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Pahlavi Texts, Part IV (SBE37), E.W. West, tr. [1892], at


dkar Nask.

1. The fourteenth fargard, Ad-fravakhshyâ 5, is

p. 198

about Aûharmazd's showing to Zaratûst the terrible condition of the soul of Keresâsp 1; the dismay of Zaratûst owing to that terrible condition; the sorrowful speaking of Keresâsp as regards the slaying of multitudes, for which mankind extol him, whereby abstentions from sin occurred; and the recognition of him by the creator, Aûharmazd, as smiting his fire. 2. The supplication of Keresâsp for the best existence from. Aûharmazd for those exploits when the serpent Srôbar 2 was slain by him, and the violence of that adversary; when Gandarep 3 with the golden heels was smitten by him, and the marvellousness of that fiend; when the Veskŏ progeny 4 who were descendants of Nîvîk andstânîk were slain by him, and the grievous harm and disaster owing to them; and when the mighty wind 5 was appeased by him, and brought back from damaging the world to benefiting the creatures; and for that which happens when owing to confinement 6, Dahâk becomes eager, rushes on for the

p. 199

destruction of the world, and attempts (girâyêdŏ) the annihilation of the creatures; when he (Keresâsp) is roused to smite him, and to tame that powerful fiend for the world and creatures.

3. The enmity of fire to Keresâsp, through the distress which he occasioned to it, and the keeping of him away 1 [from heaven;. also the friendship of Gôs-aûrvan 2 for him, through the prosperity which he occasioned to it, and the protection of him] from hell. 4. The petition of Zaratûst to the fire to have compassion upon what was owing to Keresâsp's sin; the compliance (hangâftanŏ) of the fire with that petition, and the departure of the soul of Keresâsp to the ever-stationary existence 3.

5. Of righteousness perfect is the excellence.


197:5 The first two words of the third hâ of the second Gâtha (Yas. XLV, 1), here written ad-fravakhshê (B) and ad-fravakhshâ p. 198 (K) in Pahlavi. This chapter has been already translated in S.B.E., vol. xviii, pp. 370-372.

198:1 See Bk. VIII, Chap. XIII, 12; S.B.E., vol. xviii, pp. 369-382.

198:2 See Bk. VIII, Chap. XXXV, 13.

198:3 Av. Gandarewa of Yt. V, 38, XV, 28, XIX, 41; the 'watery demon' of Mkh. XXVII, 50.

198:4 Reading hûn Veskŏ, the Av. hunavô Vaêskaya of Yt. V, 54, 57, who were enemies of the warrior Tusa; but the hunavô of Nivika and of the Dâstayâni were slain by Keresâspa (see Yt. XIX, 41). It is also possible to read khûnŏ-dâkŏ, 'blood-producing.'

198:5 When it becomes a storm-demon, the vatô-daêva of Vend. X, 14, instead of being the angel of useful wind.

198:6 In the volcano, Mount Dimâvand, where he was confined by Frêdûn in olden times, and whence he is expected to break loose hereafter (see Bd. XII, 31, XXIX, 9; Byt. III, 55-61).

199:1 The words in brackets occur only in K; their meaning is, however, given in the Pahlavi Rivâyat accompanying Dd. and quoted in S.B.E., vol. xviii, pp. 379, 380. The enmity of the fire to Keresâsp was owing to its having been extinguished (when kindled upon the serpent Srôbar) by the upsetting of Keresâsp's caldron, as described in Yas. IX, 11, and Yt. XIX, 40.

199:2 Av. geus urva, 'the soul of the ox,' the spirit which departed from the primeval ox when the evil spirit attacked it; she is supposed to be the heavenly protector of all animals, and is also called Drvâspa (see Yt. IX, 1; Bd. III, 24, 18, IV, 2-5; Sls. XXII, 14).

199:3 A locality intermediate between heaven and hell, where the souls of those whose sins and good works exactly balance remain in a passive and immovable state till the resurrection (see Sls. VI, 2; Mkh. VII, 18, XII, 14; Dd. XX, 3).

Next: Chapter XVI