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0. The signification of the Gâthas 9.

1. These three Ashem-vohûs (Yas. XI, end) which

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represent 1 the Fravarânê (Yas. XI, end) of the preliminary ritual (pês nîrang) and the rotation of these three Hâs ('chapters'), the Fravarânê, Frastuyê, and Âstuyê—fravarânê being the beginning of the Fravarânê 2 which extends as far as frasastayaêk3, frastuyê 4, the beginning of the Frastuyê (Yas. XII, I-XIII, 26) which extends up to the Âstuyê, and âstuyê 5, the beginning of the Âstaothwanem 6, (Yas. XIII, 27-XIV, end) which extends as far as âstaothwanemkâ daênayau Mâzdayasnôisalso represent the Vîsâi-ve-ameshâ-spentâ (Yas. XV), which is the beginning of the Stôtânyasnô ('the ritual of praisers') 7, and these three Hâs of the Baghãm (Yas. XIX-XXI).

2. In the exposition (kashîdak) and through the

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evidence of revelation (dînô) the wise of those of the primitive faith 1 have thus said, that a man of fifteen years 2, and a son and, brother of Mazdayasnians—when he confesses his failings (mândak) to the high-priests (radân), and they shall bring him the whip and scourge 3, and these five Gâthas 4 are chanted and the good waters consecrated by him, and the whole of the renewed-birth ceremony (navîd-zâdîh) 5 is performed by him—becomes a mature youth and not a child, and a share of the prayers of initiation (nâpar) and of the fires is to be given over to him 6; and when thus much is not performed by him, a share is not to be given. 3. These five 7 Gâthas are made up from the body of a righteous man.

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4. Ahyâ-yâsâ (Yas. XXVIII), Khshmaibyâ (Yas. XXIX), and Ad-tâ-vakhshâ (Yas. XXX) have, severally, eleven stanzas (vakêst), because eleven things move spiritually within the bodies of men, as life, consciousness, religion, soul, guardian spirit, thought, word, deed, seeing, smelling, and hearing; and the bodies of men and other creatures are formed of water, fire, and wind 1.

5. Ashem-Ahurem-mazdãm (Visp. XV) is to be recited 2 three times before the coming of Hûshêdar, Hûshêdar-mâh, and Sôshyans; and when they also recite the chapter (hâd) well, and by line (gâs) and stanza, those apostles are present 3, and the

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country becomes more flourishing and more dominant in the world.

6. The twenty-two stanzas of Tâ-ve-urvâtâ (Yas. XXXI) are the twenty-two judgments (dâdistân) of which it speaks in the Hâdôkht Nask 1 thus:—'Anaomô mananghê daya vîspâi kva, kva parô?' (where are they to be produced beyond every thought? and where before?') 'Lodging in the judge, that while he has twenty-two judgments he may be more just;'—so that when they pray the Tâ-ve-urvâtâ chapter well, and recite it by line and stanza, the judges possess those twenty-two judgments more correctly, and judiciousness is more lodging in them.

7. The sixteen stanzas of the Hvaêtumaithi chapter (Yas. XXXII) 2 are lodging in warriors, so that it becomes possible, during their good protection, to force the enemy away from those sixteen countries which the Vendidad 3 mentions in its first fargard.

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8. The fourteen stanzas of Yathâ-âis (Yas. XXXIII) are for this reason, because seven archangels are more diligent in activity for the spirit, and seven archangels 1 for the world, so that they may attain 'to heaven, the home (mêhônŏ) of Aûharmazd, the home of the archangels, the home of those righteous ones,' avi garô-nmânem, maêthanem Ahurahê mazdau, maêthanem ameshanãm spentanãm, maêthanem anyaêshãm ashaonãm 2. 9. The three repetitions (dânar) of Ye-sevistô (Yas. XXXIII, 11) 3, and the holding up of the holy-water (zôhar) at these repetitions, are for the four classes 4, and for this reason at Ahurâi mazdâi and ashemkâ frâdad 5 the holy-water is

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to be held level with the heart of him who is the officiating priest (zôt), and at sraotâ 1 it is to be held level with the arm of him who is the officiating priest, so that while the warriors are in battle with foreigners (anâîrân) they may be fuller of breath (vayô-gîrtar), and the husbandmen stronger-armed in the tillage and cultivation of the world.

10. The fifteen stanzas of Yâ-skyaothanâ (Yas. XXXIV) are for this reason, because it is given 2 for the destruction of those fifteen fiends who are disclosed in the medical part (bêshâz) of the Hâdôkht Nask 3. 11. The four repetitions (bâr) of Mazdâ-ad-môi (Yas. XXXIV, 15) 4 are for the right coming on of the share of these five chieftainships (radîh), the house-ruler, the village-ruler, the tribe-ruler, the province-ruler, and the supreme Zaratûs5.

12. The two repetitions of Ahyâ-yâsâ (Yas. XVIII, 1) 6, are for this reason, that the sovereign (dahyûpat) may not at once seize body, consciousness,

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and soul. 13. Those four Yathâ-ahû-vairyôs of the first Gâtha 1 are for this reason, that is, so that inferiors may become more tolerant of the commands of superiors, and good thoughts, good words, and good deeds be more domesticated (mâhmântar) in the world, and the fiend more powerless (apâdakhshâhtar).

14. In short (aê-mar) 2, Ahyâ-yâsâ is as (pavan) 3 Aûharmazd and the righteous man, Khshmaibyâ as Vohûman and cattle, Ad-tâ-vakhshyâ as Ardavahist and fire, Tâ-ve-urvâtâ as Shatvaîrô 4 and metal, the Hvaêtumaithi as the Gâtha of Spendarmad and the earth, Yatha-âis as Horvadad and water, and Yâ-skyaothanâ as Amerôdad and plants.

15. The progress which is in 5 the Ahunavaiti Gâtha the house-rulers should carry on; that which is in the Ustavaiti Gâtha the village-rulers should carry on; that which is in the Spentâ-mainyû 6 Gâtha the tribe-rulers should carry on; that which is in the Vohû-khshathra Gâtha the province-rulers should carry on; that which is in the Vahistô-isti Gathâ the supreme Zaratûsts should carry on, and

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that which is in the Yasna, which is the place of righteous blessing 1, these four classes themselves should carry on.

16. Of the Yasna of seven chapters (Yas. XXXV-XLI, 17) the beginning section (kardakŏ) has nine stanzas; and its beginning 2 is Humatanãm (Yas. XXXV, 4), and its end is Humatanãm (Yas. XLI, 17 supl.)

17. The six stanzas of Ahyâ-thwâ-âthrô (Yas, XXXVI) are owing to the six hot ordeals (var) which, in the Hûspâram Nask 3, are effected by kathrayâim âthraiãm 4.

18. The five stanzas of Ithâ-âd-yazamaidê (Yas. XXXVII) are thanksgiving and praise for the production of the good creations by Aûharmazd.

19. The five stanzas of Imãm-âad-zãm (Yas. XXXVIII) are owing to those five comforts and five discomforts of the earth, which, it is declared in the third fargard in the Vendidad 5 are accomplished

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thus:—'The first comfort of the earth is from the land on which a righteous man walks forth; the second is when they shall make the dwelling of the good and fires upon it; the third is when they sow corn upon it, and shall take heed of dead matter; the fourth is when all beasts of burden are born upon it; the fifth is when every beast of burden is on it 1; and its first discomfort is from the Arezûr ridge 2 and the gate of hell; the second is when they dig 3 it up for a dead body; the third is when one constructs a depository for the dead (khazân) 4 upon it; the fourth is from the holes of its noxious creatures; the fifth is when they shall forsake a man in affliction (vardakîh) upon it, who is righteous.'

20. The five stanzas of Ithâ (Yas. XXXIX) are just as those which go before.

21. The four stanzas of Âhû-ad-paiti (Yas. XL) are about the benefit (arg-hômandîh) which is on account of water, earth, plants, and animals.

22. The six stanzas of Stûtô-garô (Yas. XLI, 117), the two repetitions of Humatanãm (Yas. XX XV, 4-6), and the three repetitions of Hukhshathrôtemâi (Yas. XXXV, 13-15) are on account of the existence of the sons of Zaratûs5.

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23. The two repetitions of Ashahyâ-âad-sairi 1 (Yas. XXXV, 22, 23) are for the laudation of righteousness and the destruction of the fiend. 24. The two repetitions of YêNhê-hâtãm 2 are for the laudation of Aûharmazd and the archangels, and the destruction of the evil spirit and the miscreations (vishûdakân). 25. The two repetitions of 3 Thwôistaotaraskâ, (Yas. XLI, 12-14) are for the laudation of ceremonial worship (yazisnŏ) and the sacred feast (mâzd).

26. The two repetitions of Âtaremka (Visp. XIX, 1-8) 4 are for the laudation of the Frôbâk fire and the fire Vâzis5.

27. Of the sixteen stanzas of the Ustavaiti chapter (Yas. XLII) 6 it is related just as about the Hvaêtumaithi chapter 7.

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28. The twenty stanzas of Tad-thwâ-peresâ (Yas. XLIII) are the twenty judgments (dâdistân) between the beneficent spirit and the evil spirit; and for this reason they should every time utter Tad-thwâ-peresâ again 1, because they should utter the original judgment again, and the twentieth time the evil spirit becomes confounded.

29. The eleven stanzas of Ad-fravakhshyâ (Yas. XLIV) are made up from the six chieftainships 2 and the five accomplishments (farhâng) owing to religion; one is thus, not to do unto others 3 all that which is not well for one's self; the second is to understand fully what is well-done and not-well-done; the third is to turn from the vile and their conversation (andarag-gûftanŏ); the fourth is to confess one's failings to the high-priests, and let them bring the whip; the fifth is not to neglect the season-festivals at their proper hour (dên hâsar), nor the other things which go to the bridge 4; and the six chieftainships are not his property who has not these

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five accomplishments, and he is not fit even for teaching.

30. The nineteen stanzas of Kãm-nemôi-zãm (Yas. XLV) are for this reason, that every one may so persevere in his own duty (khvesakânîh) 1, that while those are our nineteen propitiations (aûsôfrîd2, which it says in the Sakâdûm Nask 3 should be my own, the strength and power of the angels shall become more considerable, and the destroyer more perishable.

31. The Ustavaiti Gâtha is a Gâtha (gâs) of four chapters 4, and each stanza of five lines (gâs), except Hêkad-aspâ-vakhshyâ (Yas. XLV, 15) 5. 32. The two repetitions of Ustâ-ahmâi (Yas. XLII, 1) 6 are, one as a retention and embrace of Aûharmazd, and one as a destruction of the fiends; and Usta-Ahurem-mazdãm (Visp. XXI, 1-5) 7 in like manner.

33. Spenta-mainyû (Yas. XLVI) has six stanzas, Yêzî-adâis (Yas. XLVII) twelve stanzas, Ad-mâ-yavâ (Yas. XLVIII) twelve stanzas, and Kad-môi-urvâ (Yas. XLIX) eleven stanzas. 34. The Spentâ-mainyû Gâtha is a Gâtha of four chapters 8, and

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each stanza of four lines; it is made up from the five chieftainships and four classes 1. 35. The two repetitions of Spentâ-mainyû (Yas. XLVI, 1) 2 are, one for the laudation of the beneficent spirit (spendamat), and one for that of the earth 3.

36. One Spentem-Ahurem-mazdãm (Visp. XXII, 1-11) 4 is the laudation of the creatures of the beneficent spirit, and one is the destruction of the creatures of the evil spirit.

37. The twenty-two stanzas of the Vohû-khshathra Gâtha (Yas. L) are those twenty-two judgments which are lodging within judges, as written above 5. 38. The two repetitions of Vohû-khshathrem (Yas. L, 1) 6 are, one the laudation of living (zîndakîh), and one of the supreme Zaratûst.

39. One Vohû-khshathrem yazamaidê (Visp. XXIII, 1-9) 7 is for the laudation of Shatvaîrô 8, and one of metal. 40. The two repetitions of

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[paragraph continues] Avi-apâm (Visp. XXIV, 1-12) 1 are, one for the laudation of waters, and one of plants.

41. The nine stanzas of the Vahistôisti (Yas. LII) are on account of those nine things which are 2 . . . the supreme Zaratûstship lodging in the supreme Zaratûsts, the source of fountains, the bridge over waters, and even the navigable river, the righteous man, and the righteous woman. 42. And it is a Gâtha of one chapter, and each stanza of four lines, except Ithâ-î-haithyâ-narô (Yas. LII, 6) 3, for there is always one lord and sovereign in the world. 43. And those four lines are for this reason, because it is declared: kathrus hamayau khshapô dahmayâd parô âfritôid 4, 'four times every night is the "blessing of the holy" (Yas. LIX),' and three times Srôsh 5, twice Bûshâsp 6, and once Aêshm 7 will come

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to the material world. 44. And the five lines of that one stanza (Yas. LII, 6) are for this reason, because the assistants of the supreme Zaratûst are five, the house-ruler, the village-ruler, the tribe-ruler, the province-ruler, and she even who is his own wife (nârîk) 1. 45. The two repetitions of Vahistâ-îstis (Yas. LII, 1) 2 are, one for the laudation of sovereigns, and one for the laudation of peace (padmân).

46. The two repetitions of Vahistem-Ahurem-mazdãm (Visp. XXVI) 3 are, one for the laudation of Aûharmazd and the archangels, and one for the destruction of the fiends. 47. The four repetitions of the Airyamana (Yas. LIII) 4 are for the existence of more submission (aîrmânîh) in the house, village, tribe, and province. 48. The four repetitions of Avad-mizdem (Visp. XXVII) are for the healing of those 5 who dwell in the house, village, tribe, and province.

49. The section (kardakŏ) whose beginning is Tad-sôidhis (Yas. LVII, 1-9) 6 is, for the completion

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of the Gâthas, taught as pertaining, to the Gâthas (gâsânîk kâst).

50. The beginning of the Gâthas is Ahyâ-yâsâ (Yas. XXVIII, 1), and their end is drigavê vahyô (Yas. LII, 9, end); and there are 278 stanzas, 1016 lines, 5567 words (vâkak), 9999 mârîk, and 16,554 khûrdak 1. 51. For the lines and stanzas of the Gâthas were collected by us, and were:—one hundred stanzas of the Ahunavaiti Gâtha (Yas. XXVIII-XXXIV), of which each stanza is three lines; forty stanzas of the Yasna of seven chapters (Yas. XXXV-XLI, 17),

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of which each stanza is three lines; sixty-six stanzas of the Ustavaiti Gâtha (Yas. XLII-XLV), of which each stanza is five lines, except Haêkad-aspâ (Yas. XLV, 15), for that one is four lines; forty-one stanzas of the Spentâ-mainyû Gâtha (Yas. XLVI-XLIX), of which each stanza is four lines; twenty-two stanzas of the Vohû-khshathra (Yas. L), of which each stanza is three 1 lines; and nine stanzas of the Vahistôisti (Yas. LII), of which each stanza is four lines, except Ithâ-î (Yas. LII, 6), for that one is a stanza of five;—the amount of the foregoing 2 is 278 stanzas 3.


352:9 That is, the mystical meaning or influence supposed to attach to various parts of the ancient hymns, or to the manner in which they are chanted. The term Gâtha or 'hymn' (Pahl. gâs) is applied, in this chapter, not only to the five Gâthas properly so called, but also to the Yasna of seven chapters, and apparently to p. 353 other portions of the Yasna written in the Gâtha dialect of the Avesta.

353:1 This appears to be the meaning, but the construction of this section is altogether very obscure, and the text is more or less corrupt in all MSS. In the celebration of the Yasna or Yazisn the officiating priest tastes the Hôm juice during the recitation of Yas. XI (see Haug's Essays, p. 404), and shortly afterwards he commences the preliminary prayers mentioned in the text.

353:2 Both K20 and M6 have Frerân in Pâzand.

353:3 Both K20 and M6 omit the initial f.

353:4 M6 has âstuyê.

353:5 M6 omits this word.

353:6 This is the Avesta name of the Hâ or chapter consisting of Yas. XIII, 27-XIV, 19; as Fraoreti is the name of the preceding Hâ, consisting of Yas. XII, I-XIII, 26.

353:7 Probably consisting of the three Hâs, Yas. XV-XVII; in which case, the meaning seems to be that the three Ashem-vohûs, at the beginning of this preliminary ritual, are symbolical of each of the three triplets of chapters which follow them; first, of the Fravarânê, Fraoreti, and Âstaothwanem chapters; secondly, of the three chapters of the Stôtân-yasnô; and thirdly, of those of the Baghân Yast.

354:1 See Chap. I, 3.

354:2 Referring to one about to become a priest.

354:3 The Av. astra and sraoshô-karana of Vend. IV, 38-114, &c., which were formerly used for the temporal punishment of sinners. Whether they are here brought to the neophyte as a token of his admission to the priesthood, or are administered to him as a punishment for his offences, is not quite clear.

354:4 The five Gâthas are the Ahunavaiti (Yas. XXVIII-XXXIV), the Ustavaiti (Yas. XLII-XLV), the Spentâ-mainyû (Yas. XLVI-XLIX), the Vohû-khshathra (Yas. L), and the Vahistôisti (Yas. LII); these collections of hymns are thus named from the words with which each of them commences, excepting the first, which derives its name from the Ahunavar (see Bund. I, 21) which is written in the same metre.

354:5 This is the Pahlavi form of the Parsi navazûdi, a term applied to the whole initiatory ceremonial of a nônâbar, or newly initiated priest; the term evidently implies that the ceremony is considered somewhat in the light of 'regeneration.'

354:6 That is, he can take his part in the regular priestly duties, including the initiation of other neophytes.

354:7 Both K20 and M6 have four in ciphers, which can hardly be right; the sentence is clear enough, but the idea of its writer is rather obscure.

355:1 These first three chapters of the Ahunavaiti collection of hymns are here supposed to symbolize the three material elements, whose union distinguishes a man's body from inorganic substances; while the eleven stanzas, which each of these chapters contains, symbolize the eleven immaterial existences said to be contained in the same body.

355:2 This is doubtful, as no verb is expressed, and, the word bâr, 'time,' is struck out in M6, so it is possible to read 'the "three foremost" of the Ashem-Ahurem-mazdãm are the coming of Hûshêdar,' &c. The 'three foremost' (3 levînŏg) would be a possible Pahlavi translation of the Av. tisrô paoiryô and tisra paoirya of Visp. XV, 4-6, instead of the actual 'three first' (3-i fratûm), as may be seen from Pahl. Visp. VIII, 17, 20, where both pês (= levînŏ) and fratûm are used indifferently for Av. paoiryô. At any rate the idea embodied in the text is that these 'three first' have some reference to the three future apostles of the Parsi religion (see Bund. XXXII, 8, B. Yt. III, 13, 44, 52, 62). In fact, however, they seem to refer to the first three chapters of the Ahunavaiti Gâtha, immediately after which this chapter (Visp. XV) is recited in the full Parsi ritual; the phrase being rendered in the Pahlavi translation thus:—'I reverence the three first by not speaking out, that is, I do not say anything during them, and not wearing out, that is, I do not doze away during them.'

355:3 K20 has 'arrive early.'

356:1 See B. Yt. III, 25. Both the Avesta text here quoted and the translation suggested must be received with caution, as the MSS. do not agree in the three central words; K20 has manaNhê de vîspâi kaua, and M6 has manaNhê kya vîsâi kaia. The former reading has been adopted, with very slight correction, as it seems the more intelligible; but the meaning of the preceding word, anaomô, is, far from certain. The writer seems to have been quoting from a Pahlavi version of the Nask which contained this Avesta quotation.

356:2 This Hâ, which begins with the words ahvkâ hvaêtus, is not called by its initial words, as the preceding chapters are, but has this special name (see the prayers at the end of it) derived from its second word, and which is corrupted in Pahlavi into Khvêtmanŏ.

356:3 Here written Gavîd-sêdâ-dâd as in Sls. Part I, and not Vadîkdâd as in other parts of Sls. Part II (see § 19 and Chap. XII, 4, 6, 20, 23, 26). Vend. I contains an account of the sixteen p. 357 'best of regions and countries' where the Iranian power and religion extended at an early date.

357:1 The seven archangels besides their spiritual duties have severally charge of the seven worldly existences, man, animals, fire, metal, earth, water, and plants (see § 14 and Chap. XV). But perhaps we should read 'angels,' as they are often mentioned as 'the angels of the spiritual and worldly existences.'

357:2 This quotation, of which the Pahlavi translation is first given, and then the Avesta text, is from Vend. XIX, 107.

357:3 This stanza is recited thrice, and about the same time the officiating priest strains the Hôm juice, and prepares to pour holy-water into the mortar in which the Hôm twigs were pounded (see Haug's Essays, pp. 402, 406).

357:4 Or 'professions' of the community, of which there were originally only three, the priest, warrior, and husbandman; but at a later date the artizan was added. Both K20 and M6 have 'four classes,' but this is inconsistent with the 'three repetitions.' The Avesta generally knows only three classes, but four are mentioned in the Baghân Yast (Yas. XIX, 46).

357:5 That is, probably, at the words Ahurô mazdauskâ in the first line, and ashemkâ frâdad in the second line of the stanza; but this is doubtful, as the MSS. give the words corruptly, in a mixture of Av. and Pahl., as follows: pavan Ahurâi mazdâi ahârayih-i dadŏîh.

358:1 The first word in the third line of the stanza; but this, again, has to be guessed from a Pahlavi version in the MSS. which may be read va vâ-srôdâân.

358:2 Or 'produced.'

358:3 In the last division of that Nask (see B. Yt. III, 25, note).

358:4 This last stanza of the Ahunavaiti Gâtha is recited four times.

358:5 See Yas. XIX, 50-52. The last of these rulers must have been the supreme pontiff or patriarch of the province, and in the province of Ragha (Rages or Raî, near Teheran) he was both temporal and spiritual ruler.

358:6 This first stanza of the Ahunavaiti Gâtha is recited twice, not only in its proper place (as the first stanza of each chapter is, in the Gâthas), but also at the end of every chapter of the Ahunavaiti Gâtha, while the officiating priest sprinkles the sacred twigs with the sacred milk or gâus gîvya, 'living-cow produce' (see Haug's Essays, pp. 405, 406).

359:1 After the two Ahyâ-yâsâs, at the end of each chapter of the Ahunavaiti Gâtha, the Yathâ-ahû-vairyô formula (see Bund. I, 21) is recited four times.

359:2 Or 'to sum up.'

359:3 It is not quite clear how pavan, 'in, on, with, by, through, as, for,' &c., should be translated in each clause of this section; but the intention is evidently to compare the seven chapters of the Ahunavaiti Gathâ with the seven archangels and the seven earthly creations which they severally protect (see Chap. XV).

359:4 Here written Shatrîvar.

359:5 Meaning probably 'the prosperity which is occasioned by;' but the exact signification of the word frâk-shâm or freh-kashâm (or however it may be read) is uncertain.

359:6 Spendômat or Spendamat in Pahlavi.

360:1 That is, the Yasna of seven chapters (Yas. XXXV-XLI), which is called simply 'the Yasna' in this chapter. This last clause, which is omitted in M6, connects these later hymns with the four classes of the community (see § 9), just as the five older hymns are connected with the five chiefs of the community (see § 11) in the former clauses. This section may be a translation from the Avesta, as the verbs precede their nominatives.

360:2 That is, the beginning of the Yasna of seven chapters.

360:3 See Chap. X, 21; but the Sakâdûm Nask (see Chap. X, 25) is probably meant, as it contained a section on ordeals by heat and cold.

360:4 These Avesta words are evidently corrupt, but perhaps 'a quadruple fire' is meant. K20 has kathrâyâim âthraiãm.

360:5 Here written Vandîkdâd (see § 7). The passage here cited is not a quotation, but only a brief summary of Vend. III, 1-37; and appears to have been derived direct from the Avesta, without the assistance of the Pahlavi version, as several words differ from that translation.

361:1 The verb is probably omitted by mistake, and we ought to read 'voids urine upon it,' in accordance with Vend. III, 20.

361:2 See Bund. XII, 8.

361:3 Reading kalêndend (Pers. kalandand), as Vend. III, 27 refers to burial of the dead, and the same idea might be obtained, more fancifully, by reading kilînênd, 'they turn to clay' (compare Pers. gil, 'clay'); but the most obvious reading is karînênd, 'they cut,' and as the sentence stands it would imply that 'they cut up its dead.'

361:4 See Chap. II, 6.

361:5 The three apostles expected in the future (see § 5 and Bund. XXXII, 8). It is doubtful whether these three passages in the p. 362 Yasna are here intended all to refer to the same subject, but no other subject is mentioned for the two former. Having completed the enumeration of the sections of the Yasna of seven chapters, the writer is now proceeding to notice those passages which are recited more than once in the performance of the ritual.

362:1 M6 has gairî, 'in a song,' with the obsolete g, which is very like s, and is also used in the word garô in § 22; this is a variant well worth consideration by translators of the Avesta. K20 has only Ashahyâ.

362:2 This formula (see B. Yt. II, 64) is recited after every chapter of the Gâthas, but does not appear to be anywhere recited twice; so the words 2 dânar, 'two repetitions,' may perhaps be inserted here in the wrong place, as they are wanting in § 25.

362:3 These words are omitted in the Pahlavi text, evidently through mistake.

362:4 Visp. XIX, XX follow Yas. XLI in the full Parsi ritual, and the first of them is recited twice.

362:5 The Frôbâk is the oldest sacred fire on earth, and the Vâzist is the lightning. (see Bund. XVII, 1, 5, SZS. XI, 5, 8-10).

362:6 The first chapter of the Ustavaiti Gâtha (see § 2, note 4), so called from its first word ustâ.

362:7 See § 7.

363:1 That is, the first line (tad thwâ peresâ eres môi vaokâ Ahurâ! 'that I shall ask thee, tell it me right, O Ahura!') is repeated at the beginning of each of the first nineteen stanzas, and the first stanza being recited twice (as in all chapters of the Gâthas) these words are recited twenty times before the last stanza is reached. The phrases 'and for this reason' and 'because they should utter the original judgment again' are omitted in M6.

363:2 These cannot be the same 'chieftainships' (radîh) as those mentioned in § 11, of which there are only five; but perhaps they are the spiritual chieftainships, or primacies, of the six other regions of the earth (see Bund. XXIX, 1).

363:3 Assuming that aîsan stands for aîsân.

363:4 The Kinvad bridge, or route of the soul to the other world (see Chap. XII, 31). Part of these fourth and fifth clauses is omitted in K20 by mistake.

364:1 Or, it may be, 'through his own intellect (khvêsak hûsh),' or merely another mode of writing khvêskârîh, 'industry.'

364:2 Considering each of the stanzas as an offering to, or propitiation of, (Av. usefriti) the angels.

364:3 See Chap. X, 25.

364:4 Those detailed in §§ 27-30.

364:5 Which stanza has only four lines. Pahl. gâs means both the whole hymn and also each line of the hymn.

364:6 The first stanza of the Ustavaiti Gâtha, which is recited twice, both in its proper place and at the end of each chapter of that Gâtha (see § 12, note).

364:7 Visp. XXI follows Yas. XLV in the full Parsi ritual, and is recited twice.

364:8 Those detailed in § 33.

365:1 See §§ 9, 11.

365:2 The first stanza of the Spentâ-mainyû Gâtha, which is recited twice, both in its proper place and at the end of each chapter of that Gâtha (see § 12, note).

365:3 It seems probable that the Pahlavi writer has here confounded Spendamat, 'the beneficent spirit,' with the archangel Spendarmad who has special charge of the earth; their names being even more alike in Pahlavi than in English, though corrupted from the distinct Avesta forms spenta mainyu and spenta ârmaiti, respectively.

365:4 Visp. XXII follows Yas. XLIX in the full Parsi ritual, and is recited twice.

365:5 See § 6.

365:6 The first stanza of the Vohû-khshathra Gâtha, which is recited twice, both at the beginning and end of the chapter (see § 12, note).

365:7 Visp. XXIII, 1-9 follows Yas. L in the full Parsi ritual, and is recited twice.

365:8 The archangel who has special charge of metal (see § 14, Chap. XV, 5, 14-19, and Bund. I, 26, XXX, 19); the name is here written Shatrîvar.

366:1 After the two recitations of Visp. XXIII, 1-9 there follow Vend. XV, XVI, and Visp. XXIII, 10, and then Visp. XXIV, 1-12 is recited twice, in the full Parsi ritual, followed by Visp. XXV.

366:2 Some words are evidently lost here; M6 has m followed by a blank space, and K20 has madam, 'on.' It is not quite certain whether the things mentioned are to be reckoned as four, five, or six; but assuming they are five, it is possible that the four things missing in the text are the four remaining chieftainships (see § 11), the rulerships of the house, village, tribe, and province lodged in the rulers of the same respectively.

366:3 Which stanza has five lines, and is, therefore, here considered symbolical of the ruling monarch, or pontiff.

366:4 This Avesta passage does not appear to be extant elsewhere, and its Pahlavi translation, given in the text, is not quite correct it would be better thus: 'through the "blessing of the holy" four times every night;' dahma âfriti (Pahl. dâhmân âfrînô, 'blessing of the holy') is the technical name of Yas. LIX.

366:5 See Bund. XIX, 33, XXX, 29. This angel, invoked by the 'blessing' (Yas. LIX, 8), comes to defend mankind against the wiles of Bûshâsp and Aêshm.

366:6 The demoness of sloth (see Bund. XXVIII, 26).

366:7 The demon of wrath (see Bund. XXVIII, 15-17, 20).

367:1 Though bound to be strictly obedient to her husband or guardian, a Mazdayasnian woman occupied a more honourable position in the community than was sanctioned by any other oriental religion.

367:2 The first stanza of the Vahistôisti Gâtha, which is recited twice, both at the beginning and end of the chapter (see § 12, note).

367:3 Visp. XXVI follows Yas. LII in the full Parsi ritual, and is recited twice, followed by Vend. XIX, XX.

367:4 So called from its first words â airyemâ; it is recited four times after Vend. XX, and shortly afterwards Visp. XXVII is also recited four times, as mentioned in § 48.

367:5 M6 has 'of the soul,' which is, no doubt, a blunder due to the illegibility of the MS. from which it was copied.

367:6 This is the Fshûshô-mãthra ('a spell or prayer for prosperity.') Of Visp. I, 28, II, 30, Yas. LVI, ix, 6, LVIII, 13. Whether the remainder of Yas. LVII is to be considered as pertaining to the Gâthas is uncertain; it is recited in seven sections by the assistant priest, each section from a different position; these seven positions being the stations of the seven assistant priests who are supposed to be present spiritually, and to be arranged three on each side, and one at the south end, of the ceremonial area, while the chief officiating priest occupies the north end (see Haug's Essays, p. 332).

368:1 The numbers of the stanzas and lines are correct, as may be seen from the details given in § 51. Regarding the words there is the uncertainty as to what constitutes a compound word, but, taking each compound in Westergaard's edition of the texts as a single word, the total number of words in the 1016 lines is about 6147; and this could be reduced to 5567 only by omitting the Yasna of seven chapters, and somewhat relaxing the rule as to compound words. The meaning of the last two terms, mârik and khûrdak, is doubtful, but they are certainly not syllables and letters, as the number of syllables exceeds 13,000. In other places (see Bund. I, 21) mârik usually means 'a word,' but that meaning is expressed by the term vâkak here. If the number 9999 be correct, mârîk must signify some particular class of syllable which would include about three-fourths of the whole number of syllables. It may be noted, however, that Zâd-sparam, in the particulars he gives about the Gâthas (see SZS. XI, 10, note 6), states the number of mârîk at 6666. The khûrdak or 'small' things are probably the consonants.

369:1 All MSS. have 'four,' and then add the exception about Ithâ-i to the account of this Gâtha, instead of mentioning it in the details of the Vahistôisti; which blunder is here corrected.

369:2 Reading kadmon yehevûnisnŏ, but the latter word, with part of the ciphers which follow, is torn away in K20, and in M6 it is written so as to resemble the Avesta letters gnn gnn, which are unintelligible, though something like Pahl. yehevûnisnŏ; there can, however, be little doubt as to the general meaning of the phrase.

369:3 The number of lines is easily computed from the same details, as follows:—300 + 120 + 329 + 164 + 66 + 37 = 1016 lines, as stated in § 50, and as they still exist in the Gâtha texts.

Next: Chapter XIV