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Arcana Coelestia, by Emanuel Swedenborg, [1749-56], tr. by John F. Potts [1905-10], at

Arcana Coelestia


That the "seven and twentieth day" signifies what is holy, is evident from what has just been said, since it is composed of three multiplied by itself twice. Three multiplied by itself is nine, and nine multiplied again by three is twenty-seven. In "twenty-seven" therefore three is the ruling number. Thus did the most ancient people compute their numbers, and understood by them nothing but actual things [res]. That "three" has the same signification as "seven" is evident from what has been just said. There is a hidden reason why the Lord rose on the third day. The Lord's resurrection itself involves all holiness, and the resurrection of all, and therefore in the Jewish Church this number became representative, and in the Word is holy; just as it is in heaven, where no numbers are thought of, but instead of "three" and "seven" they have a general holy idea of the resurrection and of the coming of the Lord. [2] That "three" and "seven" signify what is holy, is evident from the following passages in the Word. In Moses: He that toucheth the dead shall be unclean seven days; the same shall expiate himself therefrom on the third day, and on the seventh day he shall be clean; but if he expiate not himself on the third day, on the seventh day he shall not be clean. He that toucheth one slain with a sword, or a dead body, or a bone of a man, or a grave, shall be unclean seven days; the clean shall sprinkle upon the unclean on the third day, and on the seventh day; and on the seventh day he shall expiate him, and he shall wash his clothes, and bathe himself in water, and shall be clean at even (Num. 19:11-12, 16, 19). That these things are representative, or that the outward things signify internal ones, is very evident, as that one would be unclean who had touched a dead body, one slain, a bone of a man, a grave. All these things signify in the internal sense things proper to man, which are dead and profane. So also the washing in water and being clean at even were representative, and also the third day and the seventh day, which signify what is holy because on those days he was to be purified and would thus be clean. [3] In like manner concerning those who returned from battle against the Midianites: Encamp ye without the camp seven days; whosoever hath slain a soul, and whosoever hath touched one slain, ye shall expiate yourselves on the third day and on the seventh day (Num. 31:19).If this were but a ritual, and the third day and the seventh were not representative and significative of holiness, or of expiation, it would be a dead thing, like that which is without a cause, and like a cause without an end, or like a thing separated from its cause, and this cause from its end, and thus in no way Divine. That the "third day" was representative, and thus significative, of what is holy, is very evident from the coming of the Lord upon Mount Sinai, for which it was thus commanded: And Jehovah said unto Moses, Go unto the people, and sanctify them today and tomorrow, and let them wash their garments, and be ready against the third day; for on the third day Jehovah will come down in the sight of all the people upon Mount Sinai (Exod. 19:10-11, 14-15). [4] For a similar reason Joshua crossed the Jordan on the third day: Joshua commanded, Pass through the midst of the camp, and command the people, saying, Prepare you victuals, for within three days ye are to pass over this Jordan, to go in to inherit the land (Josh. 1:11; 3:2). The crossing of the Jordan represented the introduction of the sons of Israel, that is, of those who are regenerate, into the kingdom of the Lord; Joshua, who led them in, represented the Lord; and this was done on the third day. Because the third day was holy, as was the seventh, it was ordained that the year of tithes should be the third year, and that then the people should show themselves holy by works of charity (Deut. 26:12-15); the "tithes" represented remains, which because they are of the Lord alone, are holy. That Jonah was three days and three nights in the bowels of the fish (Jonah 1:17) manifestly represented the burial and resurrection of the Lord on the third day (Matt. 12:40). [5] That "three" signifies that holy thing is evident also in the Prophets, as in Hosea: After two days will Jehovah revive us; on the third day He will raise us up, that we may live before Him (Hos. 6:2),where also the "third day" plainly denotes the coming of the Lord and His resurrection. In Zechariah: It shall come to pass that in all the land two parts therein shall be cut off and expire, but the third shall be left therein, and I will bring the third part through the fire, and will refine them as silver is refined, and will try them as gold is tried (Zech. 13:8-9), where the "third part" like "three" denotes what is holy. The same is involved by the third part as by three, and also by the third part of the third part, as in the present passage, for three is the third of the third of twenty-seven.


That the earth's being "dry" signifies that the man was regenerate, is evident from what was said before about the waters being dried up from off the earth, and the face of the ground being dried, in verses 7 and 13.


Verses 15, 16. And God spake unto Noah, saying, Go forth from the ark, thou and thy wife, and thy sons, and thy sons' wives with thee. "And God spake unto Noah" signifies the presence of the Lord with the man of this church; "Go forth from the ark" signifies freedom; "thou and thy wife" signifies the church; "and thy sons and thy sons' wives with thee" signifies the truths, and the goods conjoined with truths, that were in him.


And God spake unto Noah. That this signifies the presence of the Lord with the man of this church, is evident from the internal sense of the Word. The Lord speaks with every man, for whatever a man wills and thinks that is good and true, is from the Lord. There are with every man at least two evil spirits and two angels. The evil spirits excite his evils, and the angels inspire things that are good and true. Every good and true thing inspired by the angels is of the Lord; thus the Lord is continually speaking with man, but quite differently with one man than with another. With those who suffer themselves to be led away by evil spirits, the Lord speaks as if absent, or from afar, so that it can scarcely be said that He is speaking; but with those who are being led by the Lord, He speaks as more nearly present; which may be sufficiently evident from the fact that no one can ever think anything good and true except from the Lord. [2] The presence of the Lord is predicated according to the state of love toward the neighbor and of faith in which the man is. In love toward the neighbor the Lord is present, because He is in all good; but not so much in faith, so called, without love. Faith without love and charity is a separated or disjoined thing. Wherever there is conjunction there must be a conjoining medium, which is nothing else than love and charity, as must be evident to all from the fact that the Lord is merciful to everyone, and loves everyone, and wills to make everyone happy to eternity. He therefore who is not in such love that he is merciful to others, loves them, and wills to make them happy, cannot be conjoined with the Lord, because he is unlike Him and not at all in His image. To look to the Lord by faith, as they say, and at the same time to hate the neighbor, is not only to stand afar off, but is also to have the abyss of hell between themselves and the Lord, into which they would fall if they should approach nearer, for hatred to the neighbor is that infernal abyss which is between. [3] The presence of the Lord is first possible with a man when he loves the neighbor. The Lord is in love; and so far as a man is in love, so far the Lord is present; and so far as the Lord is present, so far He speaks with the man. Man knows no otherwise than that he thinks from himself, whereas he has not a single idea, nor even the least bit of an idea, from himself; but he has what is evil and false through evil spirits from hell, and what is good and true through angels from the Lord. Such is the influx with man, from which is his life and the interaction of his soul with the body. From these things it is evident what is meant by the words "God spake unto Noah." His "saying" to anyone means one thing (as Gen. 1:29; 3:13-14, 17; 4:6, 9, 15; 6:13; 7:1), and His "speaking" means another. Here, His speaking to Noah denotes being present, because the subject is now the regenerated man, who is gifted with charity.


Go forth from the ark. That this signifies freedom, is evident from what has been said before, and from the connection itself of the context. So long as Noah was in the ark and surrounded with the waters of the flood, the signification was that he was in captivity, that is, he was tossed about by evils and falsities, or what is the same thing, by evil spirits, from whom is the combat of temptation. Hence it follows that to "go forth from the ark" signifies freedom. The presence of the Lord involves freedom, the one following the other. The more present the Lord, the more free the man; that is, the more a man is in the love of good and truth, the more freely he acts. Such is the influx of the Lord through the angels. But on the other hand, the influx of hell through evil spirits is forcible, and impetuous, striving to dominate; for such spirits breathe nothing but the utter subjugation of the man, so that he may be nothing, and that they may be everything; and when they are everything the man is one of them, and scarcely even that, for in their eyes he is a mere nobody. Therefore when the Lord is liberating the man from their dominion and from their yoke there arises a combat; but when the man has been liberated, that is, regenerated, he, through the ministry of angels, is led by the Lord so gently that there is nothing whatever of yoke or of dominion, for he is led by means of his delights and his happinesses, and is loved and esteemed. This is what the Lord teaches in Matthew: My yoke is easy, and My burden is light (Matt. 11:30),and is the reverse of a man's state when under the yoke of evil spirits, who, as just said, account the man as nothing, and, if they were able, would torment him every moment. This it has been given me to know by much experience, concerning which, of the Lord's Divine mercy hereafter.


That "thou and thy wife" signifies the church, is in like manner evident from the connection, as also that "thy sons and thy sons' wives with thee" signifies the truths, and the goods conjoined with truths, that were in him. That "thou" signifies the man of the church, is evident, and that his "wife" signifies the church, and his "sons" truths, and his "sons' wives" goods conjoined with the truths, has been shown repeatedly before and need not be dwelt on here.


Verse 17. Every wild animal that is with thee of all flesh, as to fowl, and as to beast, and as to every creeping thing that creepeth upon the earth, bring forth with thee, that they may spread themselves over the earth, and be fruitful, and multiply upon the earth. "Every wild animal that is with thee of all flesh" signifies all that was made living in the man of this church; "fowl" signifies here as before the things of his understanding; "beast" the things of his will, which are both of the internal man; "every creeping thing that creepeth upon the earth" signifies the like corresponding things in the external man; "bring forth with thee" signifies their state of freedom; "that they may spread themselves over the earth" signifies the operation of the internal man upon the external; "and be fruitful" signifies increasings of good; "and multiply" signifies increasings of truth; "upon the earth" signifies in the external man.


Every wild animal that is with thee of all flesh. That this signifies all that was made living in the man of this church, is evident from the fact that "wild animal" is predicated of Noah, or of the man of this church, now regenerated, and manifestly refers to what follows, namely, fowl, beast, and creeping thing; for it is said, "every wild animal that is with thee of all flesh, as to fowl, and as to beast, and as to every creeping thing that creepeth upon the earth." The word in the original tongue here rendered "wild animal" signifies properly life, or what is living; but in the Word it is used both for what is living and for what is as it were not living, or a wild animal; so that unless one knows the internal sense of the Word, he is sometimes unable to see what is meant. The reason of this twofold meaning is that the man of the Most Ancient Church, in his humiliation before the Lord, acknowledged himself as not living, not even as a beast, but only as a wild animal; for those people knew man to be such when regarded in himself, or in what is his own. Hence this same word means what is living, and also means "wild animal." [2] That it means "what is living" is evident in David: Thy wild animal shall dwell therein [that is, in God's inheritance]; Thou, O God, wilt confirm the poor with Thy good (Ps. 68:10). Here by "wild animal" because he shall dwell in the inheritance of God, no other is meant than the regenerated man; and so here, as in the verse we are considering, what is living in this man is meant. Again: Every wild animal of the forest is Mine, and the beasts upon the mountains where thousands are; I know all the fowls of the mountains, and the wild animals of My field are with Me (Ps. 50:10-11). Here "the wild animals of My field with Me" or with God, denote the regenerated man, thus what is living in him. In Ezekiel: All the fowls of the heavens made their nests in his boughs, and under his branches all the wild animals of the field brought forth (Ezek. 31:6), where the spiritual church is signified, as implanted, and what is living, in the man of that church. In Hosea: In that day will I make a covenant for them with the wild animal of the field and with the fowl of the heavens (Hos. 2:18),where those who are to be regenerated are meant, with whom a covenant is to be made. Indeed, so fully does "wild animal" signify "what is living" that the cherubim, or angels, seen by Ezekiel, are called the "four wild animals" or "living creatures" (Ezek. 1:5, 13-15, 19; 10:15). [3] That "wild animal" in the opposite sense is taken in the Word for what is not living, is evident from many passages, of which only the following will be cited, for confirmation. In David: O deliver not the soul of Thy turtle-dove unto the wild animal (Ps. 74:19). In Zephaniah: How is the city become a desolation, a place for wild animals to lie down in (Zeph. 2:15). In Ezekiel: And they shall no more be a prey to the nations, neither shall the wild animal of the earth eat them (Ezek. 34:28). Again: Upon his ruin all the fowl of the heavens shall dwell, and every wild animal of the field shall be upon his branches (Ezek. 31:13). In Hosea: There will I consume them like a lion; the wild animal of the field shall tear them (Hos. 13:8). In Ezekiel: I have given thee for meat to the wild animals of the earth, and to the fowl of the heaven (Ezek. 29:5), an expression often occurring. And since the Jews remained in the sense of the letter only, and understood by "wild animal" a wild animal, and by "fowl" a fowl, not knowing the interior things of the Word, nor having any willingness to acknowledge them and so to be instructed, they were so cruel and such wild animals that they found their delight in not burying enemies killed in battle, but exposing them to be devoured by birds of prey and wild beasts; which also shows what a wild animal man is.


That the "fowl" signifies the things of his understanding, and the "beast" the things of his will, which are of the internal man, and that "every creeping thing that creepeth upon the earth" signifies like corresponding things in his external man, is evident from the signification of "fowl" as shown above (n. 40, 776), and of "beast" (n. 45, 46, 142, 143, 246). That the "creeping thing that creepeth upon the earth" signifies corresponding things in the external man, is now evident, for the creeping thing here bears relation both to the "fowl" or things of the understanding, and to the "beast" or things of the will. The most ancient people called sensuous things and the pleasures of the body creeping things that creep, because they are just like creeping things that creep on the earth. They also likened man's body to the earth or ground, and even called it earth or ground, as in this passage, where nothing else than the external man is signified by the "earth."


As to "the creeping thing that creeps" signifying like corresponding things in the external man, the case is this. In the regenerated man external things correspond to internal things, that is, do their bidding. External things are reduced to obedience when man is being regenerated, and he then becomes an image of heaven. But before man has been regenerated, external things rule over internal, and he is then an image of hell. Order consists in celestial things ruling over spiritual things, through these over natural things, and through these over corporeal things; but when corporeal and natural things rule over spiritual and celestial things, order is destroyed, and then the man is an image of hell; and therefore the Lord restores order by means of regeneration, and then the man becomes an image of heaven. Thus does the Lord draw a man out of hell, and thus does He uplift him to heaven. [2] A few words shall be said about the correspondence of the external man to the internal. Every regenerated man is a kind of little heaven, that is, he is an effigy or image of the universal heaven, and therefore in the Word his internal man is called "heaven." There is such order in heaven that the Lord rules spiritual things through celestial things, and natural things through spiritual things, and in this way He rules the universal heaven as one man, for which reason heaven is called the Grand Man and there is the like order in everyone who is in heaven. Man too, when like this, is a little heaven, or, what is the same, he is a kingdom of the Lord, because the kingdom of the Lord is in him; and then in him external things correspond to internal, that is, they obey them, just as they do in heaven; for in the heavens (which are three, and all of which together stand related as one man) spirits constitute the external man, angelic spirits the interior man, and angels the internal man (n. 459). [3] It is the reverse with those who make life consist solely in corporeal things, that is, in cupidities, pleasures, appetites, and matters of sense, perceiving no delight other than that which is of the love of self and of the world, that is to say, which is of hatred against all who do not favor and serve them. With such, because corporeal and natural things rule over spiritual and celestial things, there is not only no correspondence or obedience of external things, but the very reverse, and thus order is utterly destroyed; and because order is so destroyed, they cannot be other than images of hell.


Bring forth with thee. That this signifies their state of freedom, is evident from what was said under the preceding verse about "going forth from the ark" as signifying freedom.


That they may spread themselves over the earth. That this signifies the operation of the internal man on the external, and that "being fruitful" signifies increasings of good, "multiplying" increasings of truth, and "upon the earth" in the external man, is evident from the connection of the things, and also from what has been before said and shown about the signification of "being fruitful" which in the Word is predicated of goods, and about that of "multiplying" which is predicated of truths. That "earth" signifies the external man has likewise been shown before; so that we need not dwell longer on these significations in order to confirm them. Here the subject is the operation of the internal man on the external after the man has been regenerated, showing that good is for the first time made fruitful, and truth multiplied, when the external man has been reduced to correspondence or obedience. This can never be so before, because what is corporeal opposes what is good, and what is sensuous opposes what is true, the one extinguishing the love of good, and the other extinguishing the love of truth. The fructification of good and the multiplication of truth take place in the external man; the fructification of good in his affections, and the multiplication of truth in his memory. The external man is here called "the earth" over which they spread themselves, and upon which they become fruitful and multiply.


Verse 18, 19. And Noah went forth, and his sons, and his wife, and his sons' wives with him; every wild animal, every creeping thing, and every fowl, everything that creepeth upon the earth, according to their families, went forth out of the ark. "Went forth" signifies that it was so done; by "Noah and his sons" is signified the man of the Ancient Church; by "his wife and his sons' wives with him" is signified that church itself. "Every wild animal, every creeping thing" signify his goods; "wild animal" the goods of the internal man; "creeping thing" the goods of the external man; "and every fowl, everything that creepeth upon the earth" signify truths; "fowl" the truths of the internal man; "that creepeth upon the earth" the truths of the external man; "according to their families" signifies pairs; "went forth out of the ark" signifies as before that it was so done, and at the same time it signifies a state of freedom.


That by his "going forth" is signified that it was so done; that by "Noah and his sons" is signified the man of the Ancient Church; and that by "his wife and his sons' wives" is signified that church itself, is evident from the series of the things, which involves that thus was the Ancient Church formed, for these are the last or closing statements to what has gone before. When the church is described in the Word, it is described either by "man [vir] and wife" or by "man [homo] and wife;" when by "man [vir] and wife" by "man" is signified what is of the understanding, or truth, and by "wife" what is of the will, or good; when by "man [homo] and wife" by "man" is signified the good of love, or love, and by "wife" the truth of faith, or faith, thus by "man [homo]" is signified what is essential of the church, and by "wife" the church itself. It is so throughout the Word. In this place, because up to this point the formation of a new church has been treated of, on the perishing of the Most Ancient Church, by "Noah and his sons" is signified the man [homo] of the Ancient Church, and by his "wife and his sons' wives with him" that church itself. Here therefore they are named in an order different from that in the previous verse (16), where it is said: "Go forth from the ark, thou and thy wife, and thy sons and thy sons' wives with thee" where "thou" and "thy wife" are joined together, and "thy sons" and "thy sons' wives" and thus by "thou" and "sons" is signified truth, and by "wife" and "sons' wives" good. But in the verse we are now considering the order is different, for the reason, as we have said, that by "thou and thy sons" is signified the man of the church, and by "his wife and his sons' wives" the church itself, since it is the conclusion to what goes before. Noah did not constitute the Ancient Church, but his sons, Shem, Ham, and Japheth, as said before. For three churches, so to speak, formed this Ancient Church, concerning which, of the Lord's Divine mercy hereafter. And these churches came forth as the offspring of one, which is called "Noah;" hence it is here said, "thou and thy sons" and also "thy wife and thy sons' wives."


That "every wild animal and every creeping thing" signify the goods of the man of the church; "wild animal" the goods of the internal man; "creeping thing" those of the external man; and that "every fowl and everything that creepeth upon the earth" signify truths; "fowl" the truths of the internal man; and "thing that creepeth upon the earth" those of the external man, is evident from what was said and shown under the preceding verse in regard to wild animal, fowl, and creeping thing, where it is said "creeping thing that creepeth" because both good and truth of the external man were signified. Inasmuch as what is here said is the conclusion to what goes before, these things which are of the church are added, namely, its goods and truths; and by them is indicated the quality of the church, that it is spiritual, and that it became such that charity or good was the principal thing; and therefore "wild animal and creeping thing" are here first mentioned, and afterwards "fowl and thing that creepeth." [2] The church is called spiritual when it acts from charity, or from the good of charity-never when it says that it has faith without charity, for then it is not even a church. For what is the doctrine of faith but the doctrine of charity? And to what purpose is the doctrine of faith, but that men should do what it teaches? It cannot be merely to know and think what it teaches, but only that what it teaches should be done. The spiritual church is therefore first called a church when it acts from charity, which is the very doctrine of faith. Or, what is the same thing, the man of the church is then first a church. Just in the same way, what is a commandment for? not that a man may know, but that he may live according to the commandment. For then he has in himself the kingdom of the Lord, since the kingdom of the Lord consists solely in mutual love and its happiness. [3] Those who separate faith from charity, and make salvation consist in faith without the good works of charity, are Cainites who slay the brother Abel, that is, charity. And they are like birds which hover about a carcass; for such faith is a bird, and a man without charity is a carcass. Thus they also form for themselves a spurious conscience, so that they may live like devils, hold the neighbor in hatred and persecute him, pass their whole life in adulteries, and yet be saved, as is well known in the Christian world. What can be more agreeable to a man than to hear and be persuaded that he may be saved, even if he live like a wild beast? The very Gentiles perceive that this is false, many of whom abhor the doctrine of Christians because they see their life. The real quality of such a faith is evident also from the fact that nowhere is there found a life more detestable than in the Christian world.


According to their families. That this signifies pairs, is evident from what was said before, namely, that there entered into the ark "of the clean by sevens" and "of the unclean by twos" (Gen. 7:2, 3, 15); while here it is said that they went out of it "according to their families" the reason of which is that all things had now been so reduced into order by the Lord that they could represent families. In the regenerated man, goods and truths, or the things of charity and faith, are related to each other as with relationships by blood and by marriage, thus as families from one stock or parent, in like manner as they are in heaven (n. 685), an order into which goods and truths are brought by the Lord. Specifically, it is here signified that all goods both in general and in particular have regard to their own truths, as though these were conjoined with them in marriage; and just as in general charity regards faith, so in every particular good regards truth; for the general, unless it exists from the particular, is not the general, seeing that it is from the particulars that the general has its existence, and from them is called general. So in every man, such as is the man in general, such is he in the minutest particulars of his affection and of his idea. Of these he is composed, or of these he becomes such as he is in general; and therefore they who have been regenerated become such in the smallest particulars as they are in general.


Went forth out of the ark. That this involves also a state of freedom, is evident from what was said above (at verse 16) about going out of the ark. The quality of the freedom of the spiritual man appears from the consideration that he is ruled by the Lord through conscience. He who is ruled by conscience, or who acts according to conscience, acts freely. Nothing is more repugnant to him than to act against conscience. To act against conscience is hell to him, but to act according to conscience is heaven to him; and from this anyone may see that acting according to conscience is freedom. The Lord rules the spiritual man through a conscience of what is good and true; and this conscience is formed, as already said, in man's understanding, and is thus separated from what is of his will. And because it is wholly separated from what is of the will, it is very evident that man never does anything good of himself; and since all the truth of faith is from the good of faith, it is evident that man never thinks anything true from himself, but that this is from the Lord alone. That he seems to do these things from himself is only an appearance; and because it is so, the really spiritual man acknowledges and believes it. From this it is evident that conscience given to the spiritual man by the Lord is as it were a new will, and thus that the man who has been created anew is endowed with a new will and from this with a new understanding.


Verse 20. And Noah builded an altar unto Jehovah; and took of every clean beast, and of every, clean fowl, and offered burnt-offerings on the altar. "Noah builded an altar unto Jehovah" signifies a representative of the Lord; "and took of every clean beast, and of every clean fowl" signifies the goods of charity and of faith; "and offered burnt-offerings on the altar" signifies all the worship therefrom.


In this verse there is described the worship of the Ancient Church in general, and this by the "altar" and the "burnt- offering" which were the principal things in all representative worship. In the first place, however, we will describe the worship that existed in the Most Ancient Church, and from that show how there originated the worship of the Lord by means of representatives. The men of the Most Ancient Church had no other than internal worship, such as there is in heaven; for with them heaven was in communication with man, so that they made a one; and this communication was perception, of which we have often spoken before. Thus being angelic they were internal men, and although they sensated the external things of the body and the world, they cared not for them; for in each object of sense they perceived something Divine and heavenly. For example, when they saw a high mountain, they perceived an idea, not of a mountain, but of elevation, and from elevation, of heaven and the Lord, from which it came to pass that the Lord was said to dwell in the highest, He himself being called the "Most High and Lofty One;" and that afterwards the worship of the Lord was held on mountains. So with other things; as when they observed the morning, they did not then perceive the morning of the day, but that which is heavenly, and which is like a morning and a dawn in human minds, and from which the Lord is called the "Morning" the "East" and the "Dawn" or "Day-spring." So when they looked at a tree and its leaves and fruit, they cared not for these, but saw man as it were represented in them; in the fruit, love and charity, in the leaves faith; and from this the man of the church was not only compared to a tree, and to a paradise, and what is in him to leaves and fruit, but he was even called so. Such are they who are in a heavenly and angelic idea. [2] Everyone may know that a general idea rules all the particulars, thus all the objects of the senses, as well those seen as those heard, so much so that the objects are not cared for except so far as they flow into the man's general idea. Thus to him who is glad at heart, all things that he hears and sees appear smiling and joyful; but to him who is sad at heart, all things that he sees and hears appear sad and sorrowful; and so in other cases. For the general affection is in all the particulars, and causes them to be seen in the general affection; while all other things do not even appear, but are as if absent or of no account. And so it was with the man of the Most Ancient Church: whatever he saw with his eyes was heavenly to him; and thus with him everything seemed to be alive. And this shows the character of his Divine worship, that it was internal, and by no means external. [3] But when the church declined, as in his posterity, and that perception or communication with heaven began to be lost, another state of things commenced. Then no longer did men perceive anything heavenly in the objects of the senses, as they had done before, but merely what is worldly, and this to an increasing extent in proportion to the loss of their perception; and at last, in the closing posterity which existed just before the flood, they apprehended in objects nothing but what is worldly, corporeal, and earthly. Thus was heaven separated from man, nor did they communicate except very remotely; and communication was then opened to man with hell, and from thence came his general idea, from which flow the ideas of all the particulars, as has been shown. Then when any heavenly idea presented itself, it was as nothing to them, so that at last they were not even willing to acknowledge that anything spiritual and celestial existed. Thus did the state of man become changed and inverted. [4] As the Lord foresaw that such would be the state of man, He provided for the preservation of the doctrinal things of faith, in order that men might know what is celestial and what is spiritual. These doctrinal things were collected from the men of the Most Ancient Church by those called "Cain" and also by those called "Enoch" concerning whom above. Wherefore it is said of Cain that a mark was set upon him lest anyone should kill him (see Gen. 4:15, n. 393, 394); and of Enoch that he was taken by God (Gen. 5:24). These doctrinal things consisted only in significative, and thus as it were enigmatical things, that is, in the significations of various objects on the face of the earth; such as that mountains signify celestial things, and the Lord; that morning and the east have this same signification; that trees of various kinds and their fruits signify man and his heavenly things, and so on. In such things as these consisted their doctrinal things, all of which were collected from the significatives of the Most Ancient Church; and consequently their writings also were of the same nature. And as in these representatives they admired, and seemed to themselves even to behold, what is Divine and heavenly, and also because of the antiquity of the same, their worship from things like these was begun and was permitted, and this was the origin of their worship upon mountains, and in groves in the midst of trees, and also of their pillars or statues in the open air, and at last of the altars and burnt-offerings which afterwards became the principal things of all worship. This worship was begun by the Ancient Church, and passed thence to their posterity and to all nations round about, besides many other things, concerning which of the Lord's Divine mercy hereafter.


And Noah builded an altar unto Jehovah. That this signifies a representative of the Lord, is evident from what has just been said. All the rites of the Ancient Church were representative of the Lord, as also the rites of the Jewish Church. But the principal representative in later times was the altar, and also the burnt-offering, which being made of clean beasts and clean birds, had its representation according to their signification, clean beasts signifying the goods of charity, and clean birds the truths of faith. When men of the Ancient Church offered these, they signified that they offered gifts of these goods and truths to the Lord. Nothing else can be offered to the Lord that will be grateful to Him. But their posterity, as the Gentiles and also the Jews, perverted these things, not even knowing that they had such a signification, and making their worship consist in the externals only. [2] That the altar was the principal representative of the Lord, is evident from the fact that there were altars, even among Gentiles, before other rites were instituted, and before the ark was constructed, and before the temple was built. This is evident from Abram, as that when he came upon the mountain on the east of Bethel he raised an altar and called upon the name of Jehovah (Gen. 12:8); and afterwards he was commanded to offer Isaac for a burnt-offering on an altar (Gen. 22:2, 9). So Jacob built an altar at Luz, or Bethel (Gen. 35:6-7); and Moses built an altar under Mount Sinai, and sacrificed (Exod. 24:4-6). All this was before the [Jewish] sacrifices were instituted, and before the ark was constructed at which worship was afterwards performed in the wilderness. That there were altars likewise among the Gentiles, is evident from Balaam, who said to Balak that he should build seven altars and prepare seven bullocks and seven rams (Num. 23:1-7, 14-18, 29-30); and also from its being commanded that the altars of the nations should be destroyed (Deut. 7:5; Judg. 2:2). Thus Divine worship by altars and sacrifices was not a new thing instituted with the Jews. Indeed altars were built before men had any idea of slaying oxen and sheep upon them, but as memorials. [3] That altars signify a representative of the Lord, and burnt-offerings the worship of Him thereby, is plainly evident in the Prophets, as also in Moses when it is said of Levi, to whom the priesthood belonged: They shall teach Jacob Thy judgments, and Israel Thy law; they shall put incense in Thy nostrils, and whole burnt-offering upon Thine altar (Deut. 33:10), meaning all worship; for "to teach Jacob judgments, and Israel the law" denotes internal worship; and "to put incense in Thy nostrils, and whole burnt-offering on Thine altar" denotes corresponding external worship. In Isaiah: In that day shall a man look unto his Maker, and his eyes shall have respect to the Holy One of Israel and he shall not look to the altars, the work of his hand (Isa. 17:7-8), where "looking to the altars" plainly signifies representative worship in general, which was to be abolished. Again: In that day shall there be an altar to Jehovah in the midst of the land of Egypt, and a pillar at the border thereof to Jehovah (Isa. 19:19), where also "an altar" stands for external worship. [4] In Jeremiah: The Lord hath cast off His altar, He hath abhorred His sanctuary (Lam. 2:7); "altar" denoting representative worship which had become idolatrous. In Hosea: Because Ephraim hath multiplied altars to sin, altars have been unto him to sin (Hos. 8:11); "altars" denote here all representative worship separate from internal, thus what is idolatrous. Again: The high places also of Aven, the sin of Israel, shall be destroyed; the thorn and the thistle shall come up on their altars (Hos. 10:8), where "altars" denote idolatrous worship. In Amos: In the day that I shall visit the transgressions of Israel upon him, I will also visit the altars of Bethel, and the horns of the altar shall be cut off (Amos 3:14), where again "altars" denote representative worship become idolatrous. [5] In David: Let them bring me unto the mountain of Thy holiness, and to Thy tabernacles. And I will go unto the altar of God, unto God the gladness of my joy (Ps. 43:3-4), where "altar" manifestly denotes the Lord. Thus the building of an altar in the Ancient and in the Jewish Church was for a representative of the Lord. As the worship of the Lord was performed principally by burnt-offerings and sacrifices, and thus these things signified principally representative worship, it is evident that the altar itself signifies this representative worship itself.


And took of every clean beast and of every clean fowl. That this signifies the goods of charity and the truths of faith, has been shown above; that "beast" signifies the goods of charity (n. 45-46, 142-143, 246); and that "fowl" signifies the truths of faith (n. 40, 776). Burnt-offerings were made of oxen, of lambs and goats, and of turtledoves and young pigeons (Lev. 1:3-17; Num. 15:2-15; 28:1-31).1:3-17; Num. 15:2-15, 28:1-31). These were clean beasts, and each one of them signified some special heavenly thing. And because they signified these things in the Ancient Church and represented them in the churches that followed, it is evident that burnt-offerings and sacrifices were nothing else than representatives of internal worship; and that when they were separated from internal worship they became idolatrous. This anyone of sound reason may see. For what is an altar but something of stone, and what is burnt-offering and sacrifice but the slaying of a beast? If there be Divine worship, it must represent something heavenly which they know and acknowledge, and from which they worship Him whom they represent. [2] That these were representatives of the Lord no one can be ignorant, unless he is unwilling to understand anything about the Lord. It is by internal things, namely, charity and the faith therefrom, that He who is represented is to be seen and acknowledged and believed, as is clearly evident in the Prophets, for example, in Jeremiah: Thus saith Jehovah of armies, the God of Israel, Add your burnt-offerings unto your sacrifices, and eat ye flesh for I spake not unto your fathers, and I commanded them not in the day that I brought them out of the land of Egypt, concerning burnt-offerings and sacrifices but this thing I commanded them, saying, Hearken unto My voice, and I will be your God (Jer. 7:21-23). To "hearken to" or obey, "the voice" is to obey the law, which all relates to the one command: to love God above all things, and the neighbor as one's self; for in this is the Law and the Prophets (Matt. 22:35-40; 7:12). In David: O Jehovah, sacrifice and offering Thou hast not desired, burnt-offering and sin-offering hast Thou not required; I have desired to do Thy will, O my God; yea, Thy law is within my heart (Ps. 40:7, 9). [3] In Samuel, who said to Saul, Hath Jehovah as great pleasure in burnt-offerings and sacrifices as in hearkening to the voice of Jehovah? behold, to obey is better than sacrifice, and to hearken than the fat of rams (1 Sam. 15:22). What is meant by " hearkening to the voice" may be seen in Micah: Shall I come before Jehovah with burnt-offerings, with calves of a year old? will Jehovah be pleased with thousands of rams, with ten thousands of rivers of oil? He hath showed thee, O man, what is good; and what doth Jehovih require of thee, but to do judgment, and to love mercy; and to humble thyself in walking with thy God? (Micah 6:6-8). This is what is signified by "burnt-offerings and sacrifices of clean beasts and birds." So in Amos: Though you offer Me your burnt-offerings and gifts I will not accept them neither will I regard the peace-offering of your fat ones; let judgment flow like waters, and righteousness like a mighty river (Amos 5:22, 24). "Judgment" is truth, and "righteousness" is good, both from charity, and these are the "burnt-offerings and sacrifices" of the internal man. In Hosea: For I desire mercy and not sacrifice, and the knowledge of God rather than burnt-offerings (Hosea 6:. 6). From these passages it is evident what sacrifices and burnt-offerings are where there is no charity and faith; and it is also evident that clean beasts and clean birds represented, because they signified, the goods of charity and of faith.


And he offered burnt-offerings on the altar. That this signifies all worship therefrom, is evident from what has been already said. Burnt-offerings were the principal things of the worship of the representative church, and so thereafter were sacrifices, concerning which, of the Lord's Divine mercy hereafter. That "burnt-offerings" taken in the complex signify representative worship, is evident also in the Prophets, as in David: Jehovah will send thee help from the sanctuary, and strengthen thee out of Zion; He will remember all thy offerings, and accept as fat thy burnt-offering (Ps. 20:2, 3). In Isaiah: Whoso keepeth the sabbath from profaning it, them will I bring in to My holy mountain; their burnt-offerings and their sacrifices shall be accepted upon Mine altar (Isa. 56:6, 7), where "burnt-offerings and sacrifices" denote all worship; "burnt-offerings" worship from love, "sacrifices" worship from the derivative faith. As is usual in the Prophets," internal things are here described by external.


Verse 21. And Jehovah smelled an odor of rest; and Jehovah said in His heart, I will not again curse the ground anymore on man's account; because the imagination of man's heart is evil from his youth; neither will I again smite anymore everything living, as I have done. "And Jehovah smelled an odor of rest" signifies that worship therefrom was grateful to the Lord, that is, worship from charity and the faith of charity; "and Jehovah said in His heart" signifies that it would happen so no more; "I will not again curse the ground anymore" signifies that man would not anymore so turn himself away; "on man's account" signifies as did the man of the posterity of the Most Ancient Church; "because the imagination of man's heart is evil from his youth" signifies that man's will is altogether evil; "neither will I again smite anymore everything living, as I have done" signifies that man would not be able anymore so to destroy himself.


And Jehovah smelled an odor of rest. That this signifies that worship therefrom was grateful to the Lord, that is, worship from charity and the faith of charity, which is signified by "burnt-offering" has been stated under the preceding verse. It is often said in the Word that Jehovah "smelled an odor of rest" especially from burnt-offerings; and this always means what is grateful or acceptable; as that He "smelled an odor of rest" from burnt-offerings (Exod. 29:18, 25, 41; Lev. 1:9, 13, 17; 33:12, 13, 18; Num. 28:6, 8, 13; 29:2, 6, 8, 13, 36), and also from other sacrifices (Lev. 2:2, 9; 6:15, 21, 8:21, 28; Num. 15:3, 7, 13). They are also called "made by fire for an odor of rest unto Jehovah" by which is signified that they are from love and charity. "Fire" in the Word and "made by fire" when predicated of the Lord and of the worship of Him, signifies love. So also does "bread" and for this reason representative worship by burnt-offerings and sacrifices is called "the bread of the offering made by fire for an odor of rest" (Lev. 3:11, 16). [2] That an "odor" signifies what is grateful and acceptable, and thus that an odor in the Jewish Church was a representative of what is grateful, and is ascribed to Jehovah or the Lord, is because the good of charity and the truth of faith from charity correspond to sweet and delightful odors. The fact of this correspondence and the nature of it is demonstrable from the spheres of spirits and angels in heaven, where there are spheres of love and faith which are plainly perceived. The spheres are such that when a good spirit or angel, or a society of good spirits or of angels, comes near, then, whenever the Lord pleases, it is at once perceived, even at a distance, but more sensibly on a nearer approach, what is the quality in respect to love and faith of that spirit, angel, or society. This is incredible, yet is perfectly true. Such is the communication in the other life, and such is the perception. Wherefore, when it pleases the Lord, there is no need to explore in many ways the quality of a soul or spirit; for it may be known at his first approach. To these spheres correspond the spheres of odors in the world. That they do so correspond is evident from the fact that when it pleases the Lord the spheres of love and faith in the world of spirits are turned into spheres of sweet and pleasing odors, and are plainly perceived. [3] From these things it is now evident whence and why "an odor of rest" signifies what is grateful, and why an odor became representative in the Jewish Church, and why "an odor of rest" is here ascribed to Jehovah or the Lord. An odor of rest is one of peace, or a grateful sense of peace. Peace taken in the complex embraces all things of the Lord's kingdom both in general and in particular, for the state of the Lord's kingdom is a state of peace, and in a state of peace there come forth all the happy states that result from love and faith in the Lord. From what has now been said it is plain not only how it is with representatives, but also why in the Jewish Church incense was used, for which there was an altar before the veil and the mercy-seat; why there were offerings of frankincense in the sacrifices; also why so many spices were used in the incense, in the frankincense, and in the oil for anointing; and thus what is signified in the Word by "an odor of rest" "incense" and "spices" namely, the celestial things of love and the spiritual things of faith therefrom; in general, whatever is grateful from love and faith. [4] As in Ezekiel: In the mountain of My holiness, in the mountain of the height of Israel, there shall all the house of Israel in the whole land serve Me; there will I accept them, and there will I seek your oblations and the first fruits of your gifts, with all your holy things; as an odor of rest will I accept you (Ezek. 20:40-41). Here "an odor of rest" is predicated of burnt-offerings and gifts, that is, of worship from charity and its faith, which is signified by the burnt-offerings and gifts, and is consequently acceptable, which is meant by the "odor." In Amos: I hate, I have rejected your feasts, and I will not receive the odor of your holidays, for if ye shall offer Me your burnt-offerings and gifts, they shall not be acceptable (Amos 5:21-22). Here "odor" manifestly signifies what is grateful or acceptable. Of Isaac when blessing Jacob instead of Esau it is said: And Jacob came near, and he kissed him; and he smelled the smell of his raiment, and blessed him, and said, See, the smell of my son is as the smell of a field which Jehovah hath blessed (Gen. 27:27). The "smell of his raiment" signifies natural good and truth, which is grateful from its agreement with celestial and spiritual good and truth, the gratefulness of which is described by the "smell of a field."


Jehovah said in His heart. That this signifies that it would happen so no more, is evident from what follows. When it is predicated of Jehovah that He "says" nothing else is meant than that what He says is or takes place so, or not so, for of Jehovah nothing else can be said than that He is. Whatever is predicated of Jehovah in various places in the Word, is so expressed for the sake of those who can apprehend nothing except from such things as are in man, and therefore the sense of the letter is of this nature. The simple in heart may be instructed from the appearances with man, for they scarcely go beyond the knowledges that are derived from things of sense, and therefore the language of the Word is adapted to their apprehension; as here, where it is said that "Jehovah said in His heart."


I will not again curse the ground anymore on man's account. That this signifies that man would not anymore so turn away, as did the man of the posterity of the Most Ancient Church, is evident from what has been said before about this posterity. That "to curse" signifies in the internal sense to turn oneself away, may be seen above (n. 223, 245). How the case is with this and with what follows: that man would not anymore so turn away, as did the man of the Most Ancient Church, and that he would not again be able so to destroy himself, is evident from what has been already said about the posterity of the Most Ancient Church who perished, and about the new church which is called "Noah." [2] It has been shown that the man of the Most Ancient Church was so constituted that the will and understanding with him formed one mind, or that with him love was implanted in his will part, and thus at the same time faith, which filled the other or intellectual part of his mind. From this their posterity inherited the condition that the will and the understanding made a one; and therefore when the love of self and the consequent insane cupidities began to take possession of their will part (where previously there had been love to the Lord and charity toward the neighbor), not only did their will part or will become utterly perverted, but so also together with it did their intellectual part or understanding, and this was still more the case when the last posterity immersed their falsities in their cupidities, and so became "Nephilim" for thereby they became of such a nature that they could not be restored, because both parts of the mind (that is, the whole mind) had been ruined. But as this had been foreseen by the Lord, He had also provided for man's upbuilding, in this way, that he might be reformed and regenerated in respect to the second or intellectual part of the mind, in which there might be implanted a new will which is conscience, and through which the Lord might work the good of love (that is, of charity), and the truth of faith. Thus of the Lord's Divine mercy has man been restored. These are the things that are signified in this verse by, "I will not again curse the ground anymore on man's account; because the imagination of man's heart is evil from his youth; neither will I smite anymore everything living, as I have done."


Because the imagination of man's heart is evil from his youth. That this signifies that man's will part is utterly evil, is evident from what has just been said. The "imagination of the heart" signifies nothing else. Man supposes that he has a will for what is good, but he is quite mistaken. When he does good, it is not from his will, but from a new will which is the Lord's; thus it is from the Lord that he does it. Consequently when he thinks and speaks what is true, it is from a new understanding, which is from the new will, and it is from the Lord that he does this also. For the regenerate man is an altogether new man formed by the Lord, and this is why he is said to be created anew.


Neither will I again smite anymore everything living, as I have done. That this signifies that man would not be able anymore so to destroy himself, is now evident, for such is the case when man is regenerated, seeing that he is then withheld from the evil and falsity that is with him, and then perceives no otherwise than that he does what is good and thinks what is true from himself. This however is an appearance, or fallacy, owing to his being withheld (as indeed he is, powerfully), and in consequence of being thus withheld from evil and falsity, he cannot destroy himself; but if he were in the least let go, or left to himself, he would rush into all evil and falsity.


Verse 22. During all the days of the earth, seed-time and harvest, and cold and heat, and summer and winter, and day and night, shall not cease. "During all the days of the earth" signifies all time; "seed-time and harvest" signifies the man who is to be regenerated, and hence the church; "cold and heat" signifies the state of the man when he is being regenerated, which is like this in respect to the reception of faith and charity; "cold" signifies no faith and charity, "heat" faith and charity; "summer and winter" signifies the state of the regenerate man in respect to what is of his new will, the alternations of which are as summer and winter; "day and night" signifies the state of the same regenerate man in respect to what is of his understanding, the alternations of which are as day and night; "shall not cease" means that this shall be the case in all time.


During all the days of the earth. That this signifies all time, is evident from the signification of "day" as being a time (see n. 23, 487, 488, 493); wherefore "the days of the earth" here mean all time so long as there is earth [terra], or inhabitant upon the earth [tellure]. An inhabitant first ceases to be on the earth when there is no longer any church. For when there is no church, there is no longer any communication of man with heaven, and when this communication ceases, every inhabitant perishes. As we have seen before, it is with the church as with the heart and lungs in man: so long as the heart and lungs are sound, so long the man lives; and such also is the case with the Grand Man, which is the universal heaven, so long as the church lives; and therefore it is here said "during all the days of the earth, seed-time and harvest, and cold and heat, and summer and winter, and day and night shall not cease." From this it also may appear that the earth will not endure to eternity, but that it too will have its end; for it is said, "during all the days of the earth" that is, as long as the earth endures. [2] But as to believing that the end of the earth will be the same thing as the last judgment, foretold in the Word-where the consummation of the age, the day of visitation, and the last judgment are described-this is a mistake; for there is a last judgment of every church when it has been vastated, or when there is no longer in it any faith. The last judgment of the Most Ancient Church was when it perished, as in its last posterity just before the flood. The last judgment of the Jewish Church was when the Lord came into the world. There will also be a last judgment when the Lord shall come in glory; not that the earth and the world are then to perish, but that the church perishes; and then a new church is always raised up by the Lord; as at the time of the flood was the Ancient Church, and at the time of the coming of the Lord the primitive church of the Gentiles. [3] So also will there be a new church when the Lord shall come in glory, which is also meant by the new heaven and new earth, in like manner as with every regenerate man, who becomes a man of the church, or a church, and whose internal man, when he has been created anew, is called a new heaven, and his external man a new earth. Moreover there is also a last judgment for every man when he dies, for then, according to what he has done in the body, he is adjudged either to death or to life. That nothing else is meant, consequently not the destruction of the world, by the consummation of the age, the end of days, or the last judgment, is clearly evident from the words of the Lord in Luke: In that night there shall be two men in one bed; the one shall be taken and the other shall be left; there shall be two women grinding together, the one shall be taken, and the other shall be left (Luke 17:34-36), where the last time is called "night" because there is no faith, that is, no charity; and where by some being "left" it is clearly indicated that the world will not then perish.


That "seed-time and harvest" signify man who is to be regenerated, and thus the church, there is no need to confirm from the Word, because it occurs so often that man is compared and likened to a field, and thus to a sowing or seed-time, and the Word of the Lord to seed, and the effect to the produce or harvest, as everyone comprehends from the forms of speech thus made familiar. In general every man is here treated of-that there never will be lacking to him the sowing of seed from the Lord, whether he be within the church or without; that is, whether he be acquainted with the Word of the Lord, or be not acquainted with it. Without seed sown by the Lord, man can do nothing of good. All the good of charity, even with the Gentiles, is seed from the Lord; and although with these there is not the good of faith, as there may be within the church, yet there may come the good of faith; for in the other life those Gentiles who have lived in charity, as Gentiles are wont to do in this world, when instructed by angels, embrace and receive the doctrine of true faith and the faith of charity much more easily than do Christians; concerning which, of the Lord's Divine mercy hereafter. Specifically, however, the subject treated of here is the man who is to be regenerated, that is to say that there will be no such thing as a failure of the church to come forth somewhere on the earth, which is here signified by there being seed-time and harvest all the days of the earth. That seed-time and harvest, or the church, will always come into existence, has regard to what was said in the preceding verse, namely, that man will no more be able so to destroy himself as was done by the last posterity of the Most Ancient Church.


That "cold and heat" signifies the state of man when he is being regenerated, which is like this in regard to the reception of faith and charity, and that "cold" signifies no faith and charity, and "heat" charity, is evident from the signification of "cold" and "heat" in the Word, where they are predicated of a man about to be regenerated, or being regenerated, or of the church. The same is also evident from the connection, that is, from what precedes and what follows; for the subject is the church (in the preceding verse that man would not again be able so to destroy himself, in this verse that some church will always come into existence), which is first described as to the way it comes into existence, that is, when the man is being regenerated so as to become a church, and then the quality of the regenerated man is treated of; so that the treatment of the subject covers every state of the man of the church. [2] That his state when regenerated is as described, namely, a state of cold and heat, or of no faith and charity, and again of faith and charity, may not be so evident to anyone except from experience, and indeed from reflection in regard to the experience. And because there are few who are being regenerated, and among those who are being regenerated few if any who reflect, or who are able to reflect on the state of their regeneration, we may say a few words on the subject. When man is being regenerated, he receives life from the Lord; for before this he cannot be said to have lived, the life of the world and of the body not being life, but only that which is heavenly and spiritual. Through regeneration man receives real life from the Lord; and because he had no life before, there is an alternation of no life and of real life, that is, of no faith and charity, and of some faith and charity; no charity and faith being here signified by "cold" and some faith and charity by "heat." [3] As regards this subject the case is this: Whenever man is in his corporeal and worldly things, there is then no faith and charity, that is, there is "cold" for then corporeal and worldly things, consequently those which are his own, are at work, and so long as the man is in these, he is absent or remote from faith and charity, so that he does not even think about heavenly and spiritual things. The reason of this is that heavenly and corporeal things can never be together in a man, for man's will has been utterly ruined. But when the things of man's body and will are not at work, but are quiescent, then the Lord works through his internal man, and then he is in faith and charity, which is here called "heat." When he again returns into the body he is again in cold; and when the body, or what is of the body, is quiescent, and as nothing, he is then in heat, and so on in alternation. For such is the condition of man that heavenly and spiritual things cannot be in him along with his corporeal and worldly things, but there are alternations. This is what takes place with everyone who is to be regenerated, and it goes on as long as he is in a state of regeneration; for in no other way is it possible for man to be regenerated, that is, from being dead to be made alive, for the reason, as already said, that his will has been utterly ruined, and is therefore completely separated from the new will, which he receives from the Lord and which is the Lord's and not the man's. Hence now it is evident what is here signified by "cold and heat." [4] That such is the case every regenerated man may know from experience, that is to say, that when he is in corporeal and worldly things, he is absent and remote from internal things, so that he not only takes no thought about them, but feels in himself cold at the thought of them; but that when corporeal and worldly things are quiescent, he is in faith and charity. He may also know from experience that these states alternate, and that therefore when corporeal and worldly things begin to be in excess and to want to rule, he comes into straits and temptations, until he is reduced into such a state that the external man becomes compliant to the internal, a compliance it can never render until it is quiescent and as it were nothing. The last posterity of the Most Ancient Church could not be regenerated, because, as before said, with them the things of the understanding and of the will constituted one mind; and therefore the things of their understanding could not be separated from those of their will, so that they might in this manner be by turns in heavenly and spiritual things, and in corporeal and worldly things; but they had continual cold in regard to heavenly things and continual heat in regard to cupidities, so that they could have no alternation.


That "cold" signifies no love, or no charity and faith, and that "heat" or "fire" signifies love, or charity and faith, is evident from the following passages in the Word. In John it is said to the church in Laodicea: I know thy works, that thou art neither cold nor hot; I would thou wert cold or hot; so because thou art lukewarm, and neither cold nor hot, I will spew thee out of My mouth (Rev. 3:15-16); where "cold" denotes no charity, and "hot" much charity. In Isaiah: Thus hath Jehovah said unto me, I will be still, and I will behold in My place; like the clear heat upon the light, like a cloud of dew in the heat of harvest (Isa. 18:4), where the subject is the new church to be planted; "heat upon the light" and "heat of harvest" denote love and charity. Again: Saith Jehovah, whose fire is in Zion, and His furnace in Jerusalem (Isa. 31:9), where "fire" denotes love. Of the cherubim seen by Ezekiel it is said: As for the likeness of the living creatures, their appearance was like burning coals of fire, like the appearance of torches; it went up and down among the living creatures; and the fire was bright, and out of the fire went forth lightning (Ezek. 1:13). [2] And again it is said of the Lord, in the same chapter: And above the expanse that was over their heads was the likeness of a throne, as the appearance of a sapphire stone; and upon the likeness of a throne was a likeness as the appearance of a man above upon it; and I saw as the appearance of burning coal, as the appearance of fire within it round about, from the appearance of His loins and upward; and from the appearance of His loins and downward I saw as it were the appearance of fire, and there was brightness round about Him (Ezek. 1:26-27; 8:2). Here again "fire" denotes love. In Daniel: The Ancient of days did sit; His throne was flames of fire, and the wheels thereof burning fire; a fiery stream issued and came forth from before Him, a thousand thousands ministered unto Him, and ten thousand times ten thousand stood before Him (Dan. 7:9-10).Here "fire" denotes the Lord's love. In Zechariah: For I, saith Jehovah, will be unto her a wall of fire round about (Zech. 2:5), where the new Jerusalem is treated of. In David: Jehovah maketh His angels spirits, His ministers a flaming fire (Ps. 104:4), "a flaming fire" denoting the celestial spiritual. [3] Because "fire" signified love, fire was also made a representative of the Lord, as is evident from the fire on the altar of burnt-offering which was never to be extinguished (Lev. 6:12-13), representing the mercy of the Lord. On this account, before Aaron went in to the mercy-seat, he was to burn incense with fire taken from the altar of burnt-offering (Lev. 16:12-14). And for the same reason, that it might be signified that worship was accepted by the Lord, fire was sent down from heaven and consumed the burnt-offering (as in Lev. 9:24, and elsewhere). By "fire" is also signified in the Word self-love and its cupidity, with which heavenly love cannot agree; and therefore the two sons of Aaron were consumed by fire, because they burned incense with strange fire (Lev. 10:1-2). "Strange fire" is all the love of self and of the world, and all the cupidity of these loves. Moreover, heavenly love appears to the wicked no otherwise than as a burning and consuming fire, and therefore in the Word a consuming fire is predicated of the Lord, as the fire on Mount Sinai, which represented the love, or mercy, of the Lord, and that was seen by the people as a consuming fire, and therefore they desired Moses not to let them hear the voice of Jehovah God, and see that great fire, lest they should die (Deut. 18:16). The love or mercy of the Lord has this appearance to those who are in the fire of the loves of self and of the world.


That "summer and winter" signify the state of the regenerate man as to his new will, the alternations of which are as summer and winter, is evident from what has been said about cold and heat. The alternations with those who are to be regenerated are likened to cold and heat, but the alternations with those who have been regenerated are likened to summer and winter. That in the former case the man who is to be regenerated is treated of, and in the present case the man who has been regenerated, is evident from this, that in the one case cold is named first, and heat second; whereas in the other case summer is first named, and winter second. The reason is that a man who is being regenerated begins from cold, that is, from no faith and charity; but when he has been regenerated, he begins from charity. [2] That there are alternations with the regenerate man-now no charity, and now some charity-is clearly evident for the reason that in everyone, even when regenerated, there is nothing but evil, and everything good is the Lord's alone. And since there is nothing but evil in him, he cannot but undergo alternations and now be as it were in summer, that is, in charity, and now in winter, that is, in no charity. Such alternations exist in order that man may be perfected more and more, and thus be rendered more and more happy, and they take place with the regenerate man not only while he lives in the body, but also when he comes into the other life, for without alternations as of summer and winter as to what is of his will, and as of day and night as to what is of his understanding, he cannot possibly be perfected and rendered more happy; but in the other life these alternations are like those of summer and winter in the temperate zones, and those of day and night in springtime. [3] These states are also described in the Prophets by "summer and winter" and by "day and night;" as in Zechariah: And it shall come to pass in that day that living waters shall go out from Jerusalem; half of them toward the eastern sea, and half of them toward the western sea; in summer and in winter shall it be (Zech. 14:8),where the New Jerusalem is treated of, or the kingdom of the Lord in heaven and on earth, that is, its state of both kinds, which is called "summer and winter." In David: The day is Thine, the night also is Thine; Thou hast prepared the light and the sun, Thou hast set all the borders of the earth, Thou hast made summer and winter (Ps. 74:16-17), where like things are involved. So in Jeremiah: That the covenant of the day, and the covenant of the night be not made vain, that there may be day and night in their season (Jer. 33:20).


That "day and night" signify the state of the same, that is, of the regenerate man, as to the things of the understanding, the alternations of which are as day and night, is evident from what has just been said. "Summer and winter" are predicated of what is of the will, from their cold and heat; for so it is with the things of the will. But "day and night" are predicated of what is of the understanding, from their light and darkness; for so it is with the things of the understanding. As these things are self-evident, there is no need to confirm them by other like passages from the Word.


From all this it is evident what the nature of the Lord's Word is in the internal sense. In the sense of the letter it appears so unpolished as to give no hint of anything being spoken of but seed-time and harvest, cold and heat, summer and winter, and day and night, when yet all these things involve arcana of the Ancient, that is, of the Spiritual, Church. The very words in the sense of the letter are of this character, thus are so to speak most general vessels, each one of which contains so many and such great arcana of heaven as to be inexhaustible even as to the one ten-thousandth part of it; for in these most general words, taken as they are from earthly things, the angels-from the Lord-can see, in illimitable variety, the whole process of regeneration, and the state of the man who is to be and who has been regenerated, while man can see scarcely anything.


CONTINUATION CONCERNING THE HELLS. HERE, CONCERNING THE HELLS OF THE AVARICIOUS, THE FILTHY JERUSALEM, AND THE ROBBERS IN A DESERT. ALSO CONCERNING THE EXCREMENTITIOUS HELLS OF THOSE WHO HAVE LIVED IN MERE PLEASURES. The avaricious are of all men the most sordid, and think the least about the life after death, the soul, and the internal man. They do not even know what heaven is, because of all men they least elevate their thoughts, but sink them and immerse them wholly in corporeal and earthly things. Wherefore when they come into the other life they do not know for a long time that they are spirits, but suppose that they are still altogether in the body. The ideas of their thought which from their avarice have become as it were corporeal and earthly, are turned into direful phantasies. It seems incredible, yet is true, that in the other life the sordidly avaricious seem to themselves to be busy in cellars where their money is, and to be infested there by mice; yet however they may be infested they do not withdraw until they are wearied out, and so at last they work their way out of these tombs.


What sordid phantasies the ideas of thought of those who have been sordidly avaricious are turned into, is evident from their hell, which is deep under foot. A vapor exhales from it like that from hogs whose bristles are being scraped off in a scalding trough. There are the homes of the avaricious. Those who come thither at first appear black, but by the scraping off of their hair, as is done with hogs, they seem to themselves to become white. So they then appear to themselves, but still there remains therefrom a mark by which they are known wherever they go. A certain black spirit who had not yet been brought to his own hell, because he had to make a longer stay in the world of spirits, being let down thither (although he had not been so avaricious as the rest, and yet had in his lifetime wickedly panted for the wealth of others), on his arrival the avaricious there fled away, saying that he was a robber, because he was black, and would kill them. For the avaricious flee from such spirits, being especially fearful of losing their lives. At length, having found out that he was not such a robber, they told him that if he wished to become white he merely had to have the hair taken off, like the swine-which were in full view-and then he would be white. But as he did not desire this, he was taken up among spirits.


In this hell are for the most part Jews who have been sordidly avaricious, whose presence too when they come to other spirits is perceived as the stench of mice. In regard to the Jews something may be said about their cities and the robbers in the desert, to show how miserable is their state after death, especially that of those who have been sordidly avaricious and have despised others in comparison with themselves in consequence of their inborn arrogance in thinking themselves to be the only chosen people. In consequence of having conceived and confirmed in themselves, during their life in the body, the phantasy that they shall go to Jerusalem, and the Holy Land, to possess it (not being disposed to understand that by the New Jerusalem is meant the Lord's kingdom in the heavens and on earth), there appears to them, when they come into the other world, a city on the left of Gehenna, a little in front, to which they flock in crowds. This city, however, being miry and fetid, is called the filthy Jerusalem; and here they run about the streets, over the ankles in dirt and mud, pouring out complaints and lamentations. They see these cities-indeed I have sometimes seen them myself-and the streets therein, with all their defilements, represented as in open day. There once appeared to me a certain spirit of a dusky hue coming from this filthy Jerusalem, the gate seeming as it were to be opened. He was encompassed about with wandering stars, especially on his left side; wandering stars around a spirit signifying in the spiritual world falsities, but it is different when the stars are not wandering. He approached, and applied himself to the upper part of my left ear, which he seemed to touch with his mouth, in order to speak with me; but he did not speak in a sonorous tone of voice like others, but within himself, nevertheless in such a manner that I could hear and understand. He said that he was a Jewish Rabbi, adding that he had been in that miry city for a long time, and that the streets thereof were nothing but mud and dirt. He said also there was nothing to eat in it but dirt, and on my asking why he who was a spirit desired to eat, he replied that he did eat, and that when he desired to eat, nothing was offered him but mud, which grieved him exceedingly. He inquired what he must do, having in vain tried to meet with Abraham, Isaac, and Jacob. I related to him some particulars respecting them, informing him it was in vain to seek for them, and that even if they were found, they could not possibly afford him any assistance. After adverting to matters of deeper import, I said that no one ought to be sought after but the Lord alone, who is the Messiah whom they had despised on earth; and that He rules the universal heaven and the universal earth, and that help comes from Him alone. He then asked anxiously and repeatedly where the Lord was. I replied that He is to be found everywhere, and that He hears and knows all men. But at that instant other Jewish spirits drew him away.


There is also another city on the right of Gehenna, or between Gehenna and the Lake, where the better sort of the Jews seem to themselves to dwell. But this city is changed to them according to their phantasies, sometimes being turned into villages, at others into a lake, and again into a city; and its inhabitants are much afraid of robbers, but so long as they remain in the city they are secure. Between the two cities there is a kind of triangular space, dark, where are robbers, who are Jews, but of the worst sort, who cruelly torture whomsoever they meet. The Jews out of fear call these robbers the Lord, and the desert in which they reside they call the Land. As a security against the robbers, at the entrance into the city, on the right, there is a good spirit stationed, in the extreme corner, who receives all comers, and before whom, as they arrive, they bow themselves toward the earth. They are admitted under his feet, this being the ceremony of admittance into this city. A certain spirit approaching me suddenly; I demanded whence he came? He replied that he was making his escape from the robbers, whom he feared, because they kill, slaughter, burn, and boil men, inquiring where he might be safe. I asked whence and from what country he came? In his terror he dared not give me any other answer than that it was the Lord's Land, for they call that desert the Land, and the robbers the Lord. Afterwards the robbers presented themselves. They were very black, and spoke in a deep tone of voice like giants, and, strange to say, when they come they induce a sense of dread and horror. I asked them who they were? They said they were in quest of plunder. I inquired what they meant to do with their plunder, and whether they did not know that they were spirits, and therefore could neither seize upon nor amass plunder, and that such notions are the phantasies of the evil? They replied, that they were in the desert in quest of booty, and that they torture whomsoever they meet. At last they acknowledged, while they were with me, that they were spirits, but still could not be brought to believe that they were not still living in the body. Those who thus wander about are Jews, who threaten to kill, slaughter, burn, and boil whomsoever they meet, even though they are Jews, and friends. Their disposition was thus made known, although in the world they dare not divulge it.


Not far from the filthy Jerusalem there is still another city which is called the Judgment of Gehenna, where those dwell who claim heaven as due to their own righteousness, and condemn others who do not live according to their phantasies. Between this city and Gehenna there appears as if there were a rather handsome bridge, of a pale or gray color; where there is a black spirit, whom they fear, and who prevents their passing over, for on the other side of the bridge appears Gehenna.


Those who in the life of the body have made mere pleasures their end and aim, loving merely to indulge their natural propensities, and to live in luxury and festivity, caring only for themselves and the world, without any regard to things Divine, and who are devoid of faith and charity, are after death first introduced into a life similar to that which they had in the world. There is a place in front toward the left, at a considerable depth, where all is pleasure, sports, dancing, feasting, and chatting together. Hither such spirits are conveyed, and then they know no otherwise than that they are still in the world. After a short time however the scene is changed, and then they are carried down to a hell beneath the buttocks which is merely excrementitious; for in the other life such exclusively corporeal pleasure is turned into what is excrementitious. I have seen them there carrying dung and bemoaning their lot.


Women who from low and mean condition have become rich, and in their pride have given themselves up to pleasures and a life of delicacy and ease, reclining on couches like queens, sitting at tables and banquets, and caring for nothing else, when they come into the other life have wretched quarrels with one another-they beat and tear each other, they drag each other by the hair, and become like furies.


It is otherwise with those who have been born into the pleasures and enjoyments of life, and who have been educated in such things from childhood, such as queens, and others of noble family, and also those of wealthy parentage. These, though they have lived in luxury, splendor, and elegance, provided they have lived at the same time in faith in the Lord and charity toward the neighbor, are among the happy in the other life. For to deprive oneself of the enjoyments of life, of power, and of riches, and to think thus to merit heaven by wretchedness, is a false course. But to esteem pleasures and power and riches as nothing in comparison with the Lord, and the life of the world as nothing in comparison with heavenly life, this is what is meant in the Word by renouncing these things.


I have spoken with spirits concerning the fact that possibly few will believe in the existence of so many and such wonderful things in the other life, in consequence of the absence of any but a very general and obscure conception - amounting to none at all-of the life after death, and in which men have confirmed themselves by the consideration that they do not see a soul or spirit with their eyes. Even the learned, although they say there is a soul or spirit, so cleave to artificial words and terms-which rather obscure or even extinguish the understanding of things than assist it-and so devote themselves to self and the world, and but rarely to the general welfare and to heaven, that they believe still less than do sensuous men. The spirits to whom I spoke marveled that men should be of such a character, seeing that they are well aware of the existence in nature itself, and in each of its kingdoms, of many wonderful and varied things about which they are ignorant, as for example those in the internal human ear, concerning which a book might be filled with things amazing and unheard of, and in the existence of which everyone has faith. But if anything is said about the spiritual world, from which come forth all things in the kingdoms of nature both in general and in particular, scarcely anyone gives credence to it, on account-as before said-of the preconceived and confirmed opinion that because it is not seen it is nothing.


CHAPTER 9 CONTINUATION CONCERNING THE HELLS HERE, CONCERNING OTHER HELLS, DISTINCT FROM THOSE PREVIOUSLY DESCRIBED Those who are deceitful and who suppose that they can obtain all things by deceitful craft, and who have confirmed themselves in this idea by their success in the life of the body, seem to themselves to dwell in a kind of tun or vat at the left, which is called the Infernal Tun, over which there is a covering, and outside of it a small globe on a pyramidal base, which they conceive to be the universe, under their inspection and rule. Precisely thus does it appear to them. Those of them who have deceitfully persecuted the innocent are there for ages. I was told that some have remained there already for twenty ages. 947-1 When they are let out they are possessed with such phantasy that they suppose the universe to be a globe about which they walk and which they trample with their feet, believing themselves to be gods of the universe. I have seen them at times and spoken with them about their phantasy; but as they had been of this nature in the world, they could not be withdrawn from it. I have also at times perceived with what subtle deceit they could pervert the thoughts, turning them in a moment in other directions, and substituting others, so that it could hardly be known that it was done by them, and this so naturally as to be beyond belief. Being of this character, these spirits are never admitted to men, for they infuse their poison so clandestinely and secretly as not to be noticeable.


There is at the left another tun-as it appears to them-in which are some who in the life of the body had supposed that when they did evil they did good, and the converse; so that they had made good to consist in evil. These remain there for a while, and then are deprived of rationality, on the loss of which they are as if asleep, and what they then do is not imputed to them; but yet they seem to themselves to be awake. On their rationality being restored to them they return to themselves and are as other spirits.


Toward the left and in front there is a certain chamber in which there is no light, but mere darkness, from which it is called the Dark Chamber. In it are those who have longed for the goods of others, continually hankering after them, and also whenever possible getting possession of them under some specious claim, in the most conscienceless manner. There are some there who when they lived in this world had been in stations of much dignity, but had based the respect due to sagacity on wily practices. In that chamber they consult together-just as when they lived in the body-how to take other people in. The darkness there they call delicious. I was shown the appearance of those who are there and had acted fraudulently. As in clear daylight I saw what they at last come to. Their faces are more hideous than those of the dead, ghastly in hue like a corpse, and pitted with horrible cavities, the result of living in the torment of anxiety.


There was a phalanx of spirits rising up from the side of Gehenna on high toward the front, from whose sphere it was perceived-for the quality of spirits may be perceived from their sphere alone, at their first approach-that they accounted the Lord as vile, and held all Divine worship in contempt. Their speech was undulatory. One of them spoke in a scandalous way against the Lord, and was at once cast down toward one side of Gehenna. They were being carried from the front up overhead, in the endeavor to meet with some with whom they might conjoin themselves in an attempt to reduce others to subjection, but they were retarded on the way, and were told to desist, because the attempt would be hurtful to them, so they came to a halt. Then they were seen. They had black faces, and had a white bandage round their heads, by which is signified that they regard Divine worship-and therefore the Lord's Word-as black, and useful only to keep the vulgar under the restraint of conscience. Their abode is near Gehenna, where are flying dragons, not venomous, from which it is called the Habitation of Dragons. But because they are not deceitful, their hell is not so grievous. Such spirits ascribe all things to themselves and their own prudence, and boast that they fear no one. But they were shown that a mere hiss would terrify them and put them to flight, for on a hiss being heard they thought in their terror that all hell was rising to carry them off, and from heroes they suddenly became like women.


947-1 An age (saeculum) in the Word is ten years. (See n. 433.) [REVISER]

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