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Vedic Hymns, Part II (SBE46), by Hermann Oldenberg [1897], at

p. 420



1. The good lord has presented me with two oxen together with a car, the most brilliant Asura among the liberal givers 1. Tryaruna, the son of Trivrishan, O Agni Vaisvânara 2, has distinguished himself by (his gift of) ten thousand (cows?) 3.

2. To him who gives me one hundred 1 and twenty cows and two fallow steeds, harnessed and well-yoked, to Tryaruna grant thy protection, Agni Vaisvânara, who art highly praised and grown strong.

3. Thus, O Agni, desiring thy favour 1, Trasadasyu 2 (sings) for the ninth time 3 to thee the youngest (god)—Tryaruna who responds to my, the strong-born's, many hymns with (the gift of) a yoked (chariot) 4

1. Who may thus announce me 2 to Asvamedha the liberal (prince): may he give to him who with his verse strives for gain; may he give to him who lives in the Rita for (acquiring) wisdom 3

5. Asvamedha whose gifts, a hundred speckled bulls, delight me like Soma juices with threefold admixture 1.

6. Indra-Agni! Bestow on Asvamedha, the giver of a hundred (bulls), abundance of heroes and mighty royal power, like the never-ageing Sun in heaven.

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The Rishis are Tryaruna Traivrishna, Trasadasyu Paurukutsya, and Asvamedha Bhârata, or, according to others, Atri alone. The metre is Trishtubh in verses 1–3, Anushtubh in verses 4–6.

The position of this Sûkta shows that it is a later addition to the original collection.

Verse 1.

Note 1. With Delbrück, Grassmann, von Bradke (Dyâus Asura, p. 67) I read maghónâm instead of maghónah. Cf. III, 3, 4. ásurah vipah-kítâm.

Note 2. On the invocation of Agni in Dânastutis, comp. H. O., Zeitschrift der Deutschen Morgenländischen Gesellschaft, XXXIX, 87.

Note 3. Geldner (Ved. Studien, I, 268) is right in observing: 'Hier ist unter sahasrâni eine bestimmte Geldoder Wertsumme zu verstehen,' and in adding that it is not necessary that such a sum consisted in cows.

Verse 2.

Note 1. On satâ´, 'one hundred,' compare Delbrück. Altindische Syntax, p. 82.

Verse 3.

Note 1. Cf. X, 148, 3. sumatím kakânáh.

Note 2. That is, very probably, a descendant of Trasadasyu.

Note 3. I do not adopt Sâyana's explanation navamam = navatamâm, though I do not know what the number 'nine' means here. Ludwig is absolutely right in observing 'dass man eben hier, wo es sich um specielle concrete, uns aber sonst her nicht bekannte verhältnisse und ereignisse handelt, eben sich bescheiden muss, nichts

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zu wissen.'—Prof. Max Müller believes that navishthâya makes navamam for navatamam excusable: 'to the newest god the newest song.'

Note 4. Sâyana supplies to yuktena, not rathena, but manasâ.

Verse 4.

Note 1. I do not think that Ludwig is right in believing that with verse 4 a new, independent section begins.—Comp. on this verse, vol. xxxii, p. 304 (II, 34, 7, note 3).

Note 2. Me may be accusative, as it frequently is. Should it be a dative, we should have to translate: 'Who may tell Asvamedha for my sake.'

Note 3. Medhâ´m can scarcely depend on dádat; wisdom is not a gift which liberal princes may bestow on singers.

Verse 5.

Note 1. Of milk, curds, and barley. See Hillebrandt, Vedische Mythologie, I, p. 209.

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