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1. The rule for (times of) distress (is) that a Brâhmana may study under a teacher who is not a Brâhmana. 1

2. (A student is bound) to walk behind and to obey (his non-Brahmanical teacher). 2

3. (But), when (the course of study) has been finished, the Brâhmana (pupil is more) venerable (than his teacher). 3

4. (In times of distress it is permissible) to offer 4

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sacrifices for (men of) all (castes), to teach (them), and to accept (presents from them).

5. Each preceding (mode of living is) preferable (to those named later). 5

6. On failure of the (occupations lawful for a Brâhmana) he may live by the occupations of a Kshatriya. 6

7. On failure of those, he may live by the occupations of a Vaisya. 7

8. (Goods) that may not be sold by a (Brâhmana are),

9. Perfumes, substances (used for) flavouring (food), prepared food, sesamum, hempen and linen cloth, skins, 9

10. Garments dyed red or washed, 10

11. Milk and preparations from it, 11

12. Roots, fruits, flowers, medicines, honey, flesh, grass, water, poison,

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13. Nor animals for slaughter,

14. Nor, under any circumstances, human beings, heifers, female calves, cows big with young. 14

15. Some (declare, that the traffic in) land, rice, barley, goats, sheep, horses, bulls, milch-cows, and draught-oxen (is) likewise (forbidden). 15

16. But (it is permissible) to barter, 16

17. One kind of substances used for flavouring others,

18. And animals (for animals).

19. Salt and prepared food (must) not (be bartered), 19

20. Nor sesamum.

21. But for present use an equal (quantity of) uncooked (food may be exchanged) for cooked (food).

22. But if no (other course is) possible (a Brâhmana) may support himself in any way except by (following the occupations) of a Sûdra. 22

23. Some (permit) even this in case his life is in danger.

24. But to mix with that (caste) and forbidden food must be avoided (even in times of distress). 24

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25. If his life is threatened, even a Brâhmana may use arms. 25

26. (In times of distress) a Kshatriya (may follow) the occupations of a Vaisya. 26


211:1 VII. Âpastamba II, 2, 4, 25.

211:2 Âpastamba II, 2, 4. 26.

211:3 Âpastamba II, 2, 4, 27.

211:4 Haradatta quotes Manu X, 103 in support of the above explanation, and adds that another commentator interprets the p. 212 Sûtra to mean, that in times of distress men of all castes may support themselves by sacrificing for others, teaching, and the acceptance of gifts, though in ordinary times these modes of living are reserved for Brâhmanas.

212:5 The use of the masculine in the text, 'pûrvah pûrvo guruh,' may, I think, be explained by the fact that the compound in the preceding Sûtra ends with a noun of the masculine gender.

212:6 Manu X, 81; Yâgñ. III, 35.

212:7 Âpastamba I, 7, 20, 11.

212:9 Âpastamba I, 7, 20, 12-13. 'Substances used for flavouring (rasa), i.e. oil, sugar, clarified butter, salt, and the like.'--Haradatta. From Sûtra 19 it is clear that 'rasa' does not simply mean 'liquids.'

212:10 My MSS. read nirnikte for nikte, and nirniktam is explained by 'washed by a washerman or the like person.' It is possible to translate Professor Stenzler's reading in accordance with Manu X, 87, 'pairs of (i.e. upper and lower) garments dyed red.'

212:11 'Preparations from it, i.e. sour milk and the like.'--Haradatta.

213:14 Under any circumstances (nityam, literally "always") means even when they are not sold for slaughter. Another (commentator) says, that, as the expression "under any circumstances" is used here, the prohibition regarding the above-mentioned things, i.e. sesamum and the like, does not hold good under all circumstances, and that hence self-grown sesamum and other grain may be sold, see Manu X, 90.'--Haradatta.

213:15 Manu X, 88. Haradatta explains 'land' by 'houses.'

213:16-21. Âpastamba I, 7, 20, 14-15.

213:19 'The sale of salt and prepared food has been forbidden by Sûtra 9, but their barter has been permitted (by Sûtra 17).'--Haradatta.

213:22 Regarding the Sûdra's occupations, see below, X 57-60.

213:24 'Restriction (niyama), i.e. avoiding. That Brâhmana p. 214 even who lives the life of a Sûdra must not mix with that Sûdra caste, i.e. he must not sit among Sûdras and so forth.'--Haradatta.

214:25 Âpastamba I, 10, 29, 7; Manu VIII, 348.

214:26 Haradatta adds, that in accordance with the principle exemplified by the rule of this Sûtra a Vaisya may follow in times of distress the occupations of a Sûdra.

Next: Chapter VIII