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1. A king and a Brâhmana, deeply versed in the Vedas, these two, uphold the moral order in the world. 1

2. On them depends the existence of the fourfold human race, of internally conscious beings, of those which move on feet and on wings, and of those which creep, 2

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3. (As well as) the protection of offspring, the prevention of the confusion (of the castes and) the sacred law. 3

4. He is (called) deeply versed in the Vedas, 4

5. Who is acquainted with the (ways of the) world, the Vedas (and their) Aṅgas (auxiliary sciences),

6. Who is skilled in disputations (and), in (reciting) legends and the Purâna,

7. Who looks to these (alone), and lives according to these,

8. Who has been sanctified by the forty sacraments (samskâra), 8

9. Who is constantly engaged in the three occupations (prescribed for all twice-born men), 9

10. Or in the six (occupations prescribed specially for a Brâhmana), 10

11. (And) who is well versed in the duties of 11

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daily life settled by the agreement (of those who know the law).

12. (Such a Brâhmana) must be allowed by the king immunity from (the following) six (kinds of opprobrious treatment): 12

13. (I.e.) he must not be subjected to corporal punishment, he must not be imprisoned, he must not be fined, he must not be exiled, he must not be reviled, nor be excluded.

14. The Garbhâdhâna (or ceremony to cause conception), the Pumsavana (or ceremony to cause the birth of a male child), the Sîmantonnayana (or arranging the parting of the pregnant wife's hair), the Gâtakarman (or ceremony on the birth of the child), the ceremony of naming the child, the first feeding, the Kaula (or tonsure of the head of the child), the initiation, 14

15. The four vows (undertaken) for the study of the Veda, 15

16. The bath (on completion of the studentship), 16

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the taking of a help-mate for the fulfilment of the religious duties, the performance of the five sacrifices to gods, manes, men, goblins, and Brahman,

17. And (the performance) of the following (sacrifices):

18. The seven kinds of Pâkayagñas (or small sacrifices),viz. the Ashtakâ, the Pârvana Sthâlîpâka, offered on the new and full moon days), the funeral oblations, the Srâvanî, the Âgrahâyanî, the Kaitrî, and the Âsvayugî; 18

19. The seven kinds of Haviryagñas, viz. the Agnyâdheya, the Agnihotra, the Darsapaurnamâsas, the Âgrayana, the Kâturmâsyas, the Nirûdhapasubandha, and the Sautrâmanî; 19

20. The seven kinds of Soma-sacrifices, viz. the Agnishtoma, the Atyagnishtoma, the Ukthya, the Shodasin, the Atirâtra, and the Aptoryâma;

21. These are the forty sacraments.

22. Now (follow) the eight good qualities of the soul, 22

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23. (Viz.) compassion on all creatures, forbearance, freedom from anger, purity, quietism, auspiciousness, freedom from avarice, and freedom from covetousness. 23

24. He who is sanctified by these forty sacraments, but whose soul is destitute of the eight good qualities, will not be united with Brahman, nor does he reach his heaven.

25. But he, forsooth, who is sanctified by a few only of these forty sacraments, and whose soul is endowed with the eight excellent qualities, will be united with Brahman, and will dwell in his heaven.


214:1 VIII. Satapatha-brâhmana V, 4, 4, 5; Weber, Ind. Stud. X, 29. Haradatta explains vrata, ' moral order,' by karmâni, 'the rites and occupations,' and loka, 'world,' by râshtra, 'kingdom.' Ultimately my translation and his explanation come to the same thing. He adds that the king upholds order by punishing, and a learned Brâhmana by teaching. Regarding the excellence of these two, see also Manu IV, 135.

214:2 'Internally conscious beings, i.e. trees and the like, which are immovable, but grow and decay. For such possess internal consciousness only, no corresponding external faculty of acting. . . . The existence of these, i.e. of men and the rest, depends upon, i.e. is subordinate to the king and to a Brâhmana deeply versed in the Vedas. How is that? As regards the Brâhmana, an offering which has been properly thrown into the fire reaches the sun; from the sun comes rain; from rain food is produced and thereon live the creatures. By this reasoning he is shown to p. 215 be the cause of their existence. But the king is (also) the cause of their existence; for he punishes robbers and the like.'--Haradatta.

215:3 Haradatta takes prasûtirakshanam, 'the protection of their offspring,' as a copulative compound, and explains it by their prosperity (abhivriddhi) and their protection.' But a samâhâradvandva is here out of place.

215:4 Macnaghten, Mitâksharâ I, 2, 27. 'By the word loka, "the world," are intended the laws of countries and the like, which may be learnt from the practice of the world.'--Haradatta. Regarding the Aṅgas, see Âpastamba II, 4, 8, 10.

215:8 Regarding the forty sacraments, see below, Sûtras 14-20.

215:9 Regarding the three occupations, common to all twice-born men, see below, X, 1.

215:10 See below, X, 2.

215:11 The Sâmayâkârika or Smârta duties are those taught in the Dharma-sûtras and Smritis, see Âpastamba I, 1, 1, 1, and Max 'Müller's History of Ancient Sanskrit Literature, p. 101.

216:12 See Weber, Ind. Stud. X, V, 60, 66; Macnaghten, Mitâksharâ I, 2, 27.

216:14 Regarding the Samskâras mentioned in this Sûtra, see Âsvalâyana Grihya-sûtra I, 13-23; Sâṅkhâyana Grihya-sûtra I, 19-II, 5; Pâraskara Grihya-sûtra I, 13-11, 2.

216:15 The four vows, as Haradatta states, are, according to Âsvalâyana, the Mahânâmnîvrata, the Mahâvrata, the Upanishad-vrata, and the Godâna; see Âsvalâyana Srauta-sûtra VIII, 14, where the first three are described in detail, and Grihya-sûtra I, 22, 3, with the commentary thereon. Other Grihya-sûtras give more and different names, see H. Oldenberg, Sâṅkhâyana Grihya-sûtra II, 11-12 (S. B. E., vol. xxix), and Gobhila Grihya-sûtra III, 1, 28-III, 2, 62.

216:16 Haradatta explains snâna, 'the bath,' by samâvartana, 'the ceremony on completion of the studentship.' Regarding the five sacrifices, usually called the great sacrifices, see above, VII, 9 seq.

217:18 The various Pâkayagñas, named here, are fully described by Âsvalâyana Grihya-sûtra II, 1, 1-11, 10, 8; Gobhila III, 10 seq.; Pâraskara III, 3 seq. See also Max Müller, History of Ancient Sanskrit Literature, p. 203. The Ashtakas are sacrifices offered on the eighth day of the dark halves of the winter months, and of those of the dewy season, i.e. Kârttika, Mârgasiras, Pausha, and Mâgha. The Srâvanî is offered on the full moon day of the month of Srâvana, the Âgrahâyanî on the fourteenth, or on the full moon day of Mârgasiras, the Kaitrî on the full moon day of the Kaitra, and the Âsvayugî on the full moon day of the month Âsvayuga or Âsvina.

217:19-20. The Haviryagñas and Soma-sacrifices are described in the Brâhmanas and Srauta-sûtras. Havis denotes any kind of food used for oblations, such as clarified butter, milk, rice meat, &c.

217:22 Âpastamba I, 8, 23, 6.

218:23 Haradatta explains maṅgalya, 'auspiciousness,' to mean always doing what is praised (by good men) and avoiding what is blamed by them.' Anâyâsa, 'quietism,' means, according to him, avoiding to undertake that which causes pain to oneself, even though it be a duty.'

Next: Chapter IX