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Pahlavi Texts, Part IV (SBE37), E.W. West, tr. [1892], at


1. The Vendîdâd 2 contains particulars of Aûharmazd having produced the pleasure of mankind by

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that place where they specially make a residence, and the advantage from the same production 1. 2. About the formation of sixteen perfect places specially enumerated, and also the adversity which has happened to each separately 2.

3. About Aûharmazd's disclosing the religion first among mankind to Yim 3; its non-acceptance by Yim owing to attachment (asrûnŏîh) to the religion of the ancients; and the acceptance of other things to develope, extend, and improve the world thereby.  4. About the reason of the needfulness of making the enclosure that Yim made (var-î Yim kard), the command and instruction by Aûharmazd to Yim, the making by Yim just as Aûharmazd commanded and instructed, and whatever is on the same subject 5.

5. About what the comfort of the spirit of the earth is most owing to, what its discomfort is more particularly owing to, and from what its greatest gratification has arisen 6.

6. About the sin of pollution owing to carrying a corpse by a single person, relating, however, to that which a dog has not seen 7. 7. About the food,

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clothing, and place of him who becomes polluted and worthy of death through a corpse, on account of carrying it alone (aêvakŏ-barîh râî) 1. 8. About how the several precautions of mankind and other pure creatures are taken, as regards a corpse 2 which has become polluted by another corpse 3.

9. About the pleasure of the spirit of the earth owing to sowing and tilling, and its vexation owing to not sowing and not tilling; the blessing upon the sowers, and the advantage and merit owing to sowing, on account of particulars about the nourishment and protection of the religion thereby 4. 10. About the destruction of the demons which arises from the sprouting, growing, and ripening of corn; and the good success of mankind from the eating of it 5.

11. About the sin of burying a corpse through sinfulness, and for how much time is the uselessness of the ground in which the burial may be performed 6. 12. About the power of the good religion for wiping away sin from human beings 7.

13. About the sin of deceiving by an avaricious person (pastŏ) as regards what he has consumed and given, and the grievousness of other breaches of promise; the danger, even in the worldly existence, from maintaining him, and the retribution it is important for him to make 8.

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14. About where there is steadfastness in the religion there is also a manifestation of this: when one becomes liberal—as to every benefit that exists for him—towards those of the same religion who come forward with a request 1. 15. About the extent of sleeping in the day and night, and other matters as to occupation which occurs daily 2.

16. About the grievous sinfulness of having taken a false oath, so that, apart even from the testifying retribution of the property, the oath taken thereon has also an efficacy very much for the accusers, which, on account of Mitrô 3, Srôsh, and Rashnû, is an awful destroyer and adversary for one's own person, wife, child, and property; also the grievous bridge-judgment which is an appendage to one's own soul 4.

17. About the sin of bringing firewood, with which dead matter 5 is mingled, to a fire; and this too, that is, how and when one is innocent therein 6. 18. About a ditch (gôi), which is not always a stream (nâvŏ), when the water has to pass through it, and also that which is always a stream, when one wants to increase the water therein, how often and how one

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has to inspect them for fear of dead matter having been there 1.

19. About death which is by reason of water or fire, and does not occur through the supremacy of water or fire, but is owing to the demons 2. 20. About the great advantage owing to rain, and connected with raining on dead matter and the bodily refuse 3 of depositories for the dead 4. 21. About the greatness and goodness of 'the law opposed to the demons' 5 for cleansing, as compared with other utterances 6.

22. About pollution owing to bodily contact (hamkerpakîh) with a corpse, and to bodily contact with him who is in bodily contact with a corpse 7. 23. About the wicked villain who is an unrighteous apostate alive, and abstaining from association (avâkîh) with him 8. 24. About how long is the time of pollution of a house in which a dog or human being passes away, the carrying away theretofore of anything going thereto, and the avoidance of it; the place into which any one goes out, the feeding, and other things in that house within three steps, and whatever is on the same subject 9. 25. About a woman whose child dies in the womb, and which becomes dead matter; and whatever is on the same subject 10.

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26. About useless and polluted clothing, that which is cleansed for six months 1. 27. About the grievous sinfulness of irregularly letting forth clothing, as much as a single double hem 2, upon a corpse 3.

28. About how long is the time of the uncultivated state of the land—free from admitting water and being sown—on which a human being or a dog passes away; the inspection of the whole land on account of the risk of dead matter having been there, and afterwards admitting water upon it; the sin when, through not exploring, dead matter is in that place, and the water comes on to it; and whatever is on the same subject 4.

29. About how to bring a corpse out of the water, the extent of the pollution of the water around the corpse, the purity after bringing away the corpse from it, and whatever is on the same subject 5. 30. About where the bodies and bones of the departed are deposited, and whatever is on the same subject 6.

31. About how soon is the rushing of the fiend of corruption (nasûs drûgô) upon a human being or dog that has passed away at the appointed time, and upon one who has done so before the appointed time through the defectiveness (âhûgagîh) of the worldly existence; where the clothing of this one is which is useless, and which and how is the washing

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of that which is for washing 1. 32. About the heinous pollution and grievous sinfulness of devouring dead matter, or of bringing it to fire or water through sinfulness 2. 33. About the winter, the demon-produced terror, the spider and locust 3, sickness of many kinds, and much other evil, which become threatening in the world owing to the formation of dead matter 4. 34. About how to cleanse wood, corn, and fodder from the dead matter which comes upon it 5.

35. About medical treatment with spells, the knife, and herbs; how to test a medical man, the fee for curing, and whatever is on the same

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subject 1. 36. About the place on which a corpse is fettered (garovî-aîtŏ), and also that in which it is buried through sinfulness; and in how much time it becomes pure, in each case separately 2. 37. About the much lodgment of the demons there where a corpse is buried (nikân), and the merit of laying open (âskârînîdanŏ) the place of burial (nikânîh) of a corpse 3.

38. About the duration of not drinking by a woman who has miscarried (visistakŏ); also her not feeding on the liquid of that which is watery food 4. 39. About the washing of a metallic, stony, or any other cup-like article, upon which dead matter has come, and which is not pronounced useless 5. 40. About the animal (gôspend) that has eaten dead matter, and the plant with which dead matter is mingled 6. 41. About the sin of holy water being brought to water which is tainted with dead matter 7.

42. About the house (khânŏ) in which a dog or a human being passes away 8. 43, About how large and how one has to make the vault (kadakŏ) for the sake of a corpse in a dwelling (mân), carrying the corpse to it, when the time comes to expose and avoid it, and whatever is on the same subject 9.

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44. About the baseness (garas1 and grievous sinfulness of the decree (vigîrîh) 1 of death, unnatural intercourse 2. 45. About a dry corpse which has been dead throughout a year 3. 46. About the merit of having brought unto purity a corpse-burning fire, a fire burning bodily refuse, or of an encampment (sarây-îkŏ) 4; also those which artificers, each separately, keep in use one has to secure, when the work is done, for the appointed fireplace (dâd-gâs) 5.

47. About washing the polluted who have been in bodily contact with a corpse, or moving it; divers preferences as to the purifier, the rite of washing, and the reward of purifiers, worldly and also spiritual 6. 48. About the shining of the sun, moon, and stars alike discontentedly upon the polluted 7. 49. About the gratification of all the creatures of Aûharmazd by the purifier, when he produces purification for the polluted and suchlike beings (ângunîaîtŏân); also his reward 8. 50. About the strength and aid which are given to the fiend of corruption (nasûs drûgô) by him who does not understand purifying, and yet would accomplish it; also the sin thereof at the bridge of judgment 9. 51. About the triumph of the Yathâ-ahû-vairyô 10 in smiting the fiend and in healing 11.

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52. About the species of dogs; the worthiness of the shepherd's dog, the village dog, and others also; how to maintain and nourish (srâyînîdanŏ) them with nourishment, and the sin owing to killing or even improperly maintaining them, each separately; and whatever is on the same subject 1. 53. And this, too, when a dog becomes useless (abôn) or hurtful, what is to be done with it, and how it is to be kept 2. 54. About authorisedly killing the dog-wolf 3. 55. About the thirty-one dispositions among dogs, which are just as among the three special professions and divers others of five descriptions 4. 56. About the grievous sinfulness of killing a water beaver, and statements (gôkân) of the penalty 5.

57. About the sin which gave an Irânian to foreigners (an-Aîrânŏ) 6. 58. About the sin for those three 7 males who have debauched a woman}

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who is pregnant, or the wife with a child at the breast, or a daughter of others; and the sin owing to similar sin 1. 59. About the guardianship and nourishment which it is important to provide for a child that is seen to be improperly protected, or for a dog when it is born without a guardian; and whatever is on the same subject 2.

60. About menstruation, the heinousness of its pollution, and how much one has to abstain from it 3. 61. The cleansing from the menses, the time of the cleansing, and the nature of the cleansing of any person or thing polluted by the menses, or that which becomes inefficient thereby; and whatever is on the same subject 4. 62. And about the grievous sinfulness of having sexual intercourse with a menstruous woman 5.

63. About the deadly bridge penalty of those who have not sustained the judges 6. 64. About the care of the hair and nails, and the sin owing to want of care 7.

65. About the apostasy of him who is bringing a mouth-veil 8, a vermin-killer 9, various sacred twigs 10,

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or a goad or scourge 1 which is exceptional, and maintains that it is that which is necessary 2. 66. About the disapproved one, and the bridge-judgment upon him, who sleeps on through the whole night, so as not to accomplish his proper duty 3. 67. And the approval and reward of him who does not sleep over religious observances, so as to accomplish his proper duty 4. 68. About the progress of secretly-advancing ruin (sêgŏ) through that exhibitor of evil religion who wears no sacred thread-girdle, and his not wearing it as it were by law 5.

69. About the proper duty and great value of the Parôdarsh 6 bird, and the great good work that gives it a morsel of meat which is the size of its body, the liberalization of the primitive temperament 7 through righteousness for the righteous man 8. 70. About the hurry of the fire for kindling for the untroubled watching of the night, and the merit owing to lawfully

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kindling it; also the blessing of the fire on mankind, when pleased and untroubled 1.

71. About the four special sins by which the fiend 2 receives vigorous pregnancy, and the atonement for each separately 3. 72. About the grievous sinfulness, trouble, lamentation (navîkîh), and harm that proceed from a courtezan; also the advantageousness of her destruction 4. 73. About the retribution for the sin of having sexual intercourse with a menstruous woman 5.

74. About the combat (kûshisnŏ) of the evil spirit with Zaratûst, the victory of Zaratûst therein, and whatever is on the same subject 6. 75. About Zaratûst having enquired of Aûharmazd how, and by what means, one has to confound the evil spirit and other demons, and his reply 7. 76. About the gratification of Vohûman, the archangel, owing to the washing and bringing back to use of polluted clothing; also praise unto Aûharmazd for his narrating the care of the clothing 8.

77. About the reward which they give up to a human soul for the sake of kindness, and whereto and how is the attainment to exaltation of him who is given it 9. 78. About the going of Vohûman to meet the souls of the righteous, the notification of their position, their announcement for reward, and the contented progress of the souls of the righteous to their [home] 10, to the throne of Aûharmazd and

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the archangels, which is made of gold 1. 79. About the terror of the demons owing to the scent of the righteous, and the fear that arose among them owing to the birth of Zaratûs2.

80. About the great powerfulness of plants of a poisonous character 3 for the forcible 4 keeping away of much adversity; the production of entire species (pûr sarâdakŏ) of plants by Aûharmazd for the curing of the creatures from disease (ayôyakîh); the success of the Gôkerenô 5 plant—which is the white Hôm—in curing, as compared with other plants; and the diligence of Aîrmân 6 in the medical treatment of the world 7.

81. Information about the ritual (nîrang) through which the violence of the fiend was minimized at the original creation; and the great powerfulness of the Aîrmân supplication 8, the Ahunavair 9, and other

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[paragraph continues] Gâthic Avesta 1, for restraining the demons from destroying the world of righteousness 2.

82. It is righteousness that is perfect excellence. It is the excellence of righteousness that is perfect.


152:2 Corresponding to the nineteenth word, drigubyô, in the Ahunavair, according to B. P. Riv.; but it is the twentieth Nask in other Rivâyats. In the Dinkard its name is semi-Zvâris, either Gvîd-shêdâ-dâd or Vîk-shêdâ-dâd, the Av. dâta vîdaêva, 'law opposed to the demons.' In the Rivâyats it is called Gud-dêv-dâd, Vendîdâd, or Vîndâd, and is stated to consist of twenty-two kardah, or fargards, the number it still contains. It is generally considered that the Vendîdâd now extant is a collection of fragments, p. 153 but it is evident, from the close correspondence between the author's description and the present contents, that this fragmentary state of the text existed in his time; and there is every probability that any mutilation that exists in the text occurred before Sasanian times. The author, however, sometimes omits to mention subjects that are repeated, so it is just possible that some of these repetitions are of later date. He also makes no allusion to the twelfth fargard (see § 51 n).

153:1 Vend. I, 1, 2 (W.).

153:2 Vend. I, 3-20.

153:3 See Chap. XIII, 6-8.

153:4 Vend. II, 1-19.

153:5 Vend. II, 22-43.

153:6 Vend. III, 1-13, 22, 23, 34.

153:7 Vend. III, 14; the latter clause referring to the commentary on Pahl. Vend. III, 48 (Sp.).

154:1 Vend. III, 15-19.

154:2 The person polluted in this manner being considered as unclean as the corpse itself.

154:3 Vend. III, 20, 21 and perhaps some commentary on Pahl. Vend. III, 71 (Sp.) now lost.

154:4 Vend. III, 23-31.

154:5 Vend. III, 32, 33.

154:6 Vend. III, 36-40.

154:7 Vend. III, 41, 42.

154:8 Vend. IV, 1-16.

155:1 Vend. IV, 44.

155:2 Vend. IV, 45.

155:3 Av. Mithrô, the angel of the sun's light, friendly to man, and, hence, insisting upon the fulfilment of every promise (mithrô). He is supposed to keep an account of all breaches of promise (see Dd. XIV, 3), and to mediate between the departed soul and its accusers (see Mkh. II, 118); in doing which he co-operates with the angels of obedience (Srôsh, see Chap. IX, 3 n) and justice (Rashnû, see Chap. XX, 153 n) who estimate and weigh its good works and sins, and decide upon its fate at the bridge of judgment.

155:4 Vend. IV, 46, 50-55.

155:5 See Chap. XXVII, 4 n.

155:6 Vend. V, 1-4.

156:1 Vend. V, 5-7; but the last clause refers to a Pahlavi commentary found only in the manuscripts.

156:2 Vend. V, 8, 9.

156:3 See Chap. XIX, 3.

156:4 Vend. V, 15-20.

156:5 The Vendîdâd itself, see § 1 n.

156:6 Vend. V, 22-25.

156:7 Vend. V, 27-34.

156:8 Vend. V, 35-38.

156:9 Vend. V, 39-44 (W.), and commentary on Pahl. Vend. V, 134 (Sp.).

156:10 Vend. V, 45-56.

157:1 Av. khshvas maunghô; Vend. V, 57-59 (W.), and commentary on Pahl. Vend. V, 167 (Sp.).

157:2 Pâz. dhôvana which is here assumed to be equivalent to Pers. dô bun. It is probably a reading of the Pahlavi word or in Pahl. Vend. V, 169; 172, which has been variously read as gûgan, 'a dirham,' dûkŏ, 'a spindle,' or yûkŏ, 'a rag;' the last of which would best suit the context here.

157:3 Vend. V, 60-62.

157:4 Vend. VI, 1-9.

157:5 Vend. VI, 26-41.

157:6 Vend. VI, 44-51.

158:1 Vend. VII, 1-5, 10-16. Nothing is said about VII, 6-9, 17-22 (which passages are merely a repetition of V, 27-30, 57-62), but this omission may be owing to the fact that these passages are so abbreviated in the MSS. as to be easily overlooked, especially by a reader of the Pahlavi version only.

158:2 Vend. VII, 23-26.

158:3 Pahl. tanand va-mâk (= mêg), evidently equivalent to the Av. sûnô madhakhayauska of Vend. VII, 26, which are rendered by tûn mêgŏ-k in the Pahlavi version. The identity of Av. madhakha with Pahl. madag, or mêg, Pers. maîg, mala‘h 'a locust,' has long been recognised (see Darmesteter's Études Iranniennes, II, p. 199). But the meaning of Av. sûn = Pâz. tûn has been merely guessed to be 'a mosquito;' the Avesta word having been transcribed as sîn, or sin, in the prose Sad-dar, LXXII, 2, and explained by the Persian gloss pasah, 'a gnat or fly,' by some copyists, while others have read san (for sin) and have substituted its synonym sâl, 'a year,' or have read bîs, 'a poisonous herb,' instead of pasah. With regard to the word tanand, 'spider,' in our text, it may be observed that it has descended from a much older copy of the Pahlavi Vendîdâd than any that could have been consulted by the author of the Sad-dar, and it is easy to see how an original Pahl. could have been read in Pâzand by later copyists of the Vendîdâd.

158:4 Vend. VII, 26, 27.

158:5 Vend. VII, 28-35.

159:1 Vend. VII, 36-44.

159:2 Vend. VII, 45-50.

159:3 Vend. VII, 51, 52, 55-59, which refers to tombs and mausoleums (uzdaêza uzdista) and not to the legal dakhmas, or depositories for the dead. §§ 51, 52 are described after the others.

159:4 Vend. VII, 60, 67-71. The contents of VII, 61-66 are not mentioned, being abbreviated in the MSS. as a repetition of V, 46-51.

159:5 Vend. VII, 73-75.

159:6 Vend. VII, 76, 77, where, however, plants are not mentioned.

159:7 Vend. VII, 78, 79.

159:8 Vend. VIII, 1-3.

159:9 Vend. VIII, 4-25.

160:1 Both these words are blotted and doubtful in the original MS

160:2 Vend. VIII, 31, 32.

160:3 Vend. VIII, 33 34.

160:4 Or it may be sar aspô, 'a troop of horse.'

160:5 Vend. VIII, 73-96.

160:6 Vend. VIII, 35-72, 97-107, IX, 1-39.

160:7 Vend. IX, 41.

160:8 Vend. IX, 42-44.

160:9 Vend. IX, 47-57.

160:10 The Ahunavair formula is so called from its first three words (see Chap. I, 7 n).

160:11 Vend. IX, 45, 46, X, 1-20, XI, 1-20 may probably be all alluded to in these few words; but nothing is said about the twelfth fargard. This omission is singularly in accordance with the fact p. 161that the same fargard is omitted in all very old copies of the Vendîdâd with Pahlavi version, in which, although the fargards are numbered, the thirteenth immediately follows the eleventh. The Kopenhagen MS. No. 2, in which the twelfth fargard occurs with a Pahlavi version, is said to be a revision of the Vendîdâd text compiled in the last century, and other copies of the Pahlavi twelfth fargard have been derived from this revised text. The omission of this fargard in all the old MSS. cannot be satisfactorily attributed to the loss of some folios in an older copy, because no fargard is likely to fill exactly a certain number of folios; the loss must also have occurred very shortly after the last revision of the Pahlavi text, to account for the author of the Dinkard not finding the Pahlavi of this fargard in the ninth century.

161:1 Vend. XIII, 1-28.

161:2 Vend. XIII, 29-38.

161:3 Vend. XIII, 41-43.

161:4 Vend. XIII, 44-48 which detail the thirty-one particulars in which dogs resemble people of eight avocations, three of which are the professions of priests, warriors, and husbandmen.

161:5 Vend. XIII, 50-56, XIV, 1-18.

161:6 Vend. XV, 2.

161:7 Reading val zak 3, but it may be val zak-aê, 'for the other.'

162:1 Vend. XV, 8-16.

162:2 Vend. XV, 17-45, though the last clause may include the remainder of this fargard.

162:3 Vend. XVI, 1-7, 13-16, also XV, 7.

162:4 Vend. XVI, 7-12.

162:5 Vend. XVI, 17.

162:6 Vend. XVI, 18 = XVII, 11.

162:7 Vend. XVII, 1-10.

162:8 Pahl. padâm (Av. paitidâna, Pâz. penôm). It 'consists of two pieces of white cotton cloth, hanging loosely from the bridge of the nose to at least two inches below the mouth, and tied with two strings at the back of the head. It must be worn by a priest whenever he approaches the sacred fire, so as to prevent his breath from contaminating the fire.' (Haug's Essays, p. 243, note 1.)

162:9 Av. khrafstraghna, an implement for killing snakes and other noxious creatures; it may be made of any material, but a leathern whip is recommended.

162:10 Av. baresman, a bundle of slender rods, formerly twigs of p. 163 particular trees, but now thin metal wires, usually from five to thirty-three in number according to the nature of the ceremony. These rods are tied together by a central girdle, passing three times round them and knotted just like the sacred thread-girdle round the waist of a Parsi; but this girdle is formed of six threadlike ribbons split out of a leaflet of the date-palm and twisted together. The bundle, when properly purified, is laid upon the crescent-shaped tops of two adjacent metal stands, whence it is taken up by the officiating priest, to hold in his left hand during certain recitations.

163:1 Av. astra and sraosha-karana, implements for scourging and punishing sinners and criminals.

163:2 Vend. XVIII, 1-4.

163:3 Vend. XVIII, 5.

163:4 Vend. XVIII, 6.

163:5 Vend. XVIII, 8-10.

163:6 'The foreseer' of the dawn, an epithet of the domestic cock.

163:7 Pahl. râdînîdanŏ-î mûnak-î kâdmon.

163:8 Vend. XVIII, 13-17, 23-26, 28, 29.

164:1 Vend. XVIII, 18-22, 26, 27.

164:2 The Av. drug is feminine.

164:3 Vend. XVIII, 30-59.

164:4 Vend. XVIII, 60-65.

164:5 Vend. XVIII, 66-76.

164:6 Vend. XIX, 1-10.

164:7 Vend. XIX, 11-34.

164:8 Vend. XIX, 20-25.

164:9 Vend. XIX, 27-30.

164:10 This word, mêhan (Av. maêthana), has been omitted by the p. 165 repairer of the manuscript, when noting, on his patch, the words he had cut out.

165:1 Vend. XIX, 31, 32.

165:2 Vend. XIX, 33, 43-47; no notice being taken of the invocatory passage 34-42.

165:3 Pahl. bîskîhar, Av. viskithra.

165:4 Reading nîrûgîk which suits the context better than nîrangîk, 'ritualistic.'

165:5 Av. gaokerena, a mythical tree, or plant, supposed to grow in the ocean, where it is guarded by ten enormous fish, and, at the time of the renovation of the universe, the elixir of immortality is expected to be prepared from its twigs mingled with the fat of a mythical ox (see Bd. IX, 6, XVII, 1-6, XXVII, 4, XXX, 25).

165:6 Av. Airyaman, a spirit whose powers of healing, chiefly by spells, are celebrated in Vend. XXII; and who is invoked in Yas. LIV, a spell that concludes the recitation of the Gâthas.

165:7 Vend. XX, 1-12.

165:8 The Airyama-ishyô (Yas. LIV), or invocation of Airyaman, quoted in Vend. XX, 11, XXI, 20, XXII, 23.

165:9 See Chap. I, 7 n.

166:1 Yas. XLVI, 7 and XLIV, 16 b-e which are quoted after the other spells in each of the last three fargards of the Vendîdâd.

166:2 Vend. XXII, 1-25, XX, 13-15, XXI, 18-23, and probably the rest of XXI.

Next: Chapter XLV