Jaina Sutras, Part II (SBE45), tr. by Hermann Jacobi, , at sacred-texts.com
'Listen, Ârdraka 3, to what (Mahâvîra) has done. At first he wandered about as a single monk; but now he has surrounded himself by many monks, and teaches every one of them the Law at length. (1)
'The inconstant man has decided upon this mode of life 1: to stand up in a crowd of men, surrounded by monks, and to teach his doctrines for the benefit of many people. Therefore his former and his present life are not of a piece. (2)
'Either to live as a single mendicant (was right conduct) or his present life; therefore both do not agree with each other.'
"His past, present, and future lives agree with each other; for he is really always single and alone (though he be now surrounded by many followers). (3)
"For if a Sramana or Brâhmana who causes peace and security, comprehends the nature of movable and immovable living beings and explains it in a crowd numbering thousands, he realises singleness, remaining in the same mental condition as before 2. (4)
"It is no sin to teach the Law, if (he who teaches it) is patient and resigned, subdues his senses, avoids bad speech, and uses virtuous speech. (5)
"He who (teaches) the great vows (of monks) and the five small vows (of the laity 3), the five Âsravas and the stoppage of the Âsravas, and control, who avoids Karman in this blessed life of Sramanas, him I call a Sramana." (6)
('As your Law makes it no sin for Mahâvîra to surround himself by a crowd of disciples), so according to our Law an ascetic, who lives alone and single, commits no sin if he uses cold water, eats seeds, accepts things prepared for him, and has intercourse with women.' (7)
"Know this: those who use cold water, eat seeds, accept things especially prepared for them, and have intercourse with women, are (no better than) householders, but they are no Sramanas. (8)
"If those who eat seeds, use (cold) water, and have intercourse with women, are admitted to be Sramanas, then householders too are Sramanas; for they do the same things 1. (9)
"Monks who eat seeds and use cold water, who beg alms as a means of living, will, though they leave their relations, be born again and again, and will not put an end to mundane existence." (10)
'In making this statement you blame all philosophers alike! '
"Every philosopher praises his own doctrines and makes them known. (11)
"Sramanas and Brâhmanas blame one another when they teach (their doctrines). (The truth, they
say,) is all on their side; there is none on that of the opponents. But we blame only the (wrong) doctrines and not at all (those who entertain them). (12)
"We do not detract from anybody because of his personal qualities; but we make known the path pointed out in our creed. I have been taught the supreme, right path by worthy, good men. (13)
"If a well-controlled man, afraid of injuring any movable or immovable living beings, above, below, or on earth, condemns (evil deeds), he does not at all blame (anybody) in this world." (14)
'Out of fear your Sramana will not stay in houses for travellers or in public garden-houses; for in such places he would meet with many clever people, with lower or nobler men, with talkative or silent ones. (15)
'He will not stay there because he fears lest some monks, wise, well instructed, learned men, who are well versed in the sacred texts and their meaning, should put questions to him.' (16)
"Doing nothing without a purpose, nor without consideration, neither on the behest of the king nor from fear of anybody, he answers questions or not (according to the circumstances); but he (answers) worthy people with a definite purpose (in his mind) 1. (17)
"He, the wise man, impartially teaches (the Law) whether he goes (to his pupils) or not; because unworthy men have fallen from the true faith, he does not go to places (frequented by them)." (18)
'As a merchant desirous of gain (shows) his wares and attracts a crowd to do business, in a similar way (acts) the Sramana Gñâtriputra. This is what I think and calculate about it.' (19)
"(Mahâvîra) acquires no new (Karman), he annihilates the old, avoiding wrong opinions; and thus the saviour said to others: Herein is contained the vow (leading to) Brahman (i.e. Môksha); this is the gain which a Sramana is desirous of. Thus I say. (20)
"A merchant kills living beings and desires property; not leaving his kinsmen, he attracts a crowd in order to do business. (21)
"Desiring riches and addicted to sensuality, merchants wander about to earn their living. But we (say) that they are passionately fond of pleasures, unworthy, and desiring the enjoyment of love. (22)
"They do not abstain from slaughter and the acquirement of property, they are in bondage and full of wickedness; and their gain of which you spoke,. will be the endless Circle of Births and pains manifold 1. (23)
"They do not always make profit, nor does it last
for ever; they meet with both results (success and failure) in their quest of gain 1. The profit (of the teacher), however, has a beginning, but no end; the saviour and sage shares his profit (with others). (24)
"Him who kills no (living beings), who has compassion on all creatures, who is well grounded in the Law, and causes the truth of the Law to be known, him you would equal to those wicked men! This is the outcome of your folly." (25)
A Buddhist 2.
'If (a savage) thrusts a spit through the side of a granary 3, mistaking it for a man; or through a gourd, mistaking it for a baby, and roasts it, he will be guilty of murder according to our views. (26)
'If a savage 4 puts a man on a spit and roasts him, mistaking him for a fragment of the granary; or a
baby, mistaking him for a gourd, he will not be guilty of murder according to our views. (27)
'If anybody thrusts a spit through a man or a baby, mistaking him for a fragment of the granary, puts him on the fire, and roasts him, that will be a meal fit for Buddhas to break fast upon. (28)
'Those who always feed two thousand worthy monks, acquire great merit 1 and become powerful gods in Arûpa (dhâtu) 2.' (29)
"Well-controlled men cannot accept (your denial of) guilt incurred by (unintentionally) doing harm to living beings. It will cause error and no good to both who teach such doctrines and who believe them. (30)
"A man who knows the nature of movable and immovable living beings, above, below, and on earth, who is afraid of injuring them and abstains from wicked deeds, may speak and act (in accordance with our Law); he will not be guilty of any (sin). (31)
"It is impossible to mistake (a fragment of the granary) for a man; only an unworthy man can say it. How can (the idea of a man) be produced by a fragment of the granary? Even to utter this is an untruth. (32)
"Do not use such speech by means of which you do evil; for such speech is incompatible with virtues. No ordained (monk) should speak empty words 3. (33)
"Oh! you have explored this subject; you have thoroughly examined the consequences of acts 1 of living beings; your (fame) reaches the Eastern and Western oceans; you view (the universe as if) it stood on the palm of your hands! (34)
"Thoroughly examining the consequences of acts of living beings, (our monks) have found out a pure way of sustaining life. It is a maxim 2 of the monks of our creed 3, that nobody who lives by secret sins 4, should lay down the Law. (35)
"A man who always feeds two thousand worthy monks, does not control himself, and will be blamed in this world like a man with bloody hands. (36)
"They kill a fattened sheep, and prepare food for the sake of a particular person; they season the meat with salt and oil, and dress it with pepper. (37)
"You are irreligious, unworthy men, devoted to foolish pleasures, who say that partaking heartily of this meat you are not soiled by sin. (38)
"All who partake of such food, commit sins in their ignorance; but the wise do nothing of the kind. Even to utter it is an untruth. (39)
"In compassion to all beings, the seers, the Gñâtriputras 5, avoid what is sinful; afraid of it, they abstain from food especially prepared for them. (40)
"They abstain from wicked deeds, afraid of injuring living beings, and do no harm to any creature; therefore they do not partake of such food. This is a maxim of the monks of our creed. (41)
"(Having reached) this perfection 1 in the Law of the Nirgranthas and standing firm in it, one should live without deceit 2. The awakened sage who is endowed with all virtues thereby obtained very great fame." (42)
A Vêdic Priest.
'Those who always feed two thousand holy 3 mendicants, acquire great merit and become gods. This is the teaching of the Vêda.' (43)
"He who always feeds two thousand holy cats 4 (i.e. Brâhmanas), will have to endure great pains in hell, being surrounded by hungry (beasts). (44)
"He who despises the Law that enjoins compassion, and praises the Law that permits slaughter, and who feeds but a single unprincipled man, even if he be a king, will go to darkness 5, and not to the gods." (45)
A Vêdântin 6.
'Both of us follow (very much the same) Law; we stood firm in it, and shall do so in the time to come; (we believe that) virtue consists in good conduct, and that knowledge (is necessary for liberation); and with regard to the Circle of Births there is no difference between us. (46)
'(But we assume) an invisible, great, eternal, imperishable, and indestructible Soul, who excels all other beings in every respect, as the moon excels the stars.' (47)
"(If there were but one Soul common to all beings) they could not be known (from one another), nor could they experience different lots; there would not be Brâhmanas, Kshattriyas, Vaisyas, and Sûdras 1, insects, birds, and snakes; all would be men and gods. (48)
"Those who do not know all things by Kêvala (knowledge), but who being ignorant teach a Law (of their own), are lost themselves, and work the ruin of others in this dreadful, boundless Circle of Births. (49)
"Those who know all things by the full Kêvala knowledge, and who practising meditation teach the whole Law, are themselves saved and save others. (50)
"You have, in your mind, made equal both those who lead a blameable life, and those who in this world practise right conduct. Friend, you are deluded," (51)
A Hastitâpasa 2.
'Every year we kill one big elephant with an arrow, and live upon it in order to spare the life of other animals.' (52)
"If every year you kill but one animal without abstaining from sin, though you are not guilty of the slaughter of other creatures, there is little difference between you and a householder. (53)
"If a man kills every year but one animal, and lives (in other respects) as a Sramana, he is unworthy, and works his perdition. Such men will not become Kêvalins." (54)
A (monk) who has achieved his religious perfection through the instruction of the Awakened One 1, and stands firm in it, who guards himself in the threefold way (i.e. with regard to thoughts, words, and acts), and who possesses the things requisite for crossing the immense ocean of existence, may preach the Law. (55)
Thus I say.
409:2 The commentators relate a romantic story about prince Ârdraka, which need not be repeated here. Suffice it to say that he became monk, and after many adventures held the disputation which forms the subject of our lecture. After having vanquished his opponents, he was about to join Mahâvîra, when a newly-tamed elephant broke his chain, rushed on him, but just in front of him went down on his knees and paid him reverence. King Srênika witnessed this scene, and wondered how the elephant could have broken his chains. Ârdraka replied that it was still more strange that a man could break the fetters which worldliness had fastened upon him. The whole story must be very old, for it is epitomised in ten gâthâs by the author of the Niryukti.--The names of the opponents not stated in the text of the verses are supplied from the commentaries.
409:3 This name is spelt either Ârdra or Ârdraka, Adda in Prâkrit.
410:1 According to the commentators, Gôsâla intimates that Mahâvîra had found it very inconvenient to live alone, because he was then exposed to many injuries; so he set up as a Tîrthakara.
410:2 Tahakke = tathârka. Ârkâ is here explained as equal to lêsyâ.
410:3 Anuvrata. They are a modification of the great vows, intended for the laity. See Bhandarkar's Report, p. 114.
411:1 I.e. if the characteristic mark of a Sramana is to wander about without a companion, and to bear all sorts of hardship, then householders are included in this definition; for some of them also wander about without a companion and bear the same hardships.
412:1 As the commentators explain: he is actuated by the Karman, by virtue of which he has become a prophet (tîrthakaranâmakarman); and this Karman must take effect and so be annihilated.
413:1 Nêhâ or nêdhâ. According to Sîlâṅka it is = na iha: 'not even here (do they find the profit they seek).' I think it may be the Prâkrit of anêkadhâ. It may, however, stand for snêhâh, in which case the meaning would be: love's (reward will be) pain.
414:1 Vayanti to dôvi gunêऽdayammi = vraganti tê dvâvapi gunâv udayê. The usual reading adopted by the commentators is gunô for gunê. They translate: vadanti tê dvau vigatagunôdayau bhavata iti: (the experts) say that both (kinds of profit) are without value and duration. It is obvious that this interpretation is wrong.
414:2 Ârdraka after having put down Gôsâla is met, on his way to Mahâvîra, by Buddhists who engage him in the following discussion.
414:3 Pinnâgapindi. The commentators explain pinnâga ( = pinyâka) by khala, and pindi by bhinnaka (?) or sakala. Sîlâṅka gives the following explanation. During a struggle with savage men (mlêkkha) some one runs away and throws his cloak off on a granary. An enemy in pursuit of that man mistakes it for him and takes hold of it, together with the part of the granary.--This interpretation looks absurd; but it will appear not so if we remember that granaries are beehive-shaped reservoirs made of sun-baked mud or wattle and mud; compare Grierson, Bihar Peasant Life, p. 17.
414:4 Milakkhu = mlêkkha.
415:1 Punnakhandha = punyaskandha.
415:2 Âroppa. This is apparently derived from Arûpa as rendered in the text. Arûpadhâtu is the highest heaven of the Buddhists; compare Burnouf, Le Lotus de la Bonne Loi, p. 807.
415:3 Urâla = udâra, here explained nissâra, void of sense.
416:1 Anubhâe = anubhâgah, explained karmavipâka.
416:3 Iha samyatânâm, who control themselves in this (creed of the Gainas).
416:5 I.e. the Gainas.
417:3 Snâtaka, cf. Manu XI, 1.
417:4 Kulâlaya = kulâta, explained mârgâra. Another explanation is: who live (âlaya) in houses.
417:5 Nisam, literally, night.
417:6 Sîlâṅka calls this opponent an Êkadandin, and ascribes to him the views of the Sâṅkhya philosophy. But it is evident from the sequel that he is a Vêdântin, as the commentators admit in their comment on the next verse.
418:1 Pessâ = prêshya, literally, servants or slaves.
418:2 The Hastitâpasas are thus named from the fact that they kill an elephant and live upon its flesh for a whole year or for six months, as Sîlâṅka adds, explaining thus the words avi ya (api ka) after samvakkharêna. The Hastitâpasas are mentioned in a list of the different Tâpasas in the Aupapâtika Sûtra, ed. Leumann, § 74.
419:1 Buddhassa ânâi.