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The Barddas of Iolo Morganwg, Vol. I., ed. by J. Williams Ab Ithel, [1862], at



1. There are three original principles, which are the three primary elements: the first, calas, hence all hardness, and it hardens every other thing, that comes in conjunction with it, and from this comes all corporeity; the second, fluidity, 2 and hence all freshness and softness, and it freshens and softens every thing that is commingled with it, and all moisture and all corporal change; the third, nwyvre, and hence all life, for whatever it mixes with becomes alive, as far as its species and capability permit.

Other teachers and wise men say thus:

2. There are five elements: calas; water; air; fire; and nev. 3

And others say thus:

3. There are five elements: earth, which is calas; fluidity, which is water and freshness; air, and hence all breathing, every voice and speech; fire, and hence all heat and light; and nwyvre, whence proceed all life, intelligence, knowledge, and power from will and desire.

Another of a similar kind:--

4. The three materials of every thing: earth; water; and nwyvre. Others say: earth; water; and nev. Others say: calas; fluidity; and nwyvre.

Another of the same kind:

5. There are five particular elements: calas; fluidity; firmament; uvel; and nwyvre.

p. 378 p. 379


6. There are three elements of matter, of original kind and condition: calas, from which comes all corporeity that has form and measure; fluidity, from which comes all progress capable of rest and motion; and nwyvre, whence all life and understanding.

It is as follows in another Book, according to other teachers:--

7. There are five elements, namely:, earth; water; air; fire; and nev; and it is in nev that God exists, as well as every soul, which is also from Him.

Others say thus:--

8. The five concurrences of every thing: earth; water; air; fire; and soul, the soul being God, from Whom proceeds all life; in the earth are the body and form; in the water is the conjunction; in the air are the breath and motion; in the fire is the feeling, that is, the corporal senses; in the soul are the life, and the senses of perception, namely, understanding, sciences, awen, reason, and affection. And in these five all things concur and have their origin.


377:2 p. 376 Al. "water."

377:3 This word is used now simply to denote heaven. It seems to be the same as p. 377 the neph or cneph of the Egyptians, the ψυκη κοσμου, that pervaded and animated the whole world.

Next: Bardism, &c. The Elements