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Pahlavi Texts, Part IV (SBE37), E.W. West, tr. [1892], at


Bakŏ Nask.

1. The nineteenth fargard, Kad-môi-urvâ 4, is that the sheep-nature (pâhîh) 5 is taught to him who

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is a sheep (gôspend), even for this reason, because the sheep is still among sheep (pâh-ik dên). 2. This, too, that by him who provides pasture for sheep, mankind are nourished (srayinîdŏ) 1 through the sheep; even for this reason, because the nourishment of mankind is through the sheep, and that of the sheep through pasture. 3. This, too, that the sheep of the present worldly state is expounded to him who is a sheep (pâh) to Zaratûst, that is, he has Zaratûst as a high-priest; even for this reason, because still a sheep (pâh-ik) is a sheep.

4. This, too, that strength in virtue is increased and taught by him who produces joyfulness 2 through seeking gradual development, so that he would do that thing which gives him joyfulness, that is, he would do that thing which becomes his long-continued joy; even for this reason, because increase of strength arises more particularly from pleasure, the pleasure that one is gradually attaining (dêr-padâî). 5. This, too, that by him who shall provide the ceremonial of the sacred beings, the joyfulness 2 owing to the sacred beings is then connected with his own; even for this reason, because the coming of the sacred beings to it occurs.

6. This, too, that the wisdom 3 of Zaratûst is taught and displayed by him who gives thought to the religion of Zaratûst. 7. This, too, that the tongue 3 is instructed (farhângînîdŏ) in speech by him who becomes discriminating through wisdom. 8. And this, too, that preparation 4 is taught to them who are benefiters of Zaratûst, or who are so of the religion; even for this reason, because, owing to

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that action, disposition, and attraction which are now theirs, they prepare mankind for the religion of Zaratûst. 9. This, too, that whoever teaches the virtuous way to others, they become his through the knowledge of being instructed; even for this reason, because through the enlightenment of that way, they see and act, and are thereby instructed.

10. This, too, that the obeisance 1 for the archangels is performed by him who is a praiser of the archangels. 11. This, too, that assistance is taken 2 from the sacred beings by him who gives to him who is a supplicant that which is dear to him, because he himself is macle worthy by his assistance, and, when made worthy by it, it is then taken by him; and the supplicant is he who is not a supplicant through his mouth, but through worthiness, and what is dear is that which is good about him.

12. This, too, that its being within the day till dawn (val aûsh) 3 is taught by him—that is, he would make it as a signal (dakhshakŏ) 3—who is in obeisance, so that he may not neglect till another day the duty and good works which it is requisite for him to perform within the day; even for this reason, because to cause the preservation of the dawn from debased incompatibility (hêr hanbêshîh) of duties, it is made exalted by him over the duties. 13. This, too, that complete mindfulness is taught among the existences 4 by him whose thought among the existences is that he shall perform that thing which is possible to remain good in the world, such as the provision of good sovereignty, orthodoxy, the

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law of virtuous usage, and others, through which the dwelling, preparation, and living of mankind in the world arise, and the appropriation of any complete mindfulness of that performer is the exaltation which is his owing to that great performance.

14. It is righteousness that is perfect excellence.


376:4 See Chap. XX, 1 n; it is here written kad-môk-ravŏ in Pahlavi.

376:5 See Pahl. Yas. XLIX, 1 b. The distinction made in the Pahlavi text, here and in § 3, by using the scriptural term pâh and the general word gôspend for the sheep, might perhaps be imitated in English by using the word 'flock' for pâh, but this would not express the meaning exactly.

377:1 See Pahl. Yas. XLIX, 1 b.

377:2 Ibid. 5 b.

377:3 Ibid. 6 c.

377:4 Ibid. 6 d.

378:1 See Pahl. Yas. XLIX, 7 b.

378:2 Ibid. 7 d.

378:3 Ibid. 10 c.

378:4 Ibid. 11 c.

Next: Chapter LXVI