Sacred Texts  Swedenborg  Index  Previous  Next 
Buy this Book at

Arcana Coelestia, by Emanuel Swedenborg, [1749-56], tr. by John F. Potts [1905-10], at

Arcana Coelestia


Verse 31. These are the sons of Shem, according to their families, according to their tongues, in their lands, according to their nations. "These are the sons of Shem," signifies derivations from internal worship, which is "Shem;" "according to their families, according to their tongues, in their lands, in their nations," signifies according to the genius of each in particular and in general; "according to their families," is according to their differences in respect to charity; "according to their tongues," is according to the differences in respect to faith; "in their lands," is in general relatively to the things that are of faith; "in their nations," is in general relatively to the things that are of charity.


That these things are signified, needs no further confirmation; for they are the same words as occur above (verse 20); see what is said there. The significations of the terms, as here of the "families, tongues, lands, and nations," are determined by the relation of the terms to the things of which they are predicated. There they are predicated of Ham, or of corrupt internal worship; but here of Shem, or of true internal worship; and therefore the "families and nations" there relate to the morals, and the "tongues and lands" to the opinions, of a corrupt internal church; while here the "families and nations" relate to the charity, and the "tongues and lands" to the faith, of a true internal church. Concerning the signification of "nations and families," see what follows in this chapter.


Verse 32. These are the families of the sons of Noah, according to their nativities, in their nations. "These are the families of the sons of Noah," signifies the worships of the Ancient Church in particular; "according to their nativities," signifies in proportion as they could be reformed; "in their nations," signifies the worships of that church in general.


These are the families of the sons of Noah. That this signifies the worships of the Ancient Church in particular, is evident from the signification of a "family," and of "the families of the sons," as being worships, and in fact the species of the worships. The nations named in the preceding verses of this chapter signify nothing else than various worships of the Ancient Church, and therefore the families of which the nations consisted must signify the same. In the internal sense no other families can be meant than those of things spiritual and celestial.


According to their nativities. That this signifies in proportion as they could be reformed, is evident from the signification of a "nativity," as being reformation. While a man is being born again, or regenerated, by the Lord, each and all things that he receives anew are nativities or births. So here, as the subject is the Ancient Church, the nativities signify in proportion as they could be reformed. As regards the reformations of the nations, they were not all in the same worship, nor in the same doctrine, for the reason that they were not all of the same genius, and were not all similarly educated and instructed from infancy. The principles which a man imbibes from infancy the Lord never breaks, but bends. If they are things that the man esteems holy, and are such as are not contrary to Divine and natural order, but are in themselves matters of indifference, the Lord lets them alone, and suffers the man to remain in them. So it was with many things in the second Ancient Church, concerning which of the Lord's Divine mercy hereafter.


In their nations. That these nations signify the various worships of that church in general, is evident from what has been said before about nations, and from what follows.


And from these were spread abroad the nations in the earth after the flood. "From these were spread abroad the nations in the earth," signifies that from them came all the worships of the church in respect to goods and evils, which are signified by "the nations;" "the earth" is the church; "after the flood," signifies from the beginning of the Ancient Church.


And from these were spread abroad the nations in the earth. That this signifies that from them came all the worships of the church in respect to goods and evils, and that these are meant by the "nations," is evident from the signification of "nations." By a nation, as has been explained before, are meant many families together. In the Most Ancient and in the Ancient Church, the many families which acknowledged one father constituted one nation. But as to "nations" signifying in the internal sense the worships of the church, and this in respect to the goods or evils in the worship, the case is this: when families and nations are viewed by the angels, they have no idea of a nation, but only of the worship in it; for they regard all from the quality itself, that is, from what they are. The quality or character of a man, from which he is regarded in heaven, is his charity and faith. This anyone may clearly apprehend if he considers that when he looks at any man, or any family, or nation, he thinks for the most part of what quality they are, everyone from that which is dominant in himself at the time. The idea of their quality comes instantly to mind, and in himself he estimates them from that. Still more is this the case with the Lord; and, from Him, with the angels, who cannot but regard a man, a family, and a nation, from their quality in respect to charity and faith. And hence it is that in the internal sense by "nations" nothing else is signified than the worship of the church, and this in respect to its quality, which is the good of charity and the derivative truth of faith. When the term "nations" occurs in the Word, the angels do not abide at all in the idea of a nation, in accordance with the historical sense of the letter, but in the idea of the good and truth in the nation that is named.


Further, as regards nations signifying the goods and evils in worship, the case is this. In the most ancient times, as has been stated before, men lived distinguished into nations, families, and households, in order that the church on earth might represent the Lord's kingdom, wherein all are distinguished into societies, and these societies into greater ones, and these again into still greater societies, and this according to the differences of love and of faith, in general and in particular, concerning which see n. 684, 685. Thus these in like manner are distinguished as it were into households, families, and nations. And hence it is that in the Word "houses, families, and nations" signify the goods of love and of the derivative faith; and an accurate distinction is there made between "nations" and "people." A "nation" signifies good or evil, and a "people" truth or falsity, and this so constantly as never to vary, as may be seen from the following passages. [2] In Isaiah: In that day there shall be a root of Jesse, which standeth for an ensign of the peoples, unto it shall the nations seek, and His rest shall be a glory. In that day the Lord shall set His hand again the second time to acquire the remnant of His people, which shall be left from Assyria, and from Egypt, and from Pathros, and from Cush, and from Elam, and from Shinar, and from Hamath, and from the islands of the sea. And He shall set up an ensign for the nations, and shall assemble the outcasts of Israel, and gather together the dispersed of Judah (Isa. 11:10-12). Here "peoples" denote the truths, and "nations" the goods, of the church; and there is a manifest distinction made between them. The subject treated of is the Lord's kingdom and the church, and in a universal sense every regenerate man. The signification of the names is as stated above; and by "Israel" is signified the spiritual things of the church, and by "Judah" its celestial things. Again: The people that walked in darkness have seen a great light; Thou hast multiplied the nation, Thou hast magnified gladness for it (Isa. 9:2-3). The "people" here denote truths, and therefore are said to "walk in darkness," and to "see light;" the "nation" denotes goods. [3] And again: What answer shall be made to the messengers of the nation? That Jehovah hath founded Zion, and in her shall the wretched ones of His people confide (Isa. 14:32). Here likewise the "nation" denotes good, and "people" truth. And again: Jehovah Zebaoth will swallow up in this mountain the faces of the covering, of the covering over all peoples, and the veil that is spread over all nations (Isa. 25:7). Here a new church is spoken of, or the church of the nations; "peoples" denote its truths, and "nations" its goods. Again: Open ye the gates, that the righteous nation that keepeth faithfulnesses may enter in (Isa. 26:2), where "nation" manifestly denotes goods. Again: All the nations shall be gathered together, and the peoples shall be assembled (Isa. 43:9). This also is said of the church of the nations; "nations" denoting its goods, and "peoples" its truths. And because they are distinct from each other, both are treated of; otherwise there would be a vain repetition. Again: Thus saith the Lord Jehovih, Behold I will lift up Mine hand to the nations, and will exalt My ensign to the peoples; and they shall bring thy sons in their bosom, and shall carry thy daughters upon their shoulder (Isa. 49:22). This is said of the Lord's kingdom; and the "nations" in like manner denote goods, and the "peoples" truths. [4] Again: Thou shalt break forth on the right hand and on the left, and thy seed shall inherit the nations, and they shall inhabit the desolate cities (Isa. 54:3); treating of the Lord's kingdom, and of the church which is called the church of the nations. That the "nations" denote the goods of charity, or, what is the same, those in whom there are goods of charity, is evident from its being said that the "seed"- or faith-"shall inherit" them; "cities" denote truths. Again: Behold I have given Him for a witness to the peoples, a prince and lawgiver to the peoples. Behold, thou shalt call a nation that thou knewest not, and a nation that knew not thee shall run unto thee (Isa. 55:4-5). This is said of the Lord's kingdom; "peoples" denote truths; "nations" goods. Those in the church who are endowed with the good of charity are "nations," and those who are endowed with the truths of faith are "peoples;" for goods and truths are predicated according to the subjects in whom they are. Again: Nations shall walk to thy light, and kings to the brightness of thy rising. Then thou shalt see and flow together, and thine heart shall be amazed and be enlarged; because the multitude of the sea shall be converted unto thee, the army of the nations shall come unto thee (Isa. 60:3, 5); treating of the Lord's kingdom, and of the church of the nations. "Nations" here denote goods; "kings," who belong to peoples, truths. [5] In Zephaniah: The remains of My people shall spoil them, and the residue of My nation shall inherit them (Zeph. 2:9). In Zechariah: Many peoples and numerous nations shall come to seek Jehovah of Armies in Jerusalem (Zech. 8:22). "Jerusalem" denotes the Lord's kingdom, and the church; "peoples" those who are in the truths of faith; "nations" those who are in the good of charity; and therefore they are mentioned distinctively. In David: Thou wilt deliver Me from the contentions of the people; Thou wilt set Me for the head of the nations; a people whom I have not known shall serve Me (Ps. 18:43). Here likewise the "people" denote those who are in truths; and the "nations" those who are in good; and they are both mentioned because they constitute the man of the church. Again: The peoples shall confess Thee, O God, all the peoples shall confess Thee, the nations shall be glad and shall exult, because Thou shalt judge the peoples in uprightness, and shalt lead the nations into the land (Ps. 67:4-5). Here "peoples" manifestly denote those who are in the truths of faith; and "nations" those who are in the good of charity. [6] In Moses: Remember the days of eternity, understand the years of generation and generation; ask thy father, and he will show thee; thine elders, and they will tell thee. When the Most High gave to the nations their inheritance, and separated the sons of man, He set the bounds of the peoples according to the number of the sons of Israel (Deut. 32:7-8). This is said of the Most Ancient Church, and of the Ancient Churches, which are "the days of eternity, and the years of generation and generation;" and in which they who were in the good of charity were called "nations," to whom an inheritance was given; and they who were in the derivative truths of faith were called "sons of man," and afterwards "peoples." It was because the goods of the church are signified by "nations," and its truths by "peoples," that it was said concerning Esau and Jacob, while they were yet in the womb, Two nations are in thy womb, and two peoples shall be separated from thy bowels (Gen. 25:23). From these passages it may now be seen what the church of the nations is, in its genuine sense. The Most Ancient Church was a true church of the nations, and so afterwards was the Ancient Church. [7] Because those who are in charity are called "nations," and those who are in faith "peoples," the priesthood of the Lord is predicated of nations-because of things celestial, which are goods-and His royalty of peoples-because of spiritual things, which are truths. This was also represented in the Jewish Church, where before they had kings they were a nation, but after they received kings they became a people.


Because in the Most Ancient and in the Ancient Church, nations signified goods, or good men, therefore in the opposite sense they signify evils, or evil men. In like manner peoples, because they signified truths, in the opposite sense signify falsities. For in a depraved church good is turned into evil, and truth into falsity. Hence comes the signification of "nations" and of "peoples" in this opposite sense in many places in the Word, as in Isaiah 13:4; 14:6; 18:2, 7; 30:28; 34:1-2; Ezek. 20:32; and in many other places.


As nations signified goods, so also did families, for each nation consisted of families; and so in like manner did households, for each family consisted of a number of households. (Concerning a "household" or "house," see above, n. 710.) "Families," however, signify goods when predicated of nations, and truths when predicated of peoples, as in David: All the families of the nations shall bow themselves before Thee; for the kingdom is Jehovah's, and He is the ruler over the nations (Ps. 22:27-28). Again: Give unto Jehovah, ye families of the peoples, give unto Jehovah glory and strength (Ps. 96:7). In the verse now before us, and also in the preceding verse of this tenth chapter of Genesis, "families" are predicated of goods, because they were families of the nations.


From what has been said it may now be seen that by "the earth" is here signified the church; for when "earth" (or "land") is mentioned, there cannot but be a perception of the nation or people there; and when a nation or people is perceived, there must be a perception of their quality. Hence by "the earth" nothing else is signified than the church, as has been shown before (n. 662, 1066).


That "after the flood" signifies from the beginning of the Ancient Church, is evident from the fact that the flood was the end of the Most Ancient Church and the beginning of the Ancient Church, as was shown before (n. 705, 739, 790).


From all this it may now be seen that although in this chapter mere names of nations and families occur, yet it contains, in general, not only all the differences of worship as regards the goods of charity and truths of faith that were in the Ancient Church, but also all that are in any church; in fact it contains more than any man could ever believe. Such is the Word of the Lord.


CONCERNING THE ANTEDILUVIANS WHO PERISHED. At some height above the head there were a number of spirits who inflowed into my thoughts and kept them as it were bound, so that I was in very much obscurity. They pressed heavily upon me. The spirits about me were likewise held as it were bound by them, so that they could scarcely think, except that which inflowed from those spirits, and this to such a degree as to excite their indignation. It was said that the spirits in question were of those who had lived before the flood; but not of those called Nephilim, and who perished, for they were not so strongly persuasive.


The antediluvians who perished are in a certain hell beneath the heel of the left foot. 1266-1 There is a kind of misty rock with which they are covered, that is projected from their direful phantasies and persuasions, and by which they are separated from the other hells, and are kept away from the world of spirits. They are in the continual effort to rise out of it, but cannot get beyond the effort; for they are of such a nature that if they should come into the world of spirits, they, by their direful phantasies and the exhalations and venom of their persuasions, would take away the faculty of thinking from all the spirits they met, except the good. And unless the Lord, by His coming into the flesh, had liberated the world of spirits from this nefarious crew, the human race would have perished; for no spirit could have been with man, and yet if spirits and angels are not with man, he cannot live a moment.


Those of them who obstinately try to emerge from that hell are cruelly treated by their companions; for they are possessed with deadly hatred against all, even against their companions. Their greatest delight consists in holding each other in subjection, and as it were in butchering each other. Those who more resolutely persist in the endeavor to force their way out, are sent down still deeper under the misty rock; for it is their innate crazy ardor to destroy all, that leads them on; hence their efforts to emerge. They wrap all they meet in a cloth, in order to take them captive, and cast them into a certain sea, as it appears to them, or otherwise treat them savagely.


I was led, guarded, toward that misty rock. (To be led to such spirits is not to be led from place to place, but it is effected by means of intermediate societies of spirits and angels, the man remaining in the same place; and yet it appears to him as a letting down.) As I came near the rock I was met with a coldness which gripped the lower region of my back. From there I spoke with them about their persuasions, and about what they had believed in the life of the body as regards the Lord. They answered that they had thought much about God, but had persuaded themselves that there is no God, but that men are gods, and thus they themselves were gods; and that they had confirmed themselves in these persuasions by their dreams. Their phantasies against the Lord will be spoken of below.


That I might know still better what kind of men they were, it was permitted by the Lord that some of them should come up into the world of spirits. Before this took place a beautiful child appeared, clothed in shining white raiment; afterwards, in an open doorway, there appeared another child in a green garment; and then two maidservants with white headdresses. But what these things signified was not disclosed to me.


Presently some were let out of that hell; but the Lord made such a disposition by means of intermediate spirits and angels that they could do me no harm. Out of that deep they came in front, and appeared to themselves to be working their way toward the front, as it were through caverns in the rock, and so upward. At last they appeared from above to the left, in order that from there, and thus from a distance, they might inflow into me. I was told that they were permitted to inflow into the right side of the head, but not into the left side; and from the right side of the head into the left side of the chest; but by no means into the left of the head, for if this occurred I should be destroyed, because they would then flow in with their persuasions, which are direful and deadly; whereas if they flowed into the right of the head, and thence into the left of the chest, it would be by means of cupidities. Such is the case with influx. [2] Their persuasions are of such a nature that they extinguish all truth and good, so that those into whom they flow can perceive nothing whatever, and after that cannot think; and therefore the other spirits were removed. When they began to flow in I fell asleep. Then while I slept they flowed in by means of cupidities, and this with such violence that if awake I could not have resisted them. In my sleep I was sensible of the vehemence of it, which I cannot describe, save that I afterwards remembered that they tried to kill me by a suffocating afflatus, which was like a terrible nightmare. Then, waking, I observed that they were near me; and when they perceived that I was awake, they fled away to their own place above, and flowed in from thence. [3] When they were there they appeared to me as if they were being wrapped up in a cloth, such as was spoken of before (n. 964). I thought they were being thus wrapped up, but it was others whom they were wrapping up. This is effected by means of phantasies; but yet the spirits against whom they thus work by phantasies know not but that they are really being wrapped up. It appeared as if those whom they thus wrapped up rolled down a certain rocky declivity. But those who were thus wrapped up were released and set at liberty. They were spirits who were unwilling to withdraw, and who were thus preserved by the Lord, for otherwise they would have been suffocated-although they would have revived again, but after great suffering. The spirits from that hell then went back by the rocky declivity; and there was heard from thence a sound of boring, as if many great boring instruments were at work; and it was perceived that it was from their intensely cruel phantasies against the Lord that such a sound came. They were afterwards cast down through dark caverns into their hell beneath the misty rock. While they were in the world of spirits, the constitution or order of the sphere there was changed. 1270-1


After this, there were certain deceitful spirits who desired that these might emerge, and inspired them to say that they were nothing, so that they might steal out. Then a tumult was heard in that hell, as of a great turbulent uprising, which was a commotion among those who desired to force their way out, and therefore it was again permitted that some of them should rise up, and be seen in the same place as the former were. From there, aided by those deceitful genii, they attempted to pour into me their deadly persuasive influence; but in vain, because I was protected by the Lord. Yet I plainly perceived that their persuasive influence was suffocating. They believed themselves to be all-powerful, and able to take away life from everyone. And because they believed themselves to be all-powerful, they were thrust down by a little child, at whose presence they tottered and faltered, so that they cried out that they were in anguish, and this so sorely that they betook themselves to supplications. The deceitful spirits were also punished, first being almost suffocated by the antediluvians, and then being glued together, to make them desist from such doings; but after a time they were set free.


It was afterwards shown me how their women were dressed. They wore upon the head a round black hat, projecting turret-like in front, and had a small face, whereas the men were shaggy and hairy. It was shown me also how they gloried in the great number of their children; and that they had their children with them wherever they went, who walked before them in a curved line. But they were told that the brutes also, even the worst, all have a love for their young; and that this is no evidence that there is anything good in them; but that if they had loved children, not from their love of themselves and their own glory, but that human society might be augmented, for the common good; and especially if they had loved them in order that heaven might thereby be multiplied, thus for the sake of the Lord's kingdom, then their love for children would have been genuine.


CHAPTER 11 CONCERNING THE SITUATION OF THE GRAND MAN; AND ALSO CONCERNING PLACE AND DISTANCE IN THE OTHER LIFE Souls newly arrived from the world, when about to leave the company of the spiritual angels to go among spirits, and so at length to come into the society in which they had been while they lived in the body, are led about by angels to many mansions or abodes, that is, to societies which are distinct and yet conjoined with others; in some of which they are received, while in other cases they are led to still other societies, and this for an indefinite time, until they come to the society in which they had been while they lived in the body; and there they remain. From this moment they experience a new beginning of life. If the man is a dissembler, a hypocrite, or deceitful, who can assume a fictitious state, and a seemingly angelic disposition, he is sometimes received by good spirits; but after a short time he is dissociated, and then wanders about, without the angels, and begs to be received, but is rejected, and sometimes punished, and at last he is carried down among the infernals. Those who are taken up among angels after being vastated, also change their societies, and when they pass from one society to another they are dismissed with courtesy and charity, and this until they come into the angelic society which accords with the distinctive quality or genius of their charity, piety, probity, or sincere courtesy. I in like manner have been led through such "mansions," and those who dwelt there conversed with me, that I might know how the case was in regard to this matter. It was given me at the time to reflect on the changes of place, and to see that they were nothing else than changes of state, my body remaining in the same place.


Among the marvelous things in the other life are, - First, the fact that societies of spirits and angels appear distinct from one another as to situation, although places and distances in that life are nothing else than varieties of state. Second, that the situations and distances are determined by their relation to the human body, so that those who are on the right appear on the right whichever way the body is turned; and the case is the same with those who are on the left and in all other directions. Third, that no spirits or angels are at so great a distance away that they cannot be seen; and yet no more come into view than so many as the Lord permits. Fourth, that spirits of whom others are thinking-for example, such as had been in some manner known to them in the life of the body-when the Lord permits it, are present in a moment, and so closely that they are at the ear, in touch, or else at some distance, greater or less, no matter should they be thousands of miles away, or even among the stars. The reason is that distance of place has no effect in the other life. Fifth, that with the angels there is no idea of time. These things are so in the world of spirits, and are still more completely so in heaven. How much more then must this be the case before the Lord, to whom all both generally and individually cannot but be most present, and under His view and providence. These things seem incredible, but yet they are true.


I was in a society where there was tranquillity, that is, a society of those whose state was tranquil, approximating in a measure to a state of peace, but it was not peace. I spoke there of the state of infants; and also of place, saying that change of place and distance is only an appearance, according to the state of each one, and according to his change of state. When I was translated thither, the spirits around me appeared to be removed, and to be seen below me; and yet I could hear them speaking.


As regards the situation in which spirits are in the world of spirits, and angels in heaven, the case is this. The angels are at the Lord's right hand; on His left are evil spirits; in front are those of a middle kind; at the back are the malignant; above the head are those of a self-exalted spirit who aspire to high things; under the feet are the hells which correspond to those who are on high. Thus all have their situation determined relatively to the Lord; in all directions and at all altitudes, in a horizontal plane and in a vertical one, and in every oblique direction. Their situation is constant, and does not vary to eternity. The heavens there constitute as it were one man, which is therefore called the Grand Man; to which all things that are in man correspond; concerning which correspondence, of the Lord's Divine mercy hereafter. It is from this that there is a like situation of all things around each angel; and with each man to whom heaven is opened by the Lord; for the Lord's presence is attended with this. It would not be so unless the Lord were omnipresent in heaven.


The case is the very same with men, as to their souls, which are constantly bound to some society of spirits and of angels. They too have a situation in the kingdom of the Lord according to the nature of their life, and according to their state. It matters not that they are distant from each other on earth even though it were many thousands of miles-still they can be together in the same society-those who live in charity in an angelic society, and those who live in hatred and such evils in an infernal society. In like manner it matters not that there be many together on earth in one place, for still they are all distinct in accordance with the nature of their life and of their state, and each one may be in a different society. Men who are distant from each other some hundreds or thousands of miles, when they appear to the internal sense may be so near each other that some of them may touch, according to their situation. Thus if there were a number of persons on earth whose spiritual sight was opened, they might be together and converse together, though one was in India and another in Europe, which also has been shown me. Thus are all men on earth, both generally and individually, most closely present to the Lord, and under His view and providence.


A continuation of the subject of situation, place, distance, and time, in the other life, will be found at the end of this chapter. CHAPTER 11. 1. And the whole earth was of one lip, and their words were one. 2. And it came to pass when they journeyed from the east, that they found a valley in the land of Shinar, and they dwelt there. 3. And they said a man to his fellow, Come, let us make bricks, and let us burn them to a burning. And they had brick for stone, and bitumen had they for mortar. 4. And they said, Come, let us build us a city and a tower, and its head in heaven; and let us make us a name, lest peradventure we be scattered upon the faces of the whole earth. 5. And Jehovah came down to see the city and the tower which the sons of man were building. 6. And Jehovah said, Behold, the people are one, and they all have one lip, and this is what they begin to do; and now nothing will be withholden from them of all which they have thought to do. 7. Come, let us go down, and there confound their lip, that they hear not a man the lip of his fellow. 8. And Jehovah scattered them from thence upon the faces of all the earth; and they left off to build the city. 9. Therefore He called the name of it Babel, because there did Jehovah confound the lip of all the earth; and from thence did Jehovah scatter them upon the faces of all the earth. 10. These are the births of Shem: Shem was a son of a hundred years, and begat Arpachshad, two years after the flood. 11. And Shem lived after he begat Arpachshad five hundred years, and begat sons and daughters. 12. And Arpachshad lived five and thirty years, and begat Shelah. 13. And Arpachshad lived after he begat Shelah four hundred and three years, and begat sons and daughters. 14. And Shelah lived thirty years, and begat Eber. 15. And Shelah lived after he begat Eber four hundred and three years, and begat sons and daughters. 16. And Eber lived four and thirty years, and begat Peleg. 17. And Eber lived after he begat Peleg four hundred and thirty years, and begat sons and daughters. 18. And Peleg lived thirty years, and begat Reu. 19. And Peleg lived after he begat Reu two hundred and nine years, and begat sons and daughters. 20. And Reu lived two and thirty years, and begat Serug. 21. And Reu lived after he begat Serug two hundred and seven years, and begat sons and daughters. 22. And Serug lived thirty years, and begat Nahor. 23. And Serug lived after he begat Nahor two hundred years, and begat sons and daughters. 24. And Nahor lived nine and twenty years, and begat Terah. 25. And Nahor lived after he begat Terah a hundred and nineteen years, and begat sons and daughters. 26. And Terah lived seventy years, and begat Abram, Nahor, and Haran. 27. And these are the births of Terah: Terah begat Abram, Nahor, and Haran; and Haran begat Lot. 28. And Haran died upon the faces of Terah his father, in the land of his nativity, in Ur of the Chaldees. 29. And Abram and Nahor took them wives; the name of Abram's wife was Sarai; and the name of Nahor's wife, Milcah, the daughter of Haran, the father of Milcah, and the father of Iscah. 30. And Sarai was barren, she had no offspring. 31. And Terah took Abram his son; and Lot the son of Haran, his son's son; and Sarai his daughter-in-law, his son Abram's wife; and they went forth with them from Ur of the Chaldees, to go into the land of Canaan; and they came even unto Haran, and stayed there. 32. And the days of Terah were two hundred and five years; and Terah died in Haran.


THE CONTENTS. The subject treated of is the first Ancient Church, which was after the flood (verses 1-9).


Concerning its first state, that all had one doctrine (verse 1); its second state, that it began to decline (verse 2); its third, that the falsities of cupidities began to reign (verse 3); its fourth, that men began to exercise dominion by means of Divine worship (verse 4) and therefore the state of the church was changed (verses 5 and 6); so that none had the good of faith (verses 7-9).


The second Ancient Church is then treated of which was named from Eber-and its derivation and state, which finally ended in idolatry (verses 10-26).


The origin of a third Ancient Church is treated of, which from being idolatrous became representative (verses 27-32).


THE INTERNAL SENSE The Ancient Church in general is now treated of, and it is shown that in course of time its internal worship was falsified and adulterated; and consequently its external worship also, for the quality of the external worship is determined by that of the internal worship. The falsification and adulteration of internal worship here is "Babel." That thus far-except what is said about Eber-the historical incidents were not true, but were made up, may be further seen from what is here said about the Babylonish tower-that men undertook to build a tower whose top should be in heaven, that their lips were confounded so that one should not hear the lip of another, and that Jehovah thus confounded them; and also from its being said that this was the origin of Babel, whereas in the preceding chapter (verse 10) it is said that Babel was built by Nimrod. It is also evident from all this that Babel does not signify a city, but a certain actual thing; and here a worship whose interiors are profane, while its externals appear holy.


Verse I. And the whole earth was of one lip, and their words were one. "And the whole earth was of one lip," signifies that everywhere there was one doctrine in general; a "lip" is doctrine; "the earth" is the church; "and their words were one," signifies that there was one doctrine in particular.


The whole earth was of one lip. That this signifies that everywhere there was one doctrine in general, is evident from the signification of "lip," in the Word, concerning which presently. In this verse, and by these few words, is described the state of the Ancient Church as it had been, that it had one doctrine in general; but in the following verse it is described how it began to be falsified and adulterated; and from that to the ninth verse, how it became altogether perverted, so that it no longer had any internal worship. Then, a little further on, the subject treated of is the second Ancient Church, that was begun by Eber; and, finally, the third Ancient Church, which was the beginning of the Jewish Church. For after the flood there were three churches in succession. [2] As regards the first Ancient Church, in that although it was so widely spread over the earth it was still one in lip and one in words, that is, one in doctrine in general and in particular, when yet its worship both internal and external was everywhere different-as shown in the preceding chapter, where by each nation there named a different doctrinal and ritual were signified-the case is this. In heaven there are innumerable societies, and all different, and yet they are a one, for they are all led as a one by the Lord, concerning which see what has been said before (n. 457, 551, 684, 685, 690). In this respect the case is the same as it is with man, in whom, although there are so many viscera, and so many little viscera within the viscera, organs, and members, each one of which acts in a different way, yet all and each are governed as a one, by the one soul; or as it is with the body, wherein the activities of the powers and motions are different, yet all are governed by one motion of the heart and one motion of the lungs, and make a one. That these can thus act as a one, comes from the fact that in heaven there is one single influx, which is received by every individual in accordance with his own genius; and which influx is an influx of affections from the Lord, from His mercy, and from His life; and notwithstanding that there is only one single influx, yet all things obey and follow as a one. 1285-1 This is the result of the mutual love in which are they who are in heaven. [3] The case was the same in the first Ancient Church; for although there were as many kinds of worship-some being internal and some external-as in general there were nations, and as many specifically as there were families in the nations, and as many in particular as there were men of the church, yet they all had one lip and were one in words; that is, they all had one doctrine, both in general and in particular. The doctrine is one when all are in mutual love, or in charity. Mutual love and charity cause them all to be a one, although they are diverse, for they make a one out of the varieties. All men how many soever they may be, even myriads of myriads, if they are in charity or mutual love, have one end, namely, the common good, the Lord's kingdom, and the Lord Himself. Varieties in matters of doctrine and of worship are like the varieties of the senses and of the viscera in man, as has been said, which contribute to the perfection of the whole. For then, through charity, the Lord inflows and works in diverse ways, in accordance with the genius of each one; and thus, both in general and in particular, disposes all into order, on earth as in heaven. And then the will of the Lord is done, as He Himself teaches, as in the heavens, so also upon the earth.


That a "lip" signifies doctrine, is evident from the following passages in the Word. In Isaiah: The seraphim cried and said, Holy, holy, holy, Jehovah of Armies. And the prophet said, Woe is me! for I am cut off, because I am a man of unclean lips, and I dwell in the midst of a people of unclean lips; for mine eyes have seen the King, Jehovah of Armies. Then flew one of the seraphim unto me, and he touched my mouth, and said, Lo, this hath touched thy lips; and thine iniquity is taken away, and thy sin is expiated (Isa. 6:3, 5-7). "Lips" here denote the interior things of man, thus internal worship, from which is adoration, as is here represented with the prophet. That his lips were touched, and that thus his iniquity was taken away and his sin expiated, anyone may see was a representative of interior things that are signified by the "lips," which are things of charity and its doctrine. [2] Again: Jehovah shall smite the earth with the rod of His mouth, and with the breath of His lips shall He slay the wicked (Isa. 11:4). In the internal sense this does not mean that Jehovah smites with the rod of His mouth, and slays the wicked with the breath of His lips, but that a wicked man does this to himself; "the breath of the lips" is doctrine, which with the wicked is false. Again: I create the increase of the lips, peace, peace, to him that is far off, and to him that is near, saith Jehovah; and I heal him (Isa. 57:19). "The increase of the lips" denotes doctrine. [3] In Ezekiel: Son of man, go, get thee unto the house of Israel, and speak My words unto them. For thou art not sent to a people deep of lip, and heavy of tongue, but to the house of Israel; not to many peoples deep of lip and heavy of tongue, whose words thou canst not understand. If I had sent thee to them, would they not have hearkened unto thee? But the house of Israel will not hearken unto thee, for they will not hearken unto Me, for all the house of Israel are of a hardened forehead, and hard of heart (Ezek. 3:4-7). "Deep of lip" is predicated of the nations which although in falsity of doctrine were yet in charity, and are therefore said to "hearken;" but they who are not in charity are said to be of "a hardened forehead, and a hard heart." [4] In Zephaniah: Then will I turn to the people with a clear lip, that they may all call upon the name of Jehovah, to serve Him with one shoulder (Zeph. 3:9). "A clear lip" manifestly denotes doctrine. In Malachi: The law of truth was in his mouth, and perversity was not found in his lips. For the priest's lips should keep knowledge, and they should seek the law at his mouth; for he is the angel of Jehovah of Armies (Mal. 2:6-7). This is said of Levi, by whom the Lord is represented; "lips" denote doctrine from charity. In David: Who say, With our tongue will we prevail; our lips are with us (Ps. 12:4). Here "lips" denote falsities. Again: My soul shall be satisfied as with marrow and fatness; and my mouth shall praise Thee with lips of songs (Ps. 63:5). In Isaiah: In that day there shall be five cities in the land of Egypt speaking with the lip of Canaan, and swearing to Jehovah of Armies (Isa. 19:18) "lip" denotes doctrine.


That "the earth" signifies the church, has been shown before (n. 662, 1066).


Their words were one. That this signifies that there was one doctrine in particular, is evident from what has been said before; for "a lip" signifies doctrine in general, as was shown; and "words" signify doctrine in particular, or the particulars of doctrine. For the particulars cause no disagreement, provided they look to one end, which is to love the Lord above all things and the neighbor as oneself; for then they are particulars of these generals. [2] That a "word" signifies all doctrine concerning charity and the derivative faith, and that "words" signify the things which are of doctrine, is evident in David: I will confess unto Thee with uprightness of heart, when I shall learn the judgments of Thy righteousness; I will keep Thy statutes. Wherewithal shall a child make pure his path? By taking heed according to Thy word. With my whole heart have I sought Thee; make me not to wander from Thy precepts. Thy word have I hidden in my heart, that I might not sin against Thee. Blessed art Thou, O Jehovah; teach me Thy statutes. With my lips have I rehearsed all the judgments of Thy mouth. I have rejoiced in the way of Thy testimonies. I meditate in Thy commandments, and look unto Thy ways. I delight in Thy statutes; I do not forget Thy word (Ps. 119:7-16). "Word" here denotes doctrine in general. It is evident that a distinction is here made between "precepts," "judgments," "testimonies," "commandments," "statutes," "way," and "lips;" and that all these belong to the Word, or to doctrine. And everywhere else in the Word they signify the same distinct things. [3] Again: A song of love. My heart hath willed a good word; my tongue is the pen of a rapid writer. Thou art beauteous above the sons of man; grace is poured upon thy lips. Ride upon the word of truth; and of the gentleness of righteousness; thy right hand shall teach thee wonderful things (Ps. 45:1-2, 4). "To ride upon the word of truth and of the gentleness of righteousness," is to teach the doctrine of truth and of good. Here, as elsewhere in the Word, the terms "word," "lip," and "tongue" signify distinct things; that they are things of doctrine concerning charity is evident, because it is called "a song of loves." Of this doctrine is predicated beauty above the sons of man, grace of lips, and a right hand that teacheth wonderful things. [4] In Isaiah: Jehovah sent a word unto Jacob, and it hath lighted upon Israel (Isa. 9:8). "A word" denotes the doctrine of internal and of external worship; "Jacob" here denotes external worship, and "Israel" internal. In Matthew: Jesus said, Man doth not live by bread alone, but by every word that proceedeth out of the mouth of God (Matt. 4:4). Again: When anyone heareth the word of the Kingdom and heedeth it not, then cometh the evil one and snatcheth away that which hath been sown in his heart (Matt. 13:19); see also concerning "the word" in the same chapter, verses 20-23. Again: Heaven and earth shall pass away, but My words shall not pass away (Matt. 24:35). In these passages, "the word" denotes the Lord's doctrine; and "words" the things that belong to His doctrine. [5] Because the expression "words" denotes all things of doctrine, the commandments of the Decalogue were called "words," in Moses: Jehovah wrote upon the tables the words of the covenant, the ten words (Exod. 34:28). Again: He hath declared unto you His covenant, which He commanded you to perform, the ten words; and He wrote them upon two tables of stone (Deut. 4:13; 10:4). Again: Take heed to thyself, and keep thy soul diligently, lest thou forget the words that thine eyes have seen (Deut. 4:9); besides other places.


Verse 2. And it came to pass when they journeyed from the east, that they found a valley in the land of Shinar, and they dwelt there. "When they journeyed from the east," signifies when they went back from charity; "the east," is charity from the Lord; "that they found a valley in the land of Shinar," signifies that their worship became more unclean and profane "and they dwelt there," signifies their life.


When they journeyed from the east. That this signifies when they went back from charity, is evident from the signification in the Word of "journeying," and of "the east." That "journeying" here signifies to go back, is evident from its being said concerning charity which is "the east" whence they journeyed.


That "the east" is charity from the Lord, is evident from what has been shown before (n. 101, 1250).


That they found a valley in the land of Shinar. That this signifies that their worship became more unclean and profane, is evident from the signification of "a valley," and of "the land of Shinar." In the Word, "mountains" signify love or charity, because these are the highest, or, what is the same, the inmost things in worship, as before shown (n. 795). Hence "a valley" signifies what is beneath the mountains, that is, what is lower in worship, which is the same as what is exterior therein; and "the land of Shinar," signifies external worship wherein is what is profane, as before shown (n. 1183). And so in this passage, their having found a valley in the land of Shinar signifies that their worship became more unclean and profane. [2] In the first verse it is said of the church that it was of one lip and that its words were one, which means that it had one doctrine in general and in particular. But in this verse the decline of the church is treated of, in that it is said that they journeyed from the east, that is, they began to go back from charity; for insofar as the church, or a man of the church, goes back from charity, so far his worship goes back from what is holy, or in other words, so far his worship approaches what is unclean and profane. That their having found a valley in the land of Shinar signifies the decline of the church, or of worship, to what is profane, is because a valley is a low place between mountains, by which are signified the holy things of love or of charity in worship, as before said. This may also be seen from the signification of "a valley" in the Word, where valleys are designated, in the original language, by certain terms which signify, when used in that sense, what is more or less profane in worship. [3] That "valleys" have such a signification is evident in Isaiah: The burden of the valley of vision. For it is a day of tumult, and of treading down, and of perplexity, to the Lord Jehovih of Armies, in the valley of vision (Isa. 22:1, 5). "The valley of vision" denotes phantasies and reasonings, whereby worship is falsified and at last profaned. In Jeremiah: How sayest thou I am not defiled, I have not walked after the Baalim? see thy way in the valley (Jer. 2:23). "The valley" denotes unclean worship. Again: They have built the high places of Tophet, which is in the valley of the son of Hinnom; wherefore behold the days come, saith Jehovah, that it shall no more be called Tophet, nor the valley of the son of Hinnom, but the valley of slaughter (Jer. 7:31-32; 19:6). "The valley of Hinnom" denotes hell, and also the profanation of truth and good. [4] In Ezekiel: Thus hath said the Lord Jehovih to the mountains and to the hills, to the watercourses and to the valleys, Behold Me, I bring a sword upon you, and I will destroy your high places (Ezek. 6:3). Again: I will give unto Gog a place there for burial in Israel, the valley of them that pass through toward the east of the sea, and they shall call it the valley of the multitude of Gog (Ezek. 39:11, 15). This is said of worship in externals; "a valley" denotes such worship. But when the worship has not yet become so profane, this is expressed by the Hebrew word for valley that is used in the verse before us (Gen. 11:2); and also in Isaiah: I will open rivers upon the slopes, and I will make fountains in the midst of the valleys, the wilderness a pool of waters, and the dry land springs of waters (Isa. 41:18). This is said of those who are in ignorance, or who are beyond the knowledges of faith and of charity, and yet are in charity. "Valley" as used here denotes these. In like manner does "valley" in Ezekiel 37:1. 1292-1


And they dwelt there. That this signifies the derivative life, may be seen from the signification in the Word of "dwelling," which is living. The word "dwell" frequently occurs in both the prophetic and the historic parts of the Word, and in the internal sense it usually signifies to live. The reason is that the most ancient people dwelt in tents, and held their most holy worship there; and therefore in the Word "tents" signify what is holy in worship, as before shown (n. 414). And as tents signified the holy in worship, "to dwell," also, in a good sense, signifies to live, or life. In like manner, because the most ancient people journeyed with their tents, in the internal sense of the Word "to journey" signifies the modes and order of life.


Verse 3. And they said a man to his fellow, Come, let us make bricks, and let us burn them to a burning. And they had brick for stone, and bitumen had they for mortar. "And they said a man to his fellow," signifies that it was begun; "Come, let us make bricks," signifies falsities which they fashioned for themselves; "and let us burn them to a burning," signifies evils from the love of self. "And they had brick for stone," signifies that they had falsity instead of truth; "and bitumen had they for mortar," signifies that they had the evil of cupidity instead of good.


And they said a man to his fellow. That this signifies that it was begun, or that they had begun, follows from the connection. In this verse the third state of the church is treated of, when falsities had begun to reign; and in fact from cupidities. There are two beginnings of falsities, one from ignorance of truth, the other from cupidities. Falsity from ignorance of truth is not so pernicious as falsity from cupidities. For the falsity of ignorance arises either from one's having been so instructed from childhood, or from having been diverted by various occupations so that one has not examined whether what professes to be true is really so, or from not having had much faculty of judging concerning what is true and what is false. The falsities from these sources do not inflict much harm, provided the man has not much confirmed and thus persuaded himself, being incited thereto by some cupidity so as to defend the falsities; for by doing this he would make the cloud of ignorance dense, and turn it into darkness so that he could not see the truth. [2] But the falsity of cupidities exists when the origin of the falsity is the cupidity or love of self and of the world; as when one seizes upon some point of doctrine and professes it in order to captivate minds and lead them, and explains or perverts the doctrine in favor of self, and confirms it both by reasonings from memory-knowledges, and by the literal sense of the Word. The worship derived from this is profane, however holy it may outwardly appear; for inwardly it is not the worship of the Lord, but the worship of self. Nor does such a man acknowledge anything as true except insofar as he can explain it so as to favor himself. Such worship is that which is signified by "Babel." But the case is different with those who have been born and brought up in such worship, and who do not know that it is false, and who live in charity. In their ignorance there is innocence, and in their worship there is good from charity. The profanity in worship is not predicated so much from the worship itself, as from the quality of the man who is in the worship.


Come, let us make bricks. That this signifies falsities which they fashioned for themselves, is evident from the signification of "brick." In the Word, "stone" signifies truth, and therefore "brick," because it is made by man, signifies falsity; for brick is stone artificially made. That "brick" has this signification may be further seen from the following passages. In Isaiah: I have spread out My hands all the day unto a refractory people, that walk in a way that is not good, after their own thoughts, sacrificing in gardens, and burning incense upon bricks (Isa. 65:2-3). "Burning incense upon bricks" denotes worship from things fabricated and false; and therefore they are said to walk after their own thoughts. Again: For the elation and pride of heart of Ephraim and of the inhabitant of Samaria, that say, The bricks have fallen down, but we will build with hewn stone (Isa. 9:9-10). "Ephraim" denotes an intelligent person who falls into perversities, and calls or makes to be true things that are false, or "bricks;" "hewn stone" denotes what is fabricated. In Nahum: Draw thee water for the siege, strengthen thy fortresses, go into the mud and tread the clay, repair the brick kiln. There shall the fire devour thee, and the sword shall cut thee off (Nahum 3:14-15). Here "to tread the clay" denotes falsities; "to repair the brick kiln denotes the derivative worship; "the fire" is the punishment of cupidities; "the sword" is the punishment of falsities. In Ezekiel: Take thee a brick, and set it before thee, and grave upon it a city, even Jerusalem (Ezek. 4:1); and he was commanded to besiege it, in which prophetic matter there is involved that the worship was falsified. That "brick" signifies falsity, may be still further seen from the signification of "stone," which is truth, concerning which presently.


And let us burn them to a burning. That this signifies evils from the love of self, is evident from the signification in the Word of "to burn," of "a burning," of "fire," of "sulphur," and of "bitumen," which are predicated of cupidities, especially of those which belong to the love of self. As in Isaiah: Our house of holiness, and our beauty [decus], where our fathers praised Thee, hath been made a burning of fire; and all our desirable things have been made a waste (Isa. 64:11). Again: Conceive chaff, bring forth stubble; your wind is a fire that shall devour you; thus will the peoples be burnings of lime; thorns lopped off, they will be kindled with fire (Isa. 33:11-12). Not to mention many other similar expressions. "To be burned" and "fire" are predicated of cupidities, because the case as regards them both is much the same.


And they had brick for stone. That this signifies that they had falsity for truth, is evident from the signification of "brick," just now shown to be falsity; and from the signification of "stone," which in a wide sense is truth, concerning which above (n. 643). Stones have signified truth for the reason that the boundaries of the most ancient people were marked off by stones, and that they set up stones as witnesses that the case was so and so, or that it was true; as is evident from the stone that Jacob set up for a pillar (Gen. 28:22; 35:14), and from the pillar of stones between Laban and Jacob (Gen. 31:46, 47, 52), and from the altar built by the sons of Reuben, Gad, and Manasseh, near the Jordan, as a witness (Josh. 22:10, 28, 34). Therefore in the Word truths are signified by "stones;" insomuch that not only by the stones of the altar, but also by the precious stones upon the shoulders of Aaron's ephod and upon the breastplate of judgment, there were signified holy truths which are of love. [2] As regards the altar, when the worship of sacrifices upon altars began, the altar signified the representative worship of the Lord in general; but the stones themselves represented the holy truths of that worship; and therefore it was commanded that the altar should be built of whole stones, not hewn, and it was forbidden that any iron should be moved upon them (Deut. 27:5-7; Josh. 8:31); for the reason that hewn stones, and stones on which iron has been used, signified what is artificial, and thus what is fictitious in worship; that is, what is of man's own or of the figment of his thought and heart. This was to profane worship, as is plainly said in Exodus 20:25. For the same reason iron was not used upon the stones of the temple (1 Kings 6:7). [3] That the precious stones upon the shoulders of Aaron's ephod, and in the breastplate of judgment, signified holy truths, has been shown before (n. 114). The same is evident in Isaiah: Behold I will make thy stones to lie in carbuncle, and I will lay thy foundation in sapphires, and will put rubies for thy suns (windows), and thy gates in gem stones, and all thy border in stones of desire; and all thy sons shall be taught of Jehovah, and great shall be the peace of thy sons (Isa. 54:11-13). The stones here named denote holy truths, and therefore it is said, "all thy sons shall be taught of Jehovah." Hence it is said in John that the foundations of the wall of the city, the holy Jerusalem, were adorned with every precious stone, and the stones are named (Rev. 21:19-20). The "holy Jerusalem" denotes the kingdom of the Lord in heaven and on earth, the foundations of which are holy truths. In like manner the tables of stone, on which the commands of the Law, or the Ten Words, were written, signified holy truths; and therefore they were of stone, or their foundation [fundus] was stone, concerning which see Exodus 24:12, 31:18, 34:1; Deut. 5:22, 10:1, for the commands themselves are nothing else than truths of faith. [4] As then in ancient times truths were signified by stones, and afterwards, when worship began upon pillars and altars, and In a temple, holy truths were signified by the pillars, altars, and temple, therefore the Lord also was called "a Stone;" as in Moses: The Mighty One of Jacob, from thence is the Shepherd, the Stone of Israel (Gen. 49:24). In Isaiah: Thus saith the Lord Jehovih, Behold, I lay in Zion for a foundation a Stone, a tried Stone of the corner, of price, of a sure foundation (Isa. 28:16). In David: The Stone which the builders rejected is become the head of the corner (Ps. 118:22). The like is signified in Daniel by "the stone cut out of the rock," which brake in pieces the statue of Nebuchadnezzar (Dan. 2:34-35, 45). [5] That "stones" signify truths, is evident also in Isaiah: By this shall the iniquity of Jacob be expiated, and this shall be all the fruit, to take away his sin; when he shall put all the stones of the altar as chalk stones that are scattered (Isa. 27:9); "the stones of the altar" denote truths in worship, which are dispersed. Again: Make ye level the way of the people; flatten out, flatten ye out the path; gather out the stones (Isa. 62:10); "Way" and "stone" denote truths. In Jeremiah: I am against thee, O destroying mountain; I will roll thee down from the rocks, and will make thee into a mountain of burning; and they shall not take of thee a stone for a corner, nor a stone of foundation (Jer. 51:25-26). This is said of Babel; "a mountain of burning," is the love of self. That "a stone should not be taken from it," means that there is no truth.


And bitumen had they for mortar. That this signifies that they had the evil of cupidity instead of good, is evident from the signification in the Word of "bitumen" and of "mortar." As the subject here treated of is the building of the Babylonish tower, such things are set forth as are used in building; here, bitumen, because it is sulfurous 1299-1 and inflammable, and in the Word by such things there are signified cupidities, especially those which belong to the love of self. Here, "bitumen" signifies both the evils of cupidities and the derivative falsities; which also are the evils wherewith the tower was built; concerning which hereafter. That such things are signified, is evident in Isaiah: The day of vengeance of Jehovah; the torrents shall be turned into pitch, and the dust thereof into sulfur, and the land thereof shall be burning pitch (Isa. 34:8-9). "Pitch" and "sulfur" denote the falsities and evils of cupidities. And so in other places.


That "mortar" [or "clay"] signifies the good whereof the mind of the man of the church is formed, is also evident from the Word. Thus in Isaiah: Now, O Jehovah, Thou art our Father; we are the clay and Thou our potter, and we all are the work of Thy hand (Isa. 64:8); "clay" denotes the man himself of the church who is being formed, and thus the good of charity, by means of which comes all the formation of man, that is, his reformation and regeneration. In Jeremiah: As the clay in the potter's hand, so are we in Thy hand, the house of Israel (Jer. 18:6); the meaning being similar. It is all the same whether building by means of clay, or formation, is spoken of.


1266-1 The author speaks of places in the spiritual world as being situated in accordance with their correspondence to the human body. [Reviser.]

1270-1 See Spiritual Experiences, n. 3367. [Reviser.]

1285-1 That is, in spite of their immense variety, and the consequent stupendous diversity of their reception of that one single influx. [Reviser.]

1292-1 The Hebrew word for "valley" in Ezek. 6 and 39 means merely a "low, flat place," even if in a gorge; whereas in Gen. 11, Isa. 41, and Ezek. 37 the Hebrew word used for "valley" means a valley as opposed to mountains, even if it be a plain. [Reviser.]

1299-1 Swedenborg uses the term "sulfureous" in the sense of combustible, and includes under the term "sulfur" other fiery, inflammable, and combustible products, such as resin. Shakespeare has a similar usage. And to this day the miners in coal-pits use the term in much the same way, speaking of the inflammable gas therein as "sulfur." [Reviser.]

Next: 1301-1350