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Pahlavi Texts, Part IV (SBE37), E.W. West, tr. [1892], at


Hûspâram Nask.

1. One section is miscellaneous: about the object of amassing property lawfully produced, or derived from (frôdŏ min) what is legally property; the production authorisedly of what is derived from that which is legally property, and the production unauthorisedly of that which is legally property thereby become one, at first, as regards the very virtuous or vicious legal proceedings therein.

2. About the lawful time for giving up a maiden to her husband, the completion of her possessions, and whatever is on the same subject. 3. About the impoverishment owing to the completion of the possessions given, and whatever is on the same subject. 4. About a father who has sons, and for which of them a wife is to be earlier sought. 5. Also about which of his daughters is to be given away to a husband, and whatever is on the same subject.

6. About the progressive meritoriousness of a righteous gift for a woman, and the grievous sinfulness owing to its being dissipated. 7. About wealth through a righteous gift, the announcement of its manifest acceptance, and the acknowledgment of its acceptance in words, as a completed act that is so far exhausted.

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8. About a foreigner when an Irânian asks him for a reward for assistance in battle with his fellow-tribesmen, and the foreigner does not become generous, though the recompense is for the generosity of the Irânians.

9. About the offering up (madam dahisnŏ) of water; that which is an appointed indicator (numûdâr), and that which is no indicator; that which is an indicator of complete presentation, and that of partial presentation; that water which is continually producing the offering up (ûzdahînâk), in like manner, of something of the things of a righteous gift, through the moistened peculiarity and distinction 1 of an offering-producing gift of a male from that of a female; and that which is an indicator both male and female, and a voice producing offerings, is animate, or inanimate, or derived from the inanimate; that which is an indicator is a germ (tôkhmakŏ-1), that which is in a germ is of one species, that which is in a species is of one form, and the proportion that is appointed is completed, though the purpose for which it is appointed has not arisen; and whatever is on the same subject.

10. About the five best and five worst actions, the seven 2 heinous sins, and the three sins that are very ill-atoned for. 11. About the sin of staining with bodily refuse, injuring the existence 3, and of a

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death-producing formation as to clothing. 12. About the sin owing to idleness when, moreover, that which they might do is good. 13. About a decision as to the justifiableness of clothing, arms, equipments, and other things being given to foreigners, besides promoting their service and business, and giving them any assistance whatever, or listening to that which relates to assistance; likewise listening to drunkards. 14. About unlawfully destroying and cutting plants, with a decision about it.

15. About the sin of digging a grave 1 for burying a corpse, whether of the idolators (dêvîyastân) or non-idolators, and of supplying clothing for the corpse of a dead one of the idolators. 16. About him who threw bodily refuse 2 on to fire or water, or any place or garment on which it is not authorisedly cast, to make Mazda-worshippers polluted; and whatever is on the same subject.

17. An account of water as regards the description and extent of moisture of the land. 18. About the sin owing to rendering anything useless through water or fire. 19. About carrying off two-thirds of the misery from the world, by eradicating it from the creatures through all the illumination of fires; and carrying off all adversity from the period of the creatures, through the freedom from malice of mankind, one as regards the other, and through their perfect sympathy together.


107:1 The Pahl. text is pavan mamanîh va-kadâmîh-i namîdŏ. Possibly namîdŏ, 'moistened,' may stand for numûdŏ, 'indicated;' but the whole sentence is more or less obscure.

107:2 Written 4 + 2 (= six) in the MS., but this is a most unusual way of writing 'six;' it is more probable that we ought to read 4 + 3, the usual mode of writing 'seven.' 'Seven evil-doers of sin of a heinous kind' are detailed in Dd. LXXII, 2-9.

107:3 Pahl. bâîôdôk-zêdŏ, see Chap. XIX, 1 n.

108:1 Assuming that gôbar khekîrûntanŏ stands for gôbar (Pers. gôr) khefrûntanŏ.

108:2 See Chap. XIX, 3.

Next: Chapter XXXV