. Yas. XXXVIII, 7-9, 13, 14; and several varieties of water are also in Yas. LXVII, 15.

83:4 This sixth liquid is omitted by K20.

83:5 Departed souls are said to be fed with oil in paradise.

83:6 K20 omits the word pûs, 'embryo.'

83:7 The meaning 'bark' for Pâz. ayvan is merely a guess; Anquetil has 'sap' (compare Pers. âvînâ, 'juice'), but this is hardly consistent with the rest of the sentence.

83:8 See Chap. XXVII, 25.

84:1 K20 has 'Hêlmand,' but M6 has 'Sapîr,' the Huz. equivalent of 'Vêh,' which is more probable.

84:2 Or, 'abstinence from impurity.'

84:3 The source Arêdvîvsûr (see Chap. XIII, 3, 10).

84:4 That is, by the sap circulating like the waters of the earth. The greater part of this sentence is omitted in K20.

84:5 Probably 'the Nâvadâ' and 'navigable waters' of Chap. XX, 7, 34, and Nâîvtâk of Chap. XXIX, 4, 5.

84:6 Reading amat, 'when,' instead of mûn, 'which' (see note to Chap. I, 7).

85:1 Written Khûrshêdar, as usual in Bundahis (see Chap. XXXII, 8).

85:2 Written Kayâseh in Pâzand (see Chap. XIII, 16).

Next: Chapter XXII