Sacred Texts  Hinduism  Satapatha Brahmana  Index  Previous  Next 
Buy this Book at

Satapatha Brahmana Part II (SBE26), Julius Eggeling tr. [1885], at




4:3:3:11. He presses out (the Soma juice) with 'Ihā̃! Ihā̃ 2!' (hither), whereby he draws Indra nigh; and

p. 332

with 'Brihat! Brihat!' (great), whereby he draws Indra 1 nigh.

4:3:3:22. The Sukra and Manthin grahas he draws first, for thereby the Soma feast comes to be supplied with pure Soma (sukra). Thereupon the Âgrayana, for that (cup) is drawn at all (three) feasts. Then the Marutvatîya cup; then the Ukthya, for here also there are songs of praise (Uktha) 2.

4:3:3:33. Now some draw the Marutvatîya after they have drawn the Ukthya; but let him. not do this,--let him rather draw the Ukthya after he has drawn the Marutvatîya.

p. 333

4:3:3:44. These, then, are five grahas he draws; for that midday Pavamâna chant is a thunderbolt: hence it is a fifteenfold five-hymned chant 1, for the thunderbolt is fifteenfold 2. He is so by means of these five grahas (cups of Soma 3): for five are these fingers, and with the fingers he hurls (the thunderbolt).

4:3:3:55. Indra hurled the thunderbolt at Vritra; and having smitten Vritra, the wicked, and safety and peace being secured 4, he led forth the dakshinâs (gifts to priests). Wherefore now also, when they (the Udgâtris) chant the midday Pavamâna, and safety and peace are secured, the dakshinâs are led forth. And so, forsooth, does he now by means of those five cups of Soma hurl the thunderbolt at the wicked, hateful enemy, and having smitten Vritra, the wicked, and safety and peace being

p. 334

secured, he leads forth the dakshinâs. This is why he draws those five cups.

4:3:3:66. Then as to why he draws the Marutvatîya cups. Now this, the midday pressing feast, is Indra's special (nishkevalya) feast: thereby he strove to smite Vritra, thereby he strove to vanquish him. But the Maruts, having on that account 1 withdrawn, were standing on an Asvattha tree 2 (Ficus Religiosa). Now Indra is the nobility, and the Maruts are the people, and through the people the noble becomes strong: therefore the two Ritu cups (they say) 3 may be of asvattha wood; but in reality they are of kârshmarya wood.

4:3:3:77. Indra called on them, saying, 'Do ye join me that with you as my force I may smite Vritra!' They said, 'What will be our (reward) then?' He drew those two Marutvatîya cups for them.

4:3:3:88. They said, 'Having put aside this one (cup) for our vigour, we will join thee.' Having accordingly put it aside for their vigour 4, they joined him. But Indra sought to obtain it, thinking, 'They have come to me after putting aside their vigour.'

p. 335

4:3:3:99. He said, 'Do ye join me with vigour!'--'Then draw a third cup for us;' they said. He drew a third cup for them, with, 'Thou art taken with a support,--thee for the vigour of the Maruts!' They then joined him with vigour,--and he conquered with them, and smote Vritra with them;--for Indra is the nobility, and the Maruts are the people, and through the people the noble becomes strong. Hence he now bestows that strength on the nobility, and therefore he draws the Marutvatîya cups.

4:3:3:1010. Let him draw them for Indra Marutvat (accompanied by the Maruts), and not for the Maruts likewise. For were he also to draw cups for the Maruts, he would make the people refractory to the nobility. He thus assigns to the Maruts a share therein after Indra, whereby he makes the people subservient and obedient to the nobility: therefore let him draw the cups for Indra Marutvat, and not for the Maruts likewise.

4:3:3:1111. But he was afraid of their desertion,--'Lest they should desert me, lest they should take to some other (party) 1,' so thinking, he by that (share in the libation) made them unwilling to desert him. This is why he should draw the grahas for Indra Marutvat.

4:3:3:1212. He draws them with the two vessels of the seasons, for the year, the sacrifice, means the seasons. There, at the morning Soma feast, they are overtly attended to, in that he draws the grahas for the seasons 2; and now they are covertly attended

p. 336

to, in that he draws the Marutvatîya grahas with the two vessels of the seasons.

4:3:3:1313. He draws (the first) from that (stream of Soma) 1, with (Vâg. S. VII, 35; Rig-veda III, 51, 7), 'O Indra, leader of the Maruts, drink thou the Soma here, as thou drankest of the liquor at (the sacrifice of) the Son of Saryâti: by thy guidance, in thy protection, O Lord, do the wise serve thee with good offerings!--Thou art taken with a support: thee to Indra Marutvat!--This is thy womb: thee to Indra Marutvat!'

4:3:3:1414. [The second he draws 2 with Vâg. S. VII, 36;

p. 337

[paragraph continues] Rig-veda III, 47, 5], 'The mighty bull, followed by the Maruts, the bountiful, divine ruler Indra,--him, the all-subduing, the terrible bestower of victory, do we now invoke for new favour.--Thou art taken with a support: thee to Indra Marutvat!--This is thy womb: thee to Indra Marutvat!'--with Thou art

p. 338

taken with a support: thee for the strength of the Maruts!' he draws the third cup.

4:3:3:1515. Thereupon he draws the Mâhendra cup. For Indra was then bound up with evil, in the shape of the people, the Maruts; as one might, for the sake of victory, eat from the same vessel with the people 1 so it was when they drew a cup for him in common with the Maruts.

4:3:3:1616. When all was conquered and free from danger and injury, the gods plucked him from out of all evil--even as one might pluck out a reed from its sheath--when they drew the cup for the Great Indra. And even as the reed becomes leafless, so is he thereby freed from all evil, when one draws the Mâhendra cup.

4:3:3:1717. And again, why he draws the Mâhendra cup. Before the slaughter of Vritra, he was indeed Indra; but when he had slain Vritra, he became the Great--Indra, even as one who has conquered all around, becomes a Great King (mahârâga): therefore he draws the Mâhendra cup. And, moreover, he forsooth make's him great for the slaughter of Vritra therefore also he draws the Mâhendra cup. He draws it in the Sukra vessel, for bright (sukra) and great indeed is he (the sun) that burns yonder: therefore he draws it in the Sukra vessel.

4:3:3:1818. He thus draws it from that (Dronakalasa or Pûtabhrit), with (Vâg. S. VII, 39; Rig-veda VI, 19, 1), 'Great is Indra and hero-like, gladdening the people, of double stature and unimpaired in power. For our sake he waxed strong for heroic deed,--great and broad was he, and

p. 339

well-shapen by the shapers 1.--Thou art taken with a support: thee to Mahendra!'--with 'This is thy womb: thee to Mahendra!' he deposits it; for it is indeed for the Great Indra that he draws it.

4:3:3:1919. And having bespoken (the chant 2), he says this speech,--'Pressers, press ye! make the mortars

p. 340

resound! Agnîdh, stir the sour milk! be thou mindful of Soma's (pap)!' It is for the evening's press-feast that those pressers press out (the Soma juice), for the evening feast they make the mortars resound, for the evening feast the Agnîdh stirs the sour milk, for the evening feast he boils the pap for Soma. For these two press-feasts, the morning feast and the midday feast, are indeed rich in pure Soma, are rich in juice; but that third press-feast is emptied of the pure Soma. Hence he forms it from out of this midday feast; and thus that third press-feast becomes for him rich in pure Soma, rich in juice: this is why he now speaks that speech.


331:2 'Iha' (here, hither) with the last syllable protracted. The Hotri's cup with the Nigrâbhyâ (vasatîvarî) water having been handed to the sacrificer, and the fillet or band (ushnîsha) with which the Soma-plants are tied together, to the Grâvastut, the pressing is performed in the same way as the 'great pressing,' at p. 332 the Prâtahsavana (see p. 256, note 1). Meanwhile the Grâvastut takes the band, and winds it thrice round his head and face from left to right. And whenever Soma-stalks are taken out for pressing he extols the stones by chanting the Grâva-stotra or 'praise of the stones.' According to Âsv. Sr. V, 12; Ait. Br. VI, 7, 2, this chant consists of the verses Rig-veda I, 24, 3; V, 81, 1; VIII, 81, 1; VIII, 1, 1, followed by the hymn X, 94, ascribed to the serpent Rishi Arbuda. Before the last verse of this hymn he inserts the hymns X, 76 and X, 175, (ascribed to the serpents Garatkarna and Arbuda respectively); and either before, or between, or after these two hymns he throws in the pâvamânîh (Rig-veda IX) according to requirement, till the pressing is completed, or the libations are to be drawn, when having wound up with the last verse of the first Arbuda hymn, he makes over the band to the sacrificer. The five cups mentioned in paragraph 2 are filled from the stream of Soma flowing from the Hotri's cup into the Dronakalasa; the Âgrayana (p. 294, note 2) however being taken (in the Âgrayana sthâlî or bowl) from that and two other streams, poured by the Unnetri from the Âdhavanîya, and by the Pratiprasthâtri from some vessel containing the Soma previously kept in the Âgrayana sthâlî.

332:1 Probably on account of the connection of the Brihat-sâman with Indra; see part i, p.196, note 2.

332:2 See p. 294, note 2. Sâyana here curiously explains the term by 'stotrâni.'

333:1 The Mâdhyandina-pavamâna-stotra, Sâmav. II, 22-29, is made up of three hymns (sûkta), consisting of three gâyatrî (22-24), two brihatî (and satobrihatî, 25, 26), and three trishtubh verses (27-29) respectively. These are chanted in such a way as to produce five Sâman hymns (i.e. a hymn of three verses), viz. the gâyatrî triplet is chanted twice, in the Gâyatra and Âmahîyava tunes;--the brihatî-satobrihatî couplet is likewise chanted twice, in the Raurava and Yaudhâgaya tunes, the two verses being as usual (by the repetition of certain pâdas) made into three. These, with the addition of the trishtubh hymn, chanted in the Ausana tune, make five Sâman hymns of three verses each, or altogether fifteen verses (pañkadasastoma).

333:2 Or consists of the fifteenfold (chant), as Sâyana takes it. Regarding the connection between the pañkadasa-stoma (the characteristic stoma of the midday pressing) and Indra (the deity of the midday pressing), see part i, introd. p. xviii.

333:3 Perhaps graha' has here a double meaning, viz. 'that which is taken, a draught, cup of Soma,' and 'the taker, seizer.'

333:4 See p. 289, note 4.

334:1 Lit. 'thus;' 'itisabdenâpakramanaprakâro ’bhinayena pradarsyate,' Sây.

334:2 This passage would seem to be based on a mistaken interpretation of Rig-veda I, 13 5, 8, where the bard says that 'the victorious (gâyavah) have come nigh to the asvattha,' the 'gâyavah' here evidently referring (not to the Maruts, as in I, 1 19, 3), but to the powerful draughts of Soma flowing into the asvattha vessel. The Kânva text reads, Sâ (i.e. vis, the people or Maruts) hâsvatthe tishthate.

334:3 The Kânva text inserts 'ity âhuh.'

334:4 The context seems to be purposely ambiguous, as it may also be construed thus: They said, 'After putting aside this (cup), we will come (attain) to strength.' Having accordingly put it aside, they came to strength.

335:1 For the construction, see p. 33, note 1.

335:2 See IV, 3, 1, 3 seq.

336:1 See p. 331, note 2.

336:2 Here the author again anticipates, important parts of the performance being not even referred to. On the present occasion only one Marutvatîya cup is drawn and deposited on the mound (khara). The Ukthya cup having then been drawn and deposited, the priests leave the Havirdhâna in the same way as at the morning performance (see IV, 2, 5, 1, with note), and perform the Viprud-homas, or drop-offerings. Thereupon the priests 'creep' (sarp), with their upper bodies bent parallel to the ground, to the Sadas, where, near the Udumbara post, the chanting of the midday Pavamâna-stotra now takes place after the necessary preliminaries. If the Pravargya has been performed on the preceding day (see III, 4, 4, 1, with note), the Dadhi-gharma, or libation of hot milk mixed with sour milk, is now made. Then follow the oblations from the Savanîya-purodâsa (see IV, 2, 5, 15 seq., and p. 323, note ). Thereupon filling of the cups of the ten Kamasins, and the libations from (and drinking of) the Sukra and Manthin cups. After the eating of the Idâ of the purodâsas, the Dâkshina-homas and distribution of the sacrificial fees take place, as set forth in the next Brâhmana. Thereupon the Adhvaryu calls on the Maitrâvaruna to pronounce the invitatory prayer to Indra Marutvat (viz. Rig-veda III, 51, 7), 'O Indra, attended by the Maruts, here drink the Soma,' &c., followed by the order (praisha), 'Let the Hotri pronounce the offering prayer to Indra Marutvat!' p. 337 The Pratiprasthâtri now draws a second Marutvatîya cup in the other Ritu-pâtra. The offering prayer (Rig-veda III, 47, 2, 'United with the host of Maruts, O Indra, drink the Soma, O wise hero!' &c.) having meanwhile been pronounced by the Hotri, the Adhvaryu makes libations from the first cup at the Vashat and Anuvashat. Then pouring the remains of the juice into some other vessel, to be taken to the Sadas, he enters the Havirdhâna and draws the third Marutvatîya graha with the cup just emptied. Having deposited it, he betakes himself to. the Sadas to drink with the Hotri the remains of the first libation. Thereupon the Hotri recites the Marutvatîya Sastra.

The Marutvatîya Sastra consists of the following parts. After the summons (âhâva) to the Adhvaryu, and the response (pratigara) of the latter, the Hotri intones the

Pratipad (opening triplet), Rig-veda VIII, 57, 1-3, followed by the Anukara (sequel), VIII, 2, 1-3.

Then the Indranihava pragâtha (VIII, 53, 5) and the Brâhmanaspatya pragâtha (I, 40, 5).

Then follow the three Dhâyyâs (complementary verses), III, 20, 4; I, 91, 2; I, 64, 6; and the Marutvatîya pragâtha, VIII, 89, 3, succeeded by the hymn X, 73, the chief part of the Sastra, in the middle of which (after the sixth verse), the Nivid ('Let us sing, Om! may Indra with the Maruts drink of the Soma,' &c.) is inserted.

Having recited the last verse (paridhânîyâ or closing verse) of the hymn, he concludes the Sastra by the Ukthavîrya, 'Praise has been sung to Indra who hears thee!' Thereupon the offering prayer III, 47, 4 is pronounced, and libations are made, both at the Vashat and Anuvashat, by the Adhvaryu from the third, and after him each time, by the Pratiprasthâtri from the second graha.

The priests having drank in the Sadas the Soma remaining from the grahas and in the kamasas, the Mâhendra cup is drawn.

338:1 That is, as a chief, or lord, might do so with a clansman (vaisyena, Kânva text); or as the master of a house with his servants.

339:1 Or, according to Ludwig, 'rendered favourable by the performers (priests).'

339:2 That is, the (first) Prishtha-stotra, consisting of the Rathantara-sâm an, Sâmav. II, 30-31. For the way in which the two verses are manipulated (by repetition of the last pâda of the first, and of the second pâda of the second verse), so as to yield a three-versed choral, see Haug, Ait. Br. II, p. 198; Weber, Ind. Stud. VIII, p. 25. These chants derive their name from the circumstance that the Sâmans employed in them are capable of being used as 'prishthas,' that is, of being chanted twice with another Sâman inserted between them,--or, to speak symbolically, to serve as the womb for the reception of an embryo. For this purpose the Rathantara and Brihat Sâmans are chiefly used. See note on IV, 5, 4, 13. Whenever the Prishthas are chanted in this way (which they are not at the ordinary Agnishtoma), it is chiefly at this very place in the Soma performance, at the midday libation. The chant is succeeded by the recitation, by the Hotri, of the Nishkevalya Sastra, consisting of the following parts. The Âhâva (and pratigara) is followed by the Stotriya (Rig-veda VII, 32, 22-23, identical with the Rathantara) and Anurûpa (VIII, 3, 7-8) pragâthas; then a dhâyyâ, X, 74,.6; the Sâma-pragâtha, VIII, 3, 1, and the hymn (to Indra) I, 32, with the Nivid inserted in the middle (after the eighth verse). Finally the Hotri pronounces the Ukthavîrya, and the offering prayer, VII, 22, 1, after which the Mâhendra libation is poured into the fire.

Then follows the distribution of the Ukthya graha among the three assistants of the Hotri and the recitation of their (nishkevalya) sastras--each preceded by a Prishtha-stotra [Sâmav. II, 32-34 (chanted to the Vâmadevya-sâman); 35-36 (Naudhasa); 37-38 (Kâleya) respectively]--as at the conclusion of the morning performance; see p. 295, note 2. Thereupon he addresses the above summons to the respective priests, for the preparations necessary for the evening pressing.

Next: IV, 3, 4. Fourth Brâhmana