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Pahlavi Texts, Part IV (SBE37), E.W. West, tr. [1892], at

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Hûspâram Nask.

1. One section contains particulars about the science (dânisnŏ) of seeking a son, advice about it from revelation (dênô), the advantage of offspring for the admonitory explanation of revelation within one's self, and the harm owing to neglecting the advice of the same.

2. About what happens in the begetting of a son; the first sexual excitement it should produce for the female, the second, third, fourth, and fifth; the arising of a son in the world, and also the milk, owing to her impregnation. 3. And, when it is so that it amounts to a son, which of the two, male or female, is sooner emitting the germs at the time of occurrence; and how and how long both have remained, at the time, in semination, how long in connection, and how long in bleeding. 4. When and wherefrom various expectations are produced to contend about, and when and by what signs the male sex, or female sex, of the offspring has become manifest.

5. When the localization 1 regarding it is arranged; and, as to the members, which is the first member therein, and their being produced, each consecutively, till the bodily form is complete; which, and in what position, is the localization of the members after the complete production of the form of the body, and the purpose as regards the position and localization of the members after the complete production of the

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form of the body. 6. The effect upon the offspring which is furnished with subjection to the male, so far as the complete effecting of it is within the limit for its authorisation 1; the time (vidanâânag 2) of the offspring with the female, the period of its turning downwards for birth, and the occurrence of birth at the same time.

7. About the growth of life, too, with the bodily organs (tanûgân); and which is the first bone become possessed of marrow, apart from the other bones, as it is reported. 8. About the admissibility of the elaboration of the male sex, or female sex, within it, by the guardian spirit of the righteous, at the fifth month; and the ceremony for the guardian spirit of the righteous for the sake of the arrival of a male child.

9. About the act of childbirth by a pregnant woman before recourse to midwifery (dâigânîh), except that relating to the navel string of the child; also its first and second food, and when the midwifery is that of her mother; what is the kind of milk, and the care of the child at the time, its bandaging, sleeping, nourishment, and protection; and the sin owing to acting unlawfully in such matters. 10. About how many months is the bearing of the offspring in the womb of the camel, horse, ass,

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cow, and woman; and whatever is on the same subject. 11. About the spiritual perception of a newborn child, and its coming into the boundaries of worldly comprehension on the same subjects.

12. About the habits through which multitudes of mankind attain to the acme of beautiful form: that of desire for women, that of swiftness which is owing to the strength of the leg, and that of powerfulness which is owing to the vigour of the body, that of desire for wealth, that of speaking in an assembly, and that of speaking at a distance, that through which any one uncontrolled comes to a downfall, that through which there is more knowledge of obedience, and that through which a counteraction of the affliction of the race arises.

13. About the vicious desire of the performer and permitter of unnatural intercourse; also their violent lustfulness, heinous practice, and corrupt, polluted bodies, blighted in destiny; great through their destruction of life in the things which they see, and every greatness inevitably provides them a merited death; as great in sinfulness as Az-î Dahâk 1 in oppression, as the serpent Srôbar 2 in witchcraft, as Tûr-î Brâdrô-rêsh 3, the Karap 4, in destroying the

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righteous, and as a deceiving apostate in falsehood. 14. About the grievous sinfulness of a woman, just delivered and giving milk, whose progeny is the offspring from intercourse with divers males, and whatever is on the same subject.

15. About the increasing vigour of the female from the mounting of the male, and the diminished vigour of the male from mounting on to the female.


109:1 Assuming that gêsî-hastanŏ stands for gâsî-hastanŏ in all three occurrences of the word. This is rather doubtful, because the noun gâs, 'position,' occurs twice in close connection with the uncertain word, and is correctly spelt.

110:1 The Pahl. text is as follows:—'Kâr-î madam zâkŏ-î levatman dên kusn spar, vad spôr kârîh zyas dên sâmân padas radakîh.'

110:2 This unusual hybrid word is evidently intended as a Zvâris equivalent of the Irânian zamânah, and is composed of vidanâ (= Ch. ‏עִדָּנָא‎, which is the usual Zvâris for zamân) + ânag (= ânah, the final syllables of zamânah). The central syllable of zamânah is, therefore, twice represented in the Zvâris vidanâânag. The hybrid occurs again, in Bk. IX, Chap. XVII, 3, in a phrase where it can only mean 'time, period.' If it were not for this after-occurrence, the word here might be read va-dô-ahûg, 'and the dual existence,' with some degree of probability.

111:1 See Chap. XIII, 8 n, and compare the account of the seven special evil-doers in Dd. LXXII, 3-9.

111:2 The Av. azi srvara of Yas. IX, 11 (W.), Yt. XIX, 40; a terrible serpent slain by Keresâspa the Sâman, as mentioned again in Bk. IX, Chap. XV, 2.

111:3 Also written Brâdrôk-rêsh; he was one of the Tûrânian priesthood who persecuted Zaratûst in his youth, and probably the same as Pers. Bartarûsh (the Brâdar-vakhsh of Sd. IX, 5) who is said to have killed Zaratûst in the end. But, as he was one of five brothers, three of whose names were much alike (see Byt. II, 3 n), his identification is rather uncertain.

111:4 Av. karapan. In Dk. Bk. VII the Karaps are often mentioned p. 112 as enemies of Zaratûst, both before and after his birth. Some are named, such as Dûrâsrôb, Brâdrôk-rêsh, Vaêdvôist, and Gêshmak. The Karap of the district where the mother of Zaratûst was born banishes her for witchcraft, and must, therefore, have been the official head of the district. Dûrâsrôb, the Karap, travels sometimes with a disciple (hâvist), so his title was probably a priestly one. The Karap is also often mentioned with the Kaî, or Kîk (Av. kavan or kavi), the title of an equally obnoxious class; both Kîks and Karaps being termed 'demon-worshippers,' or idolators; and the Pahlavi translators of the Avesta speak of them, metaphorically, as 'blind and deaf' to the sacred beings.

Next: Chapter XXXVI