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Babylonian Talmud, Book 10: History of the Talmud, tr. by Michael L. Rodkinson, [1918], at




English Translations.

W. Walton. Translation of the treatises Sabbath and Erubin, London, 1718.

D. A. de Sola and M. I. Raphall. Eighteen treatises from the Mishna translated. London, 1843.

Joseph Barclay published under the title "The Talmud" a translation of eighteen treatises of the Mishna with annotations. London, 1878.

C. Taylor. Sayings of the Jewish Fathers (the treatise Aboth). Cambridge, 1877.

REMARK.--The treatise "Aboth" has been translated into almost all of the European languages.

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To translate the Mishna is a comparatively easy task. Its generally plain and uniform language and style of expression, and its compendious character could easily enough be rendered into another language, especially when accompanied by some explanatory notes. But it is quite different with the Gemara, especially the Babylonian. There are, of course, also passages in the Gemara which offer no great difficulties to a translator who is sufficiently familiar with the idiom in which the original is composed. We refer to the historical, legendary and homiletical portions (Hagadas), which the compilers have interspersed in every treatise. The main part of the Gemara, however, which is essentially of an argumentative character, giving minute reports of discussions and debates on the law, this part, so rich in dialectical subtilities, and so full of technicalities and elliptical expressions, offers to the translator almost insurmountable difficulties.

English Translations.

A. W. Streane. Translation of the treatise Chagiga. Cambridge, 1891.

Michael L. Rodkinson: Babylonian Talmud--Section Moed (Festivals). Complete, consisting of the following volumes: Vol. I., 1 Tract Sabbath (first ten chapters); Vol. H., Tract Sabbath (continued), fourteen chapters; Vol. III., Tract Erubin (Mingling); Vol. IV., Tracts Skekalim (Duties), and Rosh Hashana (Hebrew Calendar); Vol. V., Tract Pesachim (Passover); Vol. VI., Tracts Yomah (Day of Atonement), and Hagiga (Holocaust); Vol. VII., Tracts Betzah (Feast), Succah (Tabernacles), and Moed Katan (Minor Festivals); Vol. VIII., Tracts Taanith (Fasts), Megilla (Book of Esther), and Ebel Rabbathi (Great Mourning).

Section Jurisprudence: Vol. I., Ethics of Judaism, (Tracts Aboth, Aboth of R. Nathan, Derech Eretz, Rabba and Zutta); Vol. H., Bab Kama (First Gate, eight chapters); Vol. III., Baba Metziah (Middle Gate), five chapters, and the last two of

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[paragraph continues] Baba Kama; Vol. IV., the last five chapters of Baba Metziah; Vol. V.-VI., Baba Bathra (Last Gate, five chapters in each); Vol. VII.-VIII., Sanhedrin; Vol. IX., Maccath, Shebuoth, and Eduyoth; Vol. X., Abuda Zara and Horioth, New York, 1896-1903. 1


a. Latin Translation.

Blasius Ugolinus, published in volumes XVII.-XXX. of his Thesaurus antiquitatum sacrarum. (Venice, 1755-65), the following treatises in Latin: Pesachim (vol. XVII.); Shekalim, Yoma, Succah, Rosh Hashanah, Taanith, Megilla, Chagiga, Betza, Moed Katan (vol. XVIII.); Maaseroth, Maaser Sheni, Challah, Orlah, Biccurim (vol. XX.); Sanhedrin, Maccoth (Vol. XXV.); Kiddushin, Sota, Kethuboth (vol. XXX.).

b. German Translations.

Joh. Jacob Rabe, besides translating Berachoth in connection with that treatise in the Babylonian Gemara, as mentioned above, published: Der Talmudische Tractat Peah, übersetzt und erläutert. Anspach, 1781.

August Wünsche. Der Jerusalemische Talmud in seinen haggadischen Bestandtheilen zum ersten Male in's Deutsche übertragen. Zurich, 1880.

c. French Translation.

Moise Schwab. Le Talmud de Jerusalem traduit pour la première fois. X. volumes. Paris, 1871-90.


M. Schwab, the author of the French translation published in English: The Talmud of Jerusalem. Vol. I. Berachoth. London, 1886.


56:1 Of Vol. I. and IV. a second revised and enlarged edition was published.

57:1 See "Kritische Geschichte der Talmud Übersetzung" by Bischof, p. 62. In this book all the translations from both Talmuds in all languages and all tracts or parts of them, with criticisms, are mentioned. The English translations are given here for the English reader.

Next: Chapter VIII: Bibliography of Modern Works and Monographs on Talmudic Subjects