Jaina Sutras, Part II (SBE45), tr. by Hermann Jacobi, , at sacred-texts.com
A very clever (monk) who practises the vow of chastity, should not adopt the following (heretical) doctrines, nor behave badly in this religion. (1)
He should not believe that (this world) is without beginning or without end, eternal or not eternal, according to the argumentation (of heretics) 1. (2) From these alternatives you cannot arrive at
truth; from these alternatives you are, certainly, led to error. (3)
One should not say: that there will be an end of beings who (know and) teach the truth 1; nor that all beings are not alike, nor that they shall be in (perpetual) bondage, or (that the prophets are) eternal. (4)
From these alternatives you cannot arrive at the truth, &c. (see verse 3). (5)
One should not say: the guilt of killing small and great animals is the same, or not the same. (6) From these alternatives, &c. (7)
One should know that those who accept things especially prepared for them 2, will be affected by demerit (in some cases), or will not be affected (where it is allowed by scripture). (8)
From these alternatives, &c. (9)
One should not maintain the identity of the audârika 3, âhârika, and kârmana bodies, nor
that everything cannot everywhere come into existence 1, nor that it can. (10)
From these alternatives, &c. (11)
Do not maintain that the world does not exist, maintain that it exists. (12)
Do not maintain that Gîva and Agîva do not exist, but that they exist. (13)
Do not maintain that Dharma and Adharma do not exist, but that they exist. (14)
Do not maintain that bondage and liberation do not exist, but that they exist. (15)
Do not maintain that virtue and vice 2 do not exist, but that they exist. (16)
Do not maintain that Âsrava and the stoppage of Âsrava do not exist, but that they exist. (17)
Do not maintain that the experiencing of the effect, and the annihilation of Karman do not exist, but that they exist. (18)
Do not maintain that activity and non-activity do not exist, but that they exist. (19)
Do not maintain that anger and pride do not exist, but that they exist. (20)
Do not maintain that deceit and greed do not exist, but that they exist. (21)
Do not maintain that love and hate do not exist, but that they exist. (22)
Do not maintain that the fourfold Circle of Births does not exist, but that it exists. (23)
Do not maintain that there are no gods and goddesses, but that there are. (24)
Do not maintain that there is no such thing as perfection and non-perfection, but that there is such a thing. (25)
Do not maintain that there is no place exclusively reserved for those who attain to perfection, but that there is such 1. (26)
Do not maintain that there are no pious and wicked men, but that there are. (27)
Do not maintain that there is no such thing as good and bad, but that there is good and bad. (28)
The theory will not work that (a man is always) good, or (always) bad. The wrongly instructed Sramanas do not comprehend the (soul's) bondage 2 (through Karman). (29)
(Do not assert) that everything is imperishable, or full of pains, nor that criminals should be put to death or not be put to death; one should not speak in this way. (30)
Do not assert that those men are well-behaved monks who lead a pure life, and that those others lead an impure life. (31)
A wise monk should not say: we get alms (from this householder) or we do not; but he should improve his chances for final liberation 1. (32)
A monk should conform himself to these opinions taught by the Ginas, and wander about till he reaches final liberation. (33)
Thus I say.
405:1 The Gainas decide all such questions with the help of the syâdvâda, which in an admirable way removes all difficulties; e.g. the world is eternal as far as that part is concerned which is p. 406 the substratum of the idea (sâmânya) 'world'; it is not eternal as far as its ever-changing state is meant.
406:1 Sâstârah, teachers, here those who reach perfection. The meaning is that the world would become empty if all beings should reach perfection. This should not he maintained, nor the opposite opinion, that some beings are qualified for Nirvâna and others not.
406:2 Ahâkammâni, see p. 131, note 7.
406:3 The Gainas assume that each individual possesses five bodies: (1) audârika, or the body that is seen; (2) kârmana, receptacle of Karman, it is composed of Karman particles; (3) taigasa, a body composed of particles of fire, it causes digestion; (4) âhâraka, a subtile body of the soul, with which he goes to distant places (e.g. when a katurdasapûrvin goes to the Kêvalin to clear up some doubt); (5) vaikriya, a subtile body which can be changed at will. All these 'bodies,' except the first, are what in common language are called spirits or souls. We have here a Hindu counterpart of the belief in the plurality of souls shared p. 407 by many ancient and modern nations. Compare the following verses quoted in Tylor, Origin of Culture, Chapter XI:
[paragraph continues] I am inclined to believe that the idea of the âhâraka and vaikriya sarîras is developed from the popular belief that the soul in sleep leaves the body and travels far away. Compare also the Sâṅkhya terms vaikrita and taigasa, Garbe, Die Sâmkhya-Philosophie, pp. 236, 249.
407:1 According to the commentator this is said against the Sâṅkhya philosophy, for as everything is an effect of Prakriti, and Prakriti is present everywhere, everything may come into existence everywhere.
407:2 Punyam and pâpam. The one is the good Karman (subham karmapudgalam); the other, the bad.
408:1 See Uttarâdhyayana XXXVI, 62, 63, p. 212.
408:2 Vêra = vaira, explained karmabandha.
409:1 Santimaggam ka vûhaê = sântimârgam ka vrimhayêt.