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Pahlavi Texts, Part IV (SBE37), E.W. West, tr. [1892], at


Bakŏ Nask.

1. The eighteenth fargard, Ad-mâ-yavâ 2, is that, through his complete mindfulness 3, the teaching of mankind in virtue is by him, and they become properly intelligent 3 through him, whose actions are those which are more daughterly, that is, as reverent unto Aûharmazd as a daughter unto a father; even for this reason, because his display of the complete mindfulness which is instinctive (âsnîk) is through action, and that action, acquired (srûtîk) for the thoughts of mankind, is kindled by him and has become properly intelligent. 2. This, too, that proper intelligence of things arises for one completely mindful 3, even for a daughter to a father, through that complete mindfulness which is instinctive, whereby that lust is excluded which is most violently reverenced by the male (kûsnŏ), and, devoid of that, the reverence is assimilated (ângunîhînîdŏ) most strongly to one's reverence unto the creator.

3. This, too, that discrimination of the affairs of the sacred beings through wisdom 4 is taught by him

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whose learning is in the affairs of the sacred beings; even for this reason, because discrimination of the affairs of the sacred beings is specially that which is advantageous in the end, and the advantageousness in the end is seen through learning; and, apart from that, he who is learned in the affairs of the sacred beings has taught discrimination of the affairs of the sacred beings through his wisdom 1.

4. This, too, that the joyfulness in righteousness is taught to Frashôstar by him—that is, he would make him ardent in the performance of duty and good works 2—who has thoroughly expounded Khûrdad and Amûrdad to Frashôstar 3, that is, he maintains him as his high-priest. 5. This, too, that he who shall perform good works ever afresh, has taught him to become ardent in duty and good works 2. 6. This, too, that Aûharmazd supplies guardianship 4 to him who gives pleasure to Aûharmazd; even for this reason, because a giver of pleasure to Aûharmazd is any one who is a true servant of Aûharmazd, and Aûharmazd becomes the guardian of a true servant.

7. This, too, that they ever amount to a master of all commands 5 for him who is a benefit and sovereignty for that which arises; even owing to this reason, because, in establishing and arranging that which is an absurd (As kiln) or a virtuous law, the command issued, which is another and further observation of the advantage of the creatures, prepares

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that which is ever an attainable benefit among the creatures, by means of which, even after symptoms of the life of one's body, it is governed through setting going the usage of that law, and is connected with his mastery of command and his sovereignty. 8. This, too, that Vohûman's having guarded the creature-forming (dâmîh) of Aûharmazd 1 is taught by him whose rule is for Aûharmazd; on this account, because he whose rule is for Aûharmazd has taught the inclination for (padîsâî) being guarded, on this account, because the inclination of the creatures of that ruler for being guarded by the power of goodness, and the creatures being guarded by the power of goodness have published the power of goodness, which is Vohûman, to the multitude.

9. Here is about the reply to Zaratûst concerning the wicked, thus: 'Upon arrival in the fiend's abode 2, through an immature (khâm) death, they are unprivileged, so that every misery is theirs, and it is not possible for them to seek a remedy.'

10. This, too, that the spirit of reverence comes through invocation to the assistance 3 of him who is reverent unto the benefiters; even for this reason, because the spirits respond more particularly to that invoker who becomes their worshipper preponderantly (vâspûharakânîhâ); and for each one of the spirits there is preponderantly a form of worship, as the spirit of liberality is more particularly worshipped through helpfulness (vigîdâr-dahisnîh), the spirit of truth through exact truth (hû-râstîh), the spirit of a promise through true promising (hû-mitrôîh),

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and the spirit of sovereignty through good sovereignty; and, even so, the worship of the spirit of reverence consists preponderantly in reverence unto the benefiters. 11. This, too, that he whose rule is for Aûharmazd becomes a supplicant for that which is coveted (îstŏ) from Aûharmazd 1; even for this reason, because what is wisely begged from the sacred beings and rulers, for rendering one's own self worthy, occurs as a benefit owing to the sacred beings and rulers.

12. About the reply of Aûharmazd to Zaratûst, when asked by him about his own, his confederate 2, and his serf, thus: 'He is thine own, he thy confederate, and he thy serf, even when and where he is a righteous offspring who produces the progress of this thy religion of Mazda-worship, and recites it openly even unto him he knows, who provides the public benedictions, this good practice of thine, that is, he maintains what is provided by thee as benedictions 3.'

13. Perfect is the excellence of righteousness.


373:2 See Chap. XIX, 1 n; it is here written ad-mâ-yûv in Pahlavi.

373:3 See Pahl. Yas. XLVIII, 5 c.

373:4 Ibid. 6 b.

374:1 Assuming that ar’gŏ, 'value,' stands for khiradŏ, which is very similarly written in Pahlavi letters.

374:2 See Pahl. Yas. XLVIII, 8 a.

374:3 See Chap. XIX, 1, and Bk. VIII, Chap. XXXVIII, 68.

374:4 See Pahl. Yas. XLVIII, 8 b.

374:5 Ibid. 8 d.

375:1 See Pahl. Yas. XLVIII, 10 a, b, and Chap. LXIII, 6.

375:2 Ibid. 11 d.

375:3 Ibid. 12 a.

376:1 See Pahl. Yas. XLVIII, 12 d.

376:2 Ibid. 7 c.

376:3 Ibid. 7 d.

Next: Chapter LXV