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Jaina Sutras, Part II (SBE45), tr. by Hermann Jacobi, [1895], at

p. 320



I shall now expound, in accordance with truth, the various qualities of men; I shall explain the virtue and peace of the good, the vices and the unrest of the wicked. (1)

Having learned the Law from men who exert themselves day and night, from the Tathâgatas 1, they neglect the conduct in which they had been instructed, and speak rudely to their teacher. (2)

Those who explain the pure doctrine according to their individual opinion, falsify it in repeating (it after their teachers); those who speak untruth from pride of knowledge, are not capable of many virtues. (3)

Those who on being questioned conceal the truth, defraud themselves of the real good. These bad men who believe themselves good and are full of deceit, will go to endless punishment. (4)

He who is of a wrathful disposition and calls everything by its true name 2, who renews a composed quarrel, will, like a blind man groping his way with

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a stick, do harm to himself, being still subject to passion and possessing evil Karman. (5)

He who is quarrelsome and talks improperly, is not impartial nor beyond the reach of deceit 1; but he who executes the commands (of his teacher) and controls himself, sees nothing but the truth and is exempt from deceit. (6)

He who conforms to admonitions however many he receives, is kindly spoken, subtile, manly, noble, and a well-doer; (such a man) is impartial and beyond the reach of deceit. (7)

He who believes himself rich in control, or inconsiderately vaunts his knowledge, or fancies himself purified by austerities, will look upon other men as shadows. (8)

He is always turned round by delusion, and has no place in the Gôtra where the Vow of Silence is practised (viz. in the Gaina church), who not being awakened puts himself forward in order to gain honours through something different from control. (9)

A Brâhmana or Kshattriya by birth, a scion of the Ugra 2 race or a Likkhavi 3, who enters the order eating alms given him by others, is not stuck up on account of his renowned Gôtra. (10)

His pedigree on his mother's and on his father's

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side will be of no use to him, nothing will but right knowledge and conduct: when after becoming a monk he acts like a householder, he will not succeed in obtaining final Liberation. (11)

If a poor monk subsisting on the meanest food is attached to vanities, desires fame, and not being awakened, (makes his monkhood) a means of subsistence, he will suffer again and again (in the Circle of Births). (12)

A monk, who is eloquent, speaks very well, has bright ideas, is clever, possesses a fine intellect, and has purified his soul, may (perhaps) despise other men on account of his intellect. (13)

Thus an intelligent monk who puts himself forward, has not yet realised carefulness; or rather he is a weak-minded man who elated by his success blames other men. (14)

A monk should combat pride of genius, pride of sanctity, pride of birth, and (pride of good) living, which is enumerated as the fourth; such a man is wise and of the right stuff. (15)

The wise leave off these kinds of pride, the pious do not cultivate them; the great sages are above all such things as Gôtra (&c.), and they ascend to the place where there is no Gôtra at all (viz. to Môksha). (16)

A monk who looks upon his body as on a corpse and fully understands the Law, will on entering a village or a town distinguish between what may be accepted and what may not, and will not be greedy of food or drink. (17)

A monk having conquered aversion to control and delight in sensual objects, living in company with many brethren or leading a single life, should

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silently repeat to himself: 'A man must come and go (according to his Karman) alone' (i.e. without deriving any help from others). (18)

Knowing it by intuition or having learned it from others, one should teach the Law which is a benefit to men; the pious are not given to blameable sinful practices. (19)

If (a monk preaches the Law to some one) whose disposition he has not ascertained, that man, not believing (what he is taught), will become angry, and may wound him in a way that will shorten or end his life. When he knows their disposition, he (may teach) others the truth. (20)

A wise man by suppressing his Karman and his will should renounce his interest in everything else. (For) through the objects of sight (i.e. senses) which are causes of danger, men come to harm. Knowing the truth with regard to movable and immovable beings (a monk should exert himself) 1. (21)

Not desiring honour or fame, he should say nothing to anybody either to please or to irritate him. Avoiding all evils, a monk should without embarrassment and passion (preach the Law). (22)

Well considering (his duties) in accordance with truth, abstaining from doing injury to living beings, not desiring life nor death, he should wander about released from the Circle (of Births). (23)

Thus I say.


320:1 According to the commentators, Gaina teachers, inclusive of the schismatical ones, are intended. Tathâgata is a synonym of Tîrthakara and Buddha; but it is less frequently used by the Gainas than by the Bauddhas with whom it is of very common occurrence.

320:2 Gagatthabhâsî = gagadarthabhâshin. Sîlâṅka proposes also gayârthabhâshin, who speaks dogmatically.

321:1 Aghañghapatta. Ghañghâ (tempest) = mâyâ.

321:2 Concerning the Ugras, see above, p. 71, note 2.

321:3 Lekkhai. According to the Gainas the Likkhavi and Mallakis were the chiefs of Kâsi and Kôsala. They seem to have succeeded the Aikshvâkas, who ruled there in the times of the Râmâyana. The Likkhavis became a powerful race, who held the supreme power in Eastern India during many centuries after the beginning of our era.

323:1 The commentators make out the following meaning: A wise (preacher) should ascertain (his hearers’) occupations and inclinations, and then (try to) better their evil disposition. Through the objects of sight which are causes of danger, men are led astray. A wise man knowing (the disposition of his hearers should preach the Law which is wholesome) to all living beings whether they move or not.

Next: Book 1, Lecture 14: The Nirgrantha