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0. May it be in the name of God (yazdân) and the good creation!

1. When they consecrate a sacred cake (drônô), and it becomes demon worship 5, what and how many things are not proper?

p. 370

2. The decision is this:—Whoever knowingly consecrates a sacred cake with unpurified sacred twigs (baresôm-i apâdiyâv1, or with a twig-bundle the number of whose twigs (tâk) is too many or too few, or of another plant not proper for sacred twigs; or holds the end of the twig-bundle to the north 2 and utters the Avesta attentively; or whoever consecrates with efficacy unawares, it is not to be considered as uttered by him. 3. Nor by him who advertently or inadvertently takes a taste (kâshnîk), not from the sacred cake with the butter (gâûs-daê) 3, but from the frasast; or takes the prayer (vâg4 inwardly regarding that cake (drônô) before the officiating priest (zôt) takes a taste from the same cake; or shall utter the length of a stanza in excess, and does not again make a beginning of the consecration of the sacred cake; or takes up the

p. 371

dedication formula (shnûmanŏ) 1 too soon or too late; or does not utter the Avesta for the fire when he sees the fire.

4. This is how it is when the period of the day (gâs) 2 is retained, and how it should be when one may relinquish it; that is, when even one of the stars created by Aûharmazd is apparent, it is retained, and when not it is relinquished. 5. It is Vand-Aûharmazd 3 who said that when, besides Tîstar, Vanand, or Satavês 4, one of the zodiacal stars (akhtarîk) is apparent, it is retained, and when not it is relinquished. 6. There have been some who said that when, besides one of those three, three zodiacal stars are apparent, it is retained, and when not it is relinquished 5.


369:4 This chapter is also found in L15, fols. 1-4, and a Pâzand version of §§ 1-3 exists in L22, fols. 126, 127, and L7, fols. 78, 79.

369:5 That is, it becomes desecrated through some fault in the ceremony, p. 370 for any ceremony, which is too imperfect for acceptance by the celestial beings, is supposed to be appropriated by the demons, as performed for their benefit (see Chap. IX, 5). Demon worship is a term also applied to many other evil actions which are supposed to give the demons special power over the perpetrator of them.

370:1 See Chap. III, 32, note.

370:2 The supposed direction of the demons (see Chaps. X, 7, XII, 18). When praying, a Parsi must face either the sun, or a fire or lamp; and when the direction of the sun is doubtful, or when it is nearly overhead, he must face to the south, even when he is in so low a latitude that the sun may be somewhat to the north of him.

370:3 Which usually takes the place of the meat-offering mentioned in Chap. XI, 4-6, and is placed upon one of the cakes on the left side of the table during consecration, while the frasasts are the cakes on the right-hand side of the table (see Chap. III, 32, note).

370:4 That is, prepares for eating by muttering the portion of the grace which is to be recited in a low murmur before eating (see Chap. III, 6, note). This clause is omitted in K20.

371:1 See Chaps. III, 35, VII, 8.

371:2 See Bund. XXV, 9. The text appears to refer to the transition from the Ushahina to the Hâvani Gâh at daybreak; and as certain portions of the prayers are varied according to the period of the day, it is very necessary to know precisely when each period commences, so as to avoid vitiating the whole ceremonial by the use of a wrong prayer.

371:3 See Chap. I, 4, note.

371:4 Three of the leading stars, probably Sirius, Fomalhaut, and Antares (see Bund. II, 7).

371:5 This chapter is followed (in both the old MSS. M6 and K20) by the Pahlavi text of the Patît-i Khûd, or renunciation of one's own sin, a translation of which will be found in Bleeck's English version of the Avesta, London, 1864, III, pp. 159-162, derived from Spiegel's German translation of the Pâzand text. This translation is fairly correct on the whole, although some passages might be improved, thus (p. 16 2), instead of 'all sins which may attack the character of man [or] have attacked my character, if I, on account of much death, have not recognised the death,' &c., we should read 'of all sins which may become the lot of men, and have become my lot, on account of whose excessive number I do not know the number,' &c.

Next: Chapter XV