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The Barddas of Iolo Morganwg, Vol. I., ed. by J. Williams Ab Ithel, [1862], at



1. The dead month;
The dead month;
The white water; 1
The white stream; 2
The white surface of water; 3
The black month;
The white flood; 4
The white rime. 5


2. The month of purity; 6
The month of lambs;
The severe time;
The season of purification. 6


3. The agriculturist's month;
The month of violets;
The rising of the sap; 7
The Lily of the valley;
The thunderer. 8

p. 412 p. 413


4. The month of the swallow;
The month of the cuckoo;
The beginning of summer;
The beginning of ripenness; 1
The season of the young; 2
The spring of the young; 3
The time of vegetation;
The pear orchard; 4
The green grass.


5. The month of the cuckoo;
Opening; 5
The beginning of summer;
The season of flies;
Superior verdancy;
Prime vegetation;
Various vegetation;
The cuckoo's song 6


6. The month of flowers;
The presence of summer.


7. The month of hay;
The close of summer;
The extremity of summer;
The extremity of ripenness;
The height of summer. 7


8. The wheat month;
The season of whiteness;
Blanched stalks;
White stalks;
White beards of corn;
The month of corn;
Extreme sunniness; 8
8 The bright season;
The white appearance;
The white summer.

p. 414 p. 415


9. The fruit month;
The white stalks;
The white stalk.


10. The honey month;
The wine month; 1
The month of the honey gatherer;
The month of deer rutting.


11. The month of mist;
The dusky month;
The month of honey-comb;
The fall of the leaves;
Receding appearance.


12. The black month;
The dark month;
The ventilator. 2

Another mode of designating the Months.

1. The white fluid. The beginning of Alban Arthan.
2. The severe month.
3. Regeneration.
4. The beginning of summer. The commencement of Alban Eilir.
5. The summer month. The month of June.
6. The month of the excess of summer, beginning on Alban Hevin.
7. The reaping month.
8. The month of white stalks.
9. Deer rutting, beginning on Alban Elved.
10. The month of receding appearance.
11. The month of fore-shortening.
12. The dead month. The black month.

p. 416 p. 417

In other Books it is as follows--beginning on the morrow of Alban Arthan.

1. The white fluid.
2. The severe month.
3. Reanimation.
4. The springing rows.
5. The beginning of summer.
6. The open summer.
7. The height of summer. The excess of summer.
8. Reaping.
9. White stalks. Bright Stalks.
10. Deer rutting.
11. Receding appearance.
12. Fore-shortening. Black month.


411:1 p. 410 Gwyn-mer; in reference to either frost or snow.

411:2 Gwyn-hy-mer.

411:3 Gwyn-wy-bar; ice. Gwenhwyvar is also used as a proper name, three of Arthur's wives being so called.

411:4 Gwyn-myr; myr being the aggregate plural of mor, a sea.

411:5 Gwyn-hy-bar, or gwyn-y-bar. From bar comes barug, the term in popular use for hoar-frost,

411:6 Probably in reference to the penitential season of Lent.

411:7 Cyn-nodd-awr.

411:8 Daronwy is one of the epithets of the Deity. It was also the name of a person who is considered as one of the three molestations of the isle of Anglesey. (Tr. 81; first Series.) There is a historical poem by Taliesin, preserved in the p. 411 1st vol. of the Myv. Arch, entitled "Cerdd Daronwy," or Daronwy's Song. Probably this name is given to the month of March, not from any idea that thunder happens in it oftener than in other months, but because it is a powerful month--the lord of months, as regards the severity of the weather, even as it is called Mawrth, March = Mars, the god of war.

413:1 p. 412 "Cynhewin," from cyn, and haw, ripe. It may, however, be but another form of Cyntefin.

413:2 "Canowin," from cenaw, an offspring; a graft. It may refer to the sprouts of trees, as well as to the young of animals. We say cenawon cyll, the catkins of hazel, and cenawon llewod, lion whelps.

413:3 Cenaw-tardd.

413:4 Probably because the pear trees now begin to blossom.

413:5 Also " May;" and is the name still in use.

413:6 "Cogerddan," (cog-cerdd.) It may signify also the departure of the cuckoo.

413:7 "Gwerthefin " is likewise an epithet for the Deity, and signifies what is supreme, from gwarthaf, the upper part, or summit. We have above derived it from gwarth and hefin.

413:8 Gorhïan, i.e. gor-huan.

415:1 p. 414 This clearly indicates that vineyards were formerly cultivated in Britain.

415:2 "Gwynollydd," or "gwynyllydd," probably from gwyntyll. Many of the above names are, however, now so obsolete, and their roots so obscure, that we do not vouch for accuracy of translation in every case.

Next: The Beginning of the Year