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Jaina Sutras, Part II (SBE45), tr. by Hermann Jacobi, [1895], at

p. 324



He who has given up all worldly ties and is instructed in our creed, should practise chastity, exerting himself; obeying the commands (of his teacher) he should make himself well acquainted with the conduct; a clever (monk) should avoid carelessness. (1)

As (birds of prey), e.g. Dhaṅkas, carry off a fluttering young bird whose wings are not yet grown, when it attempts to fly from the nest, but is not able to do so, because it is too young and its wings are not yet grown; (2)

Just as they carry off a young bird whose wings are not yet grown, so many unprincipled men will seduce a novice who has not yet mastered the Law, thinking that they can get him in their power, when they have made him leave (the Gakkha) 1. (3)

A good man should long to live with his teacher in order to perform his duties 2, knowing that he who does not live with his teacher will not put an end to his mundane existence. Making manifest

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the conduct of the virtuous, an intelligent (monk) should not leave the (company of his teacher). (4)

(A monk) who complies with the rules for Yatis 1 as regards postures, lying down, sitting, and exertions, who is thoroughly acquainted with the Samitis and Guptis, should in teaching others explain each single (point of conduct). (5)

Whether he hears (pleasant) sounds or dreadful ones, he should not allow himself to be influenced by them, and persevere in control; nor should a monk be sleepy or careless, but by every means he should get rid of doubts. (6)

If admonished by a young or an old monk, by one above him or one of equal age, he should not retort against him 2, being perfectly free from passion; for one who is (as it were) carried away (by the stream of the Samsâra), will not get to its opposite shore. (7)

(He should not become angry) if (doing anything wrong) his own creed is quoted against him by a heretic, or if he is corrected by (somebody else) be he young or old, or by a female slave engaged in low work or carrying a jar, or by some householder. (8)

He should not be angry with them nor do them any harm, nor say a single hard word to them, but he should promise not to commit the same sin again; for this is better than to do wrong. (9)

As to one who has lost his way in the wood, others who have not, (show it, thus some) teach the

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path which is salutary to men. Therefore (he should think): this is for my good that those who know put me right. (10)

Now he who has lost his way should treat with all honour him who has not. This simile has been explained by the Prophet. Having learned what is right one should practise it. (11)

As a guide in a dark night does not find the way since he cannot see it, but recognises the way when it has become light by the rising of the sun; (12)

So a novice who has not mastered the Law, does not know the Law, not being awakened; but afterwards he knows it well through the words of the Ginas, as with his eye (the wanderer sees the way) after sunrise. (13)

Always restrained with regard to movable and immovable beings which are on high, below, and on earth, (a monk) should wander about entertaining no hostile thoughts (towards them) and being steadfast (in control). (14)

At the right time he may put a question about living beings to a well-conducted (monk), who will explain the conduct of the virtuous; and what he hears he should follow and treasure up in his heart, thinking that it is the doctrine of the Kêvalins. (15)

Living in this (company of the teacher) and protecting (himself or other beings) in the three ways (viz. in thoughts, words, and acts), he (gets) peace and the annihilation (of sins) as they say. Thus speak those who know the three worlds, and they do not again commit faults! (16)

A monk by hearing the desired Truth gets bright ideas and becomes a clever (teacher); desiring the highest good and practising austerities and silence,

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he will obtain final Liberation (living on) pure (food). (17)

Those who having investigated the Law expound it, are awakened and put an end to mundane existence; able to liberate both (themselves and others), they answer the well-deliberated questions. (18)

He does not conceal (the truth) nor falsify it; he should not indulge his pride and (desire for) fame; being wise he should not joke, nor pronounce benedictions. (19)

Averse to injury of living beings, he does not disgrace his calling 1 by the use of spells; a good man does not desire anything from other people, and he does not give utterance to heretical doctrines. (20)

A monk living single should not ridicule heretical doctrines, and should avoid hard words though they be true; he should not be vain, nor brag, but he should without embarrassment and passion (preach the Law). (21)

A monk should be modest 2 though he be of a fearless mind; he should expound the Syâdvâda 3; he should use the two (permitted) kinds of speech 4, living among virtuous men, impartial and wise. (22)

He who follows (the instruction) may believe something untrue; (one should) kindly (tell him) 'It is thus or thus.' One should never hurt him by

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outrageous language, nor give long-winded explanations of difficult passages. (23)

(If the pupil does not understand his short explanation), he should explain at greater length. When the pupil has heard it, he will correctly understand the Truth. A monk should utter pure speech, which is in accordance with the creed (of the Ginas), and should declare the distinction of sin. (24)

He should well learn the (sacred texts) as they have been revealed; he should endeavour (to teach the creed), but he should not speak unduly long. A faithful man who is able to explain the entire creed 1 will not corrupt the faith. (25)

He should not pervert nor render obscure (the truth); he should fabricate neither text nor meaning, being a saviour; being devoted to the Teacher and considering well his words, he delivers faithfully what he has learned. (26)

He who correctly knows the sacred texts, who practises austerities, who understands all details of the Law, who is an authentic interpreter, clever, and learned--such a man is competent to explain the entire creed. (27)

Thus I say.


324:1 Nissâriyam = nihsâritam. I follow in the text the interpretation of the commentators. But I think that instead of mannamânâ we must read, as in the preceding verse, mannamânam; and translate: believing himself rich in control (vâsimam) though he be still wanting in strength (nissâriyam).

324:2 Samâhim.

325:1 Susâdhuyukta.

325:2 Sammam tayam thiratô nâbhigakkhê. I translate according to the commentators, as I am unable to understand the words in the text.

327:1 Gôtra, explained by mauna.

327:2 Saṅkiggiyâ = saṅkyêta.

327:3 Vibhagyavâda. The saptabhaṅgînaya or seven modes of assertion are intended by the expression in the text. See Bhandarkar, Report, 1883-84, p. 95.

327:4 See above, p. 304, note 4. The first and fourth kinds of speech are here intended.

328:1 Samâhi = samâdhi.

Next: Book 1, Lecture 15, The Yamakas