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Pahlavi Texts, Part IV (SBE37), E.W. West, tr. [1892], at


dkar Nask.

1. The fifteenth fargard, Kamnamaêza 4, is

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about the arrival of Ast-vîdâd 1 upon the spot, and the insecurity of any one from him; also the non-continuance of the mortal body and decaying (farsâvand) wealth of any one of the mortals summoned is death 2. 2. And this, too, that Ast-vîdâd shall carry off all mortals by that awful and proclaimed marvel, and they are not saved from him 3; each one, indeed, saves only that which is the soul. 3. This, too, that the soul alone sees the reward and bridge 4 of the spiritual existence, and embodied it does not see such things; if, when embodied, it could have seen like that, then it would not have committed the sin really originating with it, even for anything whatever of the ease and comfort of the worldly existence, nor shrunk (mansîdŏ) from the first good work.

4. About the hideousness and frightfulness of the body of man after death, and only that which is considered by every one the most precious of desirable things is undecaying (afarsâk). 5. As regards the casting away of the dust, and also living people, that which is more nearly connected therewith is

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uninhabitableness 1 and its duration. 6. And when, too, this way, the consciousness is in the vicinity of the body 2, and the dog and bird go forth for the dismemberment of the body, the frightening of the consciousness by them is like that of a sheep by a wolf; also its disputing with the dog and bird about the dismemberment of the body, the reciting (mârdanŏ) of words spiritually at first repelling them, thinking the body is alive. 7. And, afterwards, when the body is dismembered by them, the hastening of the consciousness to the vicinity of the dismembered body, just like a female (dênûdakŏ) sheep when it hastens on to its young ones; and its noticing—with grievous unhappiness 3 for the body—and recounting where the features (dêmagânŏ) of that body were in happiness, and to what misery it has now come. 8. And, when that body became sinful in its lifetime, about its not accepting, during that lifetime, that which the consciousness repeatedly well-endeavoured to promote for that body, as regards abstaining from sin and practising good works.

9. This, too, that thy time of worldly happiness has occurred, and that of misery is long. 10. This, too, that the people who live on, in the worldly existence, a hundred years are less than those who do not live a hundred years; the progress of a lifetime, little by little, and the rushing on of a lifetime; wife and property and the rest of worldly things all

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leaving you at once, and coming to another person. 11. And this, too, that—when mankind mostly keep up any statement (nisang-ik) or register (aêvar’g-ŏ) which they have drawn out (nazî-hênd) 1 about ordainable supplies in a friendly or inimical (patyân-mônd) way, which is more particularly expedient for them—a supply, suitable for the discreet, of the rest of that which is constantly desirable, is to be extracted therefrom, and one is to keep up its preparation with his own.

12. About the seven immortal rulers who are produced in the region of Khvanîras 2, and also about the ordaining of their glory and the goodness, too, of their assistants living and privileged in both existences. 13. The tree opposed to harm 3 is on Aîrân-vêg 4, in the place of most excavations (frêhnigânân gâs). 14. Gôk-patŏ 5 is in foreign 6 countries.

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[paragraph continues] 15. Pêhshôtanû 1, son of Vistâsp, is in Kangdez 2 the hundred-moated (sad-gandak), wherein there are a myriad spears (drafsh), those of the exalted who wear black marten fur, who are righteous listeners of the religion 3, out of the retinue (akhah) of Pêhshôtanû, son of Vistâsp. 16. Frâdakhshtŏ, son of the mortal Khûmbîks 4, who is predominant on the waters flowing in channels. 17. Ashavâzd, son of Pôrûdakhshtŏ 5, who is predominant over the most manifest among uplands, the plain of Pêsinâs 6. 18. Barâzak 7 the causer of strife. 19. 'And the eighth Kayân 8 who was renowned, O Vistâsp! it is

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he whom one calls Kai-Khûsrôî, who produces even an advance of thy religion of the Mazda-worshippers, and also understands about it; who gives my good practices further blessings, so that the world 1 maintains my doings with benedictions.'

20. Righteousness is perfect excellence.


199:4 The appellation of the fourth, and last, hâ of the second p. 200 Gâtha (Yas. XLVI), which begins with the words kâm nemôi zãm; it is here written kamnamêzŏ in Pahlavi.

200:1 See Chap. XII, 17. The connection of the demon of death with Yas. XLVI is that the first few words of that ha are supposed to be repeated by the wicked soul in despair after death (see Yt. XXII, 20, W.; Mkh. II, 159; AV. XVII, 7).

200:2 K has mardûm, 'human (?).'

200:3 B has the whole of this first clause thus:—'And the unconsumed (apakhshînŏ) property of him who is surprised by the invisible marvel that he shall endure, they have not saved from him.' This marvel is probably the supposed casting of a noose by Ast-vîdâd, around the neck of the dead to drag him to hell, which only the righteous are able to cast off.

200:4 See Bk. VIII, Chaps. XIV, 8, XXIV, 10.

201:1 Corpses are to be deposited in an uninhabited place (see Vend. VI, 44-51, VII, 45-50; Dd. XVIII).

201:2 Compare Dd. XVI, 7.

201:3 Pahl. ashâdîh in K, but B has ayadakîh, 'remembrance.'

202:1 Or 'they offer up (ûzdahênd).'

202:2 See Bk. VIII, Chap. VIII, 2. And, regarding these seven rulers, compare Bd. XXIX, 5, 6; Dd. XC.

202:3 The many-seeded tree in the wide-formed ocean, whence the seeds of all wild plants are brought by the rain (see Yt. XII, 17; Bd. XXVII, 2, 3; Mkh. LXII, 37-42).

202:4 See Chap. XII, 3.

202:5 Gôpatshah in Bd. XXIX, 5, XXXI, 20, 22; Byt. II, 1; Dd. XC, 3, 4; Gôpaîtôshah in Mkh. LXII, 8, 31; and Gôpaîtŏ in Mkh. XLIV, 35. All these forms of the name imply that he was a king, or master, of oxen; and Mkh. describes him as a Mazda-worshipping minotaur on the sea-shore, probably the Caspian, or the river Oxus, as Bd. makes him a brother, or nephew, of Frâsîyâv the Turânian. His country is called Saukavastân in Bd., and Gôpatŏ in Dd.

202:6 Pahl. an-Aîrân which corresponds with the position of Saukavastân being between Tûrkistân and Kînistân, as stated in Bd. XXIX, 13, and that of Gôpatŏ being coterminous with Aîrân-vêg, as in Dd. XC, 4. But K, by omitting the negative prefix, places it p. 203 'within the countries of Irân;' and Mkh. makes Gôpaîtŏ a chief of Aîrân-vêg.

203:1 Av. Peshôtanu, commonly written Pêshyôtanû in Pahlavi.

203:2 A fortified settlement, to the east of Irân (see Bd. XXIX, 10), formed by Sîyâvakhsh (see Bk. VIII, Chap. XIII, 14) who was first cousin of Vistâsp's great-grandfather (see Bd. XXXI, 25, 28, 29).

203:3 Who are expected to be led into Irân by Pêhshôtanû in future times, when he is summoned by the angels to restore religion to the world after the conflict of the nations (see Byt. III, 25-42).

203:4 K has 'Frâdakhshtŏ, son of Khûmbîk the son of Hôshâng.' He was evidently the Fradhâkhsti Khuñbya of Yt. XIII, 138, who might have been considered as a descendant of the Haoshyangha mentioned before him in Yt. XIII.

203:5 Av. Ashavazdangh Pourudhâkhstayana of Yt. V, 72, XIII, 112.

203:6 Said to be in Kâvulistân where Sâma Keresâspa lies asleep till summoned to kill Dahâk in the latter times (see Bd. XXIX, 7, 11; Byt. III, 59-62). It may be connected with the vairi Pisanangh of Yt. V, 37, where Keresâspa offered sacrifice, and with the Pisîn valley south-east of Qandahâr; but Chap. XXI, 20 seems to place it between Mâzendarân and Irân, and Mkh. LXII, 20 also describes it as near Mount Dimâvand. Its name is variously written Pêsinâs, Pesânsih, Pêsyânsaî, Pêsândas, Pêsânîgas, &c.

203:7 Possibly Av. Varâza of Yt. XIII, 101.

203:8 Kavi Haosravangh (Kaî-Khûsrôî) is the eighth and last in the list of Kavis, or Kayâns, in Yt. XIII, 132; and was celebrated for p. 204 his opposition to idolatry (see Yt. V, 49, 50; Bd. XVII, 7). This section appears to be an actual quotation from the Pahlavi version of the Nask, professing to give the words of Zaratûst.

204:1 K has dêhîk, 'a provincial.'

Next: Chapter XVII