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Arcana Coelestia, by Emanuel Swedenborg, [1749-56], tr. by John F. Potts [1905-10], at

Arcana Coelestia


A CONTINUATION ABOUT THE FIFTH EARTH IN THE STARRY HEAVEN. It was afterward granted me to speak with these spirits about their own earth, for all spirits know about this when their natural or external memory is opened by the Lord, because they bring this memory with them from the world; but it is not opened except with the Lord's good pleasure. With regard to the earth from which they were, the spirits then said that when leave is granted they appear to the inhabitants of their earth and speak with them as men, and that this is effected by their being let into their natural or external memory, and consequently into thought such as they had when they lived in the world; and that at the same time the interior sight of the inhabitants, that is, the sight of their spirit, is opened, and in this way the spirits appear to them. They added that the inhabitants know not but that they are men of their earth, and only notice that this is not the case when the spirits are suddenly taken away from their eyes. I told them that in ancient times it was the same on our earth, as with Abraham, Sarah, Lot, the inhabitants of Sodom, Manoah and his wife, Joshua, Mary, Elizabeth, and the prophets in general; and that the Lord appeared in the same way, and that until He revealed Himself those who saw Him knew not but that He was a man of the earth; but that now this rarely happens, lest such things should compel men to believe; for a compulsory faith, such as enters by means of miracles, does not cleave to the man, and also might be an injury to those with whom faith could be implanted through the Word in a state that is not compulsory.


The preacher who was with me did not at all believe that there are other earths besides our own, for the reason that in the world he had thought that the Lord was born on this earth only, and that without the Lord there is no salvation. He was therefore reduced into a state similar to that of these spirits when they appear in their own earth as men (of which just above), and in this state he was let into that earth, so that he not only saw it but also spoke with the inhabitants there. When this was done, communication was given me also in the same way, so that I too saw the inhabitants, and also some things upon that earth. Spirits and angels can speak with men of any language; because their thought falls into the ideas of the men, and thus into the words of their speech.


There then appeared four kinds of men, one kind after another in succession. First, clothed men were seen; then naked men of a human flesh color; afterward naked men who had inflamed bodies; and finally black men.


While the preacher was with those who were clothed, there appeared a woman of a very beautiful countenance, clothed in a simple garment, a tunic that hung behind in a becoming way, and was also drawn over the arms; she also wore a beautiful head covering in the form of a garland of flowers. Upon seeing this virgin, the preacher was very much delighted, and spoke to her, and also took hold of her hand; but as she perceived that he was a spirit, and was not from that earth, she betook herself away from him. There afterward appeared to him a number of other women on the right, who were pasturing sheep and lambs, which they were then leading to a drinking-trough, into which water was brought through a little channel from a lake. These were clothed in the same way, and they held in their hands shepherds' crooks, by which they led the sheep and lambs to drink. They said that the sheep go in the direction in which they point with their crooks. The sheep that were seen were large, and had woolly, broad, and lengthy tails. When the faces of the women were seen more closely, they were full and beautiful. Men also were seen. Their faces were of a human flesh color, as on our earth; but with the difference that instead of being bearded, the lower part of their face was black; and the nose was more of the color of snow than of flesh.


Afterward the preacher was conducted further, but reluctantly, because he was still thinking of the woman with whom he was charmed, as was evident from there still appearing a kind of shadow of him in the former place. He then came to those who were naked, who were seen walking together two and two. They were husband and wife, and were girded with a covering about the loins, and with a sort of covering about the head. When the preacher was with these, he was brought into the state in which he had been in the world when he wished to preach; and he then said that he wished to preach to them the crucified Lord. But they said they did not wish to hear such a thing, because they know not what it is, and that they know that the Lord lives. He then said that he wished to preach the living Lord; but this also they refused, saying that they did not observe in his speech what is heavenly, but what is earthly, because it was much for the sake of himself, and his own reputation and honor; and that they could hear from the very tone of his speech whether it came from his heart, or only from his mouth; and that because he was of this kind he could not teach them; wherefore he was silent. When he lived in the world he had been very impassioned, so that he could deeply move his hearers to what is holy; but this impassioned style had been acquired by art, and therefore was from self and the world, and not from heaven.


They said further that they have a perception whether those of their race who are naked have in them the conjugial principle; and it was shown that they perceive this from a spiritual idea about marriage, which being communicated to me was found to be that a likeness of the interiors was formed by the conjunction of truth and good, thus of faith and love, and that conjugial love comes forth from this conjunction coming down into the body. For all things of the lower mind [animus] are set forth in the body in some natural form, thus in the form of conjugial love when the interiors of two mutually love each other, and also from this love long to will and to think the one as the other, thus to be together and to be conjoined in respect to the interiors of the mind. From this the spiritual affection of their minds becomes natural in the body, and clothes itself with the feeling of conjugial love. They also said that there is nothing whatever of a conjugial nature between one man and a number of wives.


Afterward the preacher came to those who also were naked, but had inflamed bodies; and last of all to those who were black, some of whom were naked, and some were clothed. But all these dwelt elsewhere on the same earth.


Finally I spoke to the spirits of that earth about the faith of the inhabitants of our earth in regard to the resurrection, saying that they cannot conceive that men come into the other life immediately after death, and then appear as men, in face, body, arms, feet, and all the senses external and internal; and still less that they are clothed with garments and have places of abode and habitations; and this merely for the reason that most of them think from the sensuous things of the body, and therefore believe that nothing has any existence except the things they see and touch; and also because few of them can be withdrawn from external sensuous things to interior ones, and thus be elevated into the light of heaven. From this it is that they cannot have any idea of a man in connection with their soul or spirit, but only an idea as of wind, air, or breath, of no form, in which, however, there is something vital. This is the reason why they do not believe that they will rise again except at the end of the world, which they call the Last Judgment, and that then the body though crumbled into dust and dispersed to all the winds is to be brought back and joined again to its soul or spirit. [2] I added that they are permitted to believe this, because, thinking as they do from sensuous things, they can in no other way avoid the conception that it is impossible for their soul or spirit to live as a man and in the human form unless it gets back that body which it carried about in the world; and therefore unless it were said that this body will rise again, they would at heart reject as incomprehensible the doctrine of the resurrection and of eternal life. Nevertheless this idea about the resurrection is attended with this useful result, that they believe in a life after death. And from this belief it follows that when they lie sick in bed, and do not think as before from worldly and bodily things, thus not from sensuous ones, they then believe that they will live immediately after their decease; and they also then speak about heaven and about their hope of life there immediately after death, in a way far removed from the doctrine about the Last Judgment. [3] I further told them something that has occasionally excited my surprise, namely, that when those who are in the faith speak of the life after death, and of their friends who are either dead or dying, and do not at the moment think about the Last Judgment, they believe that their friends will live, or are living, as men immediately after their decease. But the moment that there flows in the thought of the Last Judgment, this idea is changed into a material idea about their earthly body, that it is again to be joined with their soul. For they do not know that in respect to his interiors every man is a spirit, and that it is this which lives in the body, and not the body from itself; and that the spirit of everyone is that from which the body has its human form, consequently which is chiefly the man, and in a like form, but invisible before the eyes of the body, yet visible before the eyes of spirits. [4] And it is also from this that when the sight of a man's spirit is opened, which is effected by the removal of the sight of the body, angels are seen as men; as also did angels appear to the ancients of whom we read in the Word. I have also sometimes spoken with spirits whom I had known when they lived as men in the world, asking them whether they wish to be clothed again with their earthly body, as they had before thought. On hearing this they fled far away at the mere idea of such a conjunction, being filled with amazement that in the world they had so thought from a blind faith without any understanding.


The subject of the fifth earth in the starry heaven will be continued at the end of the following chapter.


CHAPTER THE THIRTY-SEVENTH. THE DOCTRINE OF CHARITY AND FAITH That which makes heaven with man also makes the Church, for the Church is the Lord's heaven on earth. Consequently from what has been previously said about heaven, it is evident what the Church is.


That is called the Church where the Lord is acknowledged, and where the Word is; for the essentials of the Church are love to the Lord from the Lord, and faith in the Lord from the Lord; and the Word teaches how a man must live in order that he may receive love and faith from the Lord.


The Lord's Church is internal and external; internal with those who do the Lord's commandments from love, for these are they who love the Lord; and external with those who do the Lord's commandments from faith, for these are they who believe in the Lord.


In order that the Church may exist, there must be doctrine from the Word, because without doctrine the Word is not understood; yet doctrine alone in a man does not make the Church in him; but a life according thereto. From this it follows that faith alone does not make the Church; but the life of faith which is charity.


The genuine doctrine of the Church is the doctrine of charity and at the same time of faith, and not the doctrine of faith without that of charity; for the doctrine of charity and at the same time of faith is the doctrine of life; but not the doctrine of faith without the doctrine of charity.


Those who are outside the Church, and yet acknowledge one God, and live according to their religion in a kind of charity toward the neighbor, are in communion with those who are of the Church, because no one is condemned who believes in God, and lives well. From this it is evident that the Lord's Church is everywhere in the whole world, although specifically it is where the Lord is acknowledged, and where the Word is.


Everyone in whom the Church is, is saved. But everyone in whom the Church is not, is condemned. EXODUS 37 1. And Bezalel made the ark of shittim wood; two cubits and a half the length thereof, and a cubit and a half the breadth thereof, and a cubit and a half the height thereof. 2. And he overlaid it with pure gold, from within and from without, and made for it a border of gold round about. 3. And he cast for it four rings of gold upon the four corners thereof; even two rings upon the one side of it, and two rings upon the other side of it. 4. And he made staves of shittim wood, and overlaid them with gold. 5. And he put the staves into the rings upon the sides of the ark, to carry the ark. 6. And he made a propitiatory of pure gold; two cubits and a half the length thereof, and a cubit and a half the breadth thereof. 7. And he made two cherubs of gold, solid made he them, at the two extremities of the propitiatory. 8. One cherub at the extremity on this side, and one cherub at the extremity on the other side; out of the propitiatory made he the cherubs at the two extremities thereof. 9. And the cherubs were spreading out their wings upward, covering over with their wings upon the propitiatory, and their faces were a man toward his brother; toward the propitiatory were the faces of the cherubs. 10. And he made the table of shittim wood; two cubits the length thereof, and a cubit the breadth thereof, and a cubit and a half the height thereof. 11. And he overlaid it with pure gold, and he made for it a border of gold round about. 12. And he made for it a closure of a handbreadth round about; and made a border of gold for the closure thereof round about. 13. And he cast for it four rings of gold, and put the rings upon the four corners that belonged to the four feet thereof. 14. Over against the closure were the rings, receptacles for the staves to carry the table. 15. And he made the staves of shittim wood, and overlaid them with gold, to carry the table. 16. And he made the vessels that were upon the table; the little dishes thereof, and the cups thereof, and the salvers thereof, and the little brooms thereof, with which it should be covered, of pure gold. 17. And he made the lampstand of pure gold; solid made he the lampstand; its shaft, and its reed, its cups, its pomegranates, and its flowers, were from it. 18. And six reeds going out of the sides thereof; three reeds of the lampstand out of the one side thereof, and three reeds of the lampstand out of the other side thereof. 19. Three almond-shaped cups in one reed, a pomegranate and a flower; and three almond-shaped cups going out from one reed, a pomegranate and a flower; so for the six reeds going out of the lampstand. 20. And in the lampstand four almond-shaped cups; its pomegranates and its flowers. 21. And a pomegranate under two reeds out of it, and a pomegranate under two reeds out of it, and a pomegranate under two reeds out of it, for the six reeds going out of it. 22. Their pomegranates and their reeds were out of it; the whole of it one solid of pure gold. 23. And he made the lamps thereof, seven; and the tongs thereof, and the basins thereof, of pure gold. 24. Of a talent of gold made he it, and all the vessels thereof. 25. And he made the altar of incense of shittim wood; a cubit the length thereof, and a cubit the breadth thereof, foursquare; and two cubits the height thereof; out of it were its horns. 26. And he overlaid it with pure gold, its roof, and its walls round about, and its horns; and he made for it a border of gold round about. 27. And two rings of gold made he for it from under its border, upon the two ribs thereof, upon its two sides, for receptacles for the staves, to carry it in them. 28. And he made the staves of shittim wood, and overlaid them with gold. 29. And he made the holy oil of anointing, and the incense of spices, pure, with the work of the perfumer.


THE CONTENTS. As in this chapter the ark, the lampstand, and the altar of incense are treated of, and the description given of them here is similar to that given in chapter 25, where each and all things have been unfolded in respect to the internal sense, they are therefore here passed by without further explication.


CONTINUATION ABOUT THE FIFTH EARTH IN THE STARRY HEAVEN. In addition to what has been related, some things were also seen on that earth itself, which was effected by communication with the angels who were there, and who appeared as men of the earth. For when these angels are presented to view as men in the manner above related, they see with their eyes the objects there exactly as do the inhabitants. But when they are not in this state, they see nothing of the kind, but only what is in heaven.


Their habitations were seen, which were low houses in the form of the tents that were used by the ancients. They were drawn out to a great length, and had windows on the sides according to the number of the abodes or chambers into which they were divided. The roof was rounded, and there was a door at each end. They said that they are built of earth, and are roofed with sods; and that the windows are made of grassy threads, so woven together that the light may shine through. Little children were also seen there, and they said that the neighbors come to them especially for the sake of their own little children, so that these may be in companionship with other little children under the view and oversight of the parents.


There appeared also fields then whitening with the nearly ripe harvest. The seeds or grains of this harvest were shown, which were like the grains of Chinese wheat. Loaves of bread also were shown made from this grain, which were small and [formed] in square pieces. There also appeared grassy plains with flowers on them; and also trees that bore a fruit like pomegranates; and also plantations that were not grapevines, but yet bore berries from which they prepare wine.


The sun there, which to us is a star, appears there of a flame color, about the fourth part of the size of our sun. Their year is about two hundred days long, and the day fifteen hours, as compared with the time of the days on our earth. The earth itself is one of the smallest in the starry heaven, being scarcely five hundred German miles in circumference. 10771-1 These things the angels related from a comparison made with such things on our earth, which they saw in me, or in my memory. They drew these conclusions by means of angelic ideas, whereby the measures of spaces and of times are at once known in the right proportion relatively to the spaces and times elsewhere. In such matters, angelic ideas, which are spiritual, immeasurably surpass human ideas, which are natural.


A sixth earth in the starry heaven will be described at the end of the following chapter.


CHAPTER THE THIRTY-EIGHTH THE DOCTRINE OF CHARITY AND FAITH The government of the Lord in the heavens and on earth is called Providence. And as all the good which is of love, and all the truth which is of faith, are from Him, and absolutely nothing from man, it is evident from this that the Divine Providence of the Lord is in each and all things that conduce to the salvation of the human race. This the Lord thus teaches in John: I am the way, the truth, and the life (John 14:6). As the branch cannot bear fruit of itself, except it abide in the vine, so neither can ye, except ye abide in Me: without Me ye can do nothing (John 15:4, 5).


Moreover the Divine Providence of the Lord is over the veriest singulars of man's life; for there is one only fountain of life, which is the Lord, from whom we live and act and have our being.


Those who think about the Divine Providence from worldly things, conclude from these that it is only universal, and that the singulars appertain to man. But these persons are not acquainted with the arcana of heaven, for they form their conclusions solely from the loves of self and of the world and their pleasures; and therefore when they see the evil exalted to honors, and gaining wealth rather than the good; and also that the evil succeed in accordance with their skill, they say in their hearts that it would not be so if the Divine Providence were in each and all things. But these persons do not consider that the Divine Providence does not look to that which is fleeting and transitory, and which comes to an end together with the life of man in the world; but that it looks to that which remains to eternity, thus which has no end. That which has no end is; but that which has an end, relatively is not.


Everyone who duly reflects is able to know that eminence and wealth in the world are not real Divine blessings, although from the pleasure in them men so call them; for they pass away, and likewise seduce many, and turn them away from heaven; but that life in heaven and happiness there are the real blessings which are from the Divine. This the Lord also teaches in Luke: Make for yourselves treasure in the heavens that faileth not, where thief draweth not near, nor moth destroyeth. For where your treasure is, there will your heart be also (Luke 12:33, 34).


The reason why the evil succeed in accordance with their skill, is that it is according to order that everyone should do what he does from reason and also from freedom; and therefore unless it were left to a man to act in freedom according to his reason, and thus also unless the consequent arts succeeded, the man could not possibly be disposed to receive eternal life, because this is instilled when the man is in freedom, and his reason is enlightened. For no one can be compelled to good, because nothing compulsory cleaves to the man, for it is not his. That becomes the man's own which is done from freedom, for that which is from the will is done from freedom, and the will is the man himself; and therefore unless a man is kept in the freedom to do evil also, good from the Lord cannot be provided for him.


To leave man from his freedom to do evil also, is called permission.


To be led to happiness in the world by means of his skill, appears to the man as if it were done from his own sagacity. Nevertheless the Divine Providence continually accompanies by permitting and by constantly withdrawing from evil. But to be led to happiness in heaven is known and perceived not to be of man's own sagacity, because it is from the Lord, and is effected from his Divine providence by disposing and continually leading to good.


That this is the case a man cannot apprehend from the light of nature, for from this light he does not know the laws of Divine order.


Be it known that there is providence and there is foresight. Good is that which is provided by the Lord, but evil is that which is foreseen by the Lord. The one must be with the other, for that which comes from man is nothing but evil; but that which comes from the Lord is nothing but good. EXODUS 38 1. And he made the altar of burnt-offering of shittim wood, five cubits the length thereof, and five cubits the breadth thereof, foursquare; and three cubits the height thereof. 2. And he made the horns of it upon the four corners thereof, out of it were its horns; and he overlaid it with brass. 3. And he made all the vessels of the altar; the pans, and the shovels, and the basins, and the fleshhooks, and the fire-tongs; all the vessels thereof made he of brass. 4. And he made for the altar a grating, a network of brass, under the compass of it beneath, even unto the middle of it. 5. And he cast four rings on the four ends of the grating of brass, receptacles for the staves. 6. And he made the staves of shittim wood, and overlaid them with brass. 7. And he put the staves into the rings upon the sides of the altar, to carry it in them; hollow of boards made he it. 8. And he made the laver of brass, and its base of brass, in the view of the ministering women who ministered at the door of the Tent of the meeting. 9. And he made the court at the corner of the south southward; the hangings for the court of fine twined linen, a hundred cubits; 10. The pillars thereof twenty, and their bases twenty, of brass; the hooks of the pillars and their fillets of silver. 11. And at the corner of the north a hundred cubits, the pillars thereof twenty, and their bases twenty, of brass; the hooks of the pillars and their fillets of silver. 12. And at the corner of the sea, hangings of fifty cubits, their pillars ten, and their bases ten; the hooks of the pillars and their fillets of silver. 13. And at the corner of the east eastward fifty cubits. 14. The hangings fifteen cubits at the shoulder; the pillars thereof three, and their bases three. 15. And at the other shoulder, on this side and on that side, at the gate of the court, hangings of fifteen cubits; the pillars thereof three, and their bases three. 16. All the hangings of the court round about were of fine twined linen. 17. And their bases for the pillars were of brass; the hooks of the pillars and their fillets of silver; and their heads were overlaid with silver, and these were furnished with fillets of silver, all the pillars of the court. 18. And the covering for the gate of the court with the work of the embroiderer; of blue, and crimson, and scarlet double-dyed, and fine twined linen; and twenty cubits the length, and the height in the breadth five cubits, over against the hangings of the court. 19. And the pillars thereof were four, and their bases four, of brass; their hooks of silver, and their heads and their fillets were overlaid with silver. 20. And all the pegs for the Habitation, and for the court round about, were of brass. 21. This is the number of the things for the Habitation, the Habitation of the Testimony, as they were numbered upon the mouth of Moses, for the ministry of the Levites, by the hand of Ithamar, the son of Aaron the priest. 22. And Bezalel the son of Uri, the son of Hur, of the tribe of Judah, made all that Jehovah commanded Moses; 23. And with him Aholiab, the son of Ahisamach, of the tribe of Dan, a craftsman, and a thinker, and an embroiderer in blue, and in crimson, and in scarlet double-dyed, and in fine linen. 24. All the gold that was wrought for the work in all the work of holiness, even the gold of the wave-offering, was nine and twenty talents, and seven hundred and thirty shekels, in the shekel of holiness. 25. And the silver of them that were numbered of the assemblage was a hundred talents, and a thousand seven hundred and seventy-five shekels, in the shekel of holiness. 26. A beka a head, the half of a shekel in the shekel of holiness, for everyone that passed over upon them that were numbered, from a son of twenty years and upward, for six hundred thousand and three thousand and five hundred and fifty [men]. 27. And it was [that] a hundred talents of silver were for casting the bases of holiness, and the bases of the veil; a hundred bases for the hundred talents, a talent for a base. 28. And of the thousand seven hundred and seventy-five shekels he made hooks for the pillars, and overlaid their heads, and adorned them with fillets. 29. And the brass of the wave-offering was seventy talents, and two thousand and four hundred shekels. 30. And therewith he made the bases of the door of the Tent of meeting, and the altar of brass, and the grating of brass for it, and all the vessels of the altar. 31. And the bases of the court round about, and the bases of the gate of the court, and all the pegs of the Habitation, and all the pegs of the court round about.


THE CONTENTS. As in this chapter the altar of burnt-offering, and the court of the Tent of meeting, are treated of; and the same things have already been similarly described in chapter 27, and have there been unfolded, these things also are passed by without any further unfolding in respect to the internal sense.


ON A SIXTH EARTH IN THE STARRY HEAVEN. Once more was I conducted to another earth that was in the universe outside our solar world, and this also by means of changes of state continued for about twelve hours. In company with me there were a number of spirits and angels from our earth, with whom I conversed on the way or during the progression. I was carried sometimes obliquely upward, and sometimes obliquely downward, continually toward the south. In two places only did I see spirits, and in one I spoke to them.


On the way, or during this progression, it was given me to observe how immense is the Lord's heaven that is for the angels. For from the regions not inhabited it was given me to conclude that it is so immense that if there were many myriads of earths, and in each as great a multitude of men as in our own, still there would be room for them to eternity, and it would never be filled. This I could conclude from a comparison made with the extent of the heaven which is about our earth, and for it.


When the angelic spirits who were from that earth came into view, they accosted us, asking who we were, and what we desired. We said that we were travelers, and that we had been conveyed thither, and that they need not be afraid of us. For they were afraid that we were of those who disturb them about God, about faith, and about other like things, on account of whom they had betaken themselves into that quarter of their earth, avoiding them wherever they could. They were asked by what those persons disturb them. They replied, "By the idea of Three, and by the idea of a Divinity in God without any Humanity, when yet they know and perceive that God is one, and that He is a Man. It was then perceived that those who disturbed them, and whom they fled from, were from our earth. This was perceived also from the fact that those in the other life who wander about in this way from an eagerness and delight in traveling which they contracted in the world, are from our earth; for on other earths there are no such travelings about. It was afterward found that their visitors were monks who had traveled about on our globe from a zeal for converting the Gentiles; and therefore we said that they do well to avoid them, because their intention is not to teach, but to get rich, and to rule; and that they first take pains to captivate the minds of others, and then they subject them to themselves as slaves. We also said that they do well in not suffering their own idea about the Lord to be disturbed by such persons.


They said further that these persons also confuse them by telling them that they ought to have faith, and to believe all that they say; and that they reply to them that they do not know what faith is, or what it is to believe, seeing that they perceive within themselves that the thing is so. For they were of the Lord's celestial kingdom, where all know from interior perception the truths which with us are called truths of faith, because they are in enlightenment from the Lord, differently from those who are in the Lord's spiritual kingdom. That they were of this nature it was also given to see from the flame-like source of their ideas. When there is discourse about truths, those who are of the Lord's celestial kingdom say no more than Yea, yea, or Nay, nay; and they never reason about them as to whether they are so or are not so. These are they of whom the Lord says, "Let your communication be, Yea, yea; Nay, nay; that which is more than these is from evil." From this it is that these spirits said that they do not know what it is to have faith, or to believe. They consider this to be like someone telling his companion, who sees houses or trees with his own eyes, that he ought to have faith or believe that they are houses and trees, while he clearly sees that such is the fact. Such are they who belong to the Lord's celestial kingdom, and such were these angelic spirits. We told them that there are few on our earth who have interior perception, for the reason that in their youth they learn truths and do not practice them. For man has two faculties, which are called the understanding and the will; and as those who do not admit truths further than into the memory and thus a little into the understanding, but not into the life, that is, into the will, cannot be in any enlightenment or in interior sight from the Lord, they say that things must be believed, or that people must have faith. And they also reason about these things as to whether they are true or not; nay, they do not wish them to be perceived by any interior sight or understanding. They speak in this way because with them truths are devoid of light from heaven, and to those who see without light from heaven, falsities can appear as truths, and truths as falsities. From this a blindness so great has taken possession of many there, that although a man does not practice truths, that is, live according to them, they nevertheless say that he can be saved by faith alone.


We afterward spoke to them about the Lord, about love to Him, about love toward the neighbor, and about regeneration, saying that to love the Lord is to love the commandments which are from Him, that is, to live according to them from this love; that love toward the neighbor is to will good and from this to do good to one's fellow-citizen, to our country, to the church, to the Lord's kingdom, not for the sake of self, to be seen, or to have merit; but from the affection of good. With regard to regeneration, we said that those who are being regenerated by the Lord, and who introduce truths at once into the life, come into interior perception about them; but that those who receive truths first in the memory, and then in the understanding, and finally in the will, are those who are in faith; for they act from faith, which is then called conscience. They said that they perceived these things to be so, consequently also what faith is.


A continuation about this sixth earth in the starry heaven will be found at the end of the following chapter.


CHAPTER THE THIRTY-NINTH. THE DOCTRINE OF CHARITY AND FAITH There are two kinds of things with men that must be in order, namely, the things that belong to heaven, and the things that belong to the world. The things that belong to heaven are called Ecclesiastical; and the things that belong to the world are called Civil.


Order cannot be maintained in the world without overseers, who must take note of all things that are done according to order, and that are done contrary to order; and who must reward those who live according to order, and punish those who live contrary to order.


If this be not done, the human race will perish. For there is born in everyone, by inheritance, the desire to rule over others, and to possess the goods of others. From this come enmities, envyings, hatreds, revenges, deceits, fierce ragings, and many other evils; and therefore unless men are kept in bonds by laws, and by rewards suited to their loves, which are honors and gains for those who do good things; and by punishments contrary to their loves, which are the loss of honors, of possessions, and of life for those who do evil things, the human race must perish.


There must therefore be overseers learned in the law, wise, and god-fearing, to keep the assemblages of men in order. Among the overseers also there must be order, lest anyone should from caprice, or from ignorance, permit evils that are contrary to order, and should thus destroy it. This is guarded against when there are higher and lower overseers, among whom there is subordination.


Overseers over the things with man that belong to heaven, or over ecclesiastical things, are called priests, and their office is called the priesthood. But overseers over such things with man as belong to the world, or over civil matters, are called magistrates, and their chief, where such supreme powers exist, is called a king.


As regards priests, they must teach men the way to heaven, and must also lead them. They must teach them according to the doctrine of their church, and they must lead them to live according to it. Priests who teach truths and by means of them lead to the good of life, and thus to the Lord, are good shepherds of the sheep; but those who teach, and do not lead to the good of life, and thus to the Lord, are evil shepherds. The latter are called by the Lord "thieves and robbers," in John 10:7-16.


Priests must not claim for themselves any power over the souls of men, because they do not know in what state are a man's interiors; and still less must they claim for themselves the power of opening and closing heaven, because this power belongs to the Lord alone.


Priests must have dignity and honor on account of the holy things which they engage in; but those of them who are wise give the honor to the Lord, from whom come all holy things; and not to themselves. But those of them who are not wise attribute the honor to themselves. These take it away from the Lord. Those who attribute honor to themselves on account of the holy things which they engage in, set honor and profit above the salvation of souls, which they ought to have regard for. But those who give the honor to the Lord and not to themselves, set the salvation of souls above honor and profit.


No honor of any employment is in the person; but it is adjoined to him according to the dignity of the thing which he administers, and that which is adjoined is separate from the person, and also is separated from him together with the employment. The honor that is in the person is the honor of the wisdom and fear of the Lord [that he displays].


Priests must teach the people, and lead them to the good of life by means of truths. But they must not compel anyone, because no one can be compelled to believe contrary to what he thinks in his heart to be true. He who believes differently from the priest, and makes no disturbance, must be left in peace; but he who makes a disturbance must be separated; for this also belongs to the order for the sake of which is the priesthood.


As priests are overseers for the administration of the things that belong to the Divine law and to worship, so are kings and magistrates for the administration of the things that belong to the civil law, and to judgment.


As the king alone cannot administer all things, therefore there are overseers under him, to each of whom has been given the official duty of administering what the king cannot attend to. Taken together these overseers constitute the royalty, but the king himself is the chief.


10771-1 The "German mile" here referred to is equal to 5.753 British statute miles, which would make the circumference of this "Fifth Earth" or planet to be a little less than 2880 American or British miles. [Reviser.]

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