Satapatha Brahmana Part II (SBE26), Julius Eggeling tr. , at sacred-texts.com
3:4:4:11. Verily the Upasads (homages or sieges) are the neck of the sacrifice, and the Pravargya is its head. Hence when it is performed with the Pravargya 3,
they perform the Upasads 1 after performing the Pravargya, and thereby they put the neck in its place.
3:4:4:22. The anuvâkyâs (invitatory prayers) in the forenoon are the yâgyâs (offering prayers) in the afternoon; and the yâgyâs are the anuvâkyâs 2. He thus interlinks them, whence those joints and those bones of the neck are interlinked.
3:4:4:33. Now the gods and the Asuras, both of them sprung from Pragâpati, were contending against each other 3. The Asuras then built themselves castles in these worlds,--an iron one in this world, a silver one in the air, and a golden one in the sky.
3:4:4:44. The gods then prevailed. They besieged them by these sieges (upasad); and because they besieged (upa-sad) them, therefore the name Upasads.
[paragraph continues] They clove the castles and conquered these worlds. Hence they say, 'A castle is conquered by siege;' for it is indeed by beleaguering that one of these human castles is taken.
3:4:4:55. By means of these sieges, then, the gods clove the castles and conquered these worlds. And so does this one (the sacrificer) now,--no one, it is true, builds for himself castles against him in this world; he cleaves these same worlds, he conquers these worlds: therefore he offers with the Upasads.
3:4:4:66. They have clarified butter for their offering material. For ghee is a thunderbolt, and by that thunderbolt, the ghee, the gods clove the strongholds and conquered these worlds. And so does he cleave these worlds by that thunderbolt, the ghee, and conquer these worlds; therefore they (the Upasads) have ghee for their offering material.
3:4:4:77. He takes eight times (ghee) in the guhû, and four times in the upabhrit; or conversely, they say, he is to take of it only four times in the guhû and eight times in the upabhrit 1.
3:4:4:88. He takes eight times in the guhû, and four times in the upabhrit. He thereby makes the thunderbolt heavy in front, and with that thunderbolt heavy in front he cleaves these worlds, and conquers these worlds.
3:4:4:99. Agni and Soma verily are yoke-fellows among the gods: for these two he takes (ghee) in common 2. For Vishnu (he takes) singly. He makes only the one libation (âghâra) which (he makes) with the dipping-spoon (sruva) 3. For when he has made
the northern (higher) libation he retires 1: 'May I conquer for conquest' so he thinks, and therefore he makes only the one libation, that with the dipping-spoon.
3:4:4:1010. When he has called on the Âgnîdhra) for the Sraushat,-- he does not elect the Hotri 2. 'Seat thee, O Hotri!' he says. The Hotri sits down on the Hotri's seat. Having sat down he urges the Adhvaryu; and he, thus urged, takes the two offering-spoons 3.
3:4:4:1111. While passing over (to the south side of the fire and altar) he says 4 (to the Hotri), 'Recite the invitatory prayer to Agni!' and having called for the Sraushat, he says, 'Pronounce the offering prayer to Agni!' and pours out the oblation when the Vashat is uttered.
3:4:4:1212. Thereupon he says, 'Recite the invitatory prayer to Soma!' and having called for the Sraushat, he says, 'Pronounce the offering prayer to Soma!' and pours out the oblation when the Vashat is uttered.
3:4:4:1313. Thereupon, while pouring the ghee which is in the upabhrit 5, together (with what is left in the guhû), he says, 'Recite the invitatory prayer to Vishnu!' and, having called for the Sraushat, he says, 'Pronounce the offering prayer to Vishnu!'
and pours out the oblation when the Vashat is uttered.
3:4:4:1414. The reason why in offering he remains standing in one and the same place, and does not move about as he is wont to do here in performing, is that he thinks 'I will conquer for conquest 1!' And the reason why he offers to those deities is that he thereby constructs the thunderbolt: Agni (he makes) the point (anîka), Soma the barb (salya), and Vishnu the connecting piece (kulmala) 2.
3:4:4:1515. For the thunderbolt is the year the day is Agni, the night Soma, and what is between the two, that is Vishnu. Thus he makes the revolving year.
3:4:4:1616. The thunderbolt is the year: by that year, as a thunderbolt, the gods clove the strongholds and conquered these worlds. And so does he now by that year, as a thunderbolt, cleave these worlds, and conquer these worlds. This is why he offers to those gods.
3:4:4:1717. Let him undertake three Upasads; for, there being three seasons in the year, it is thereby made of the form of the year: he thus makes up the year. He performs twice each.
3:4:4:1818. These amount to six; for, there being six seasons in the year, it is thereby made of the form of the year: he thus makes up the year.
3:4:4:1919. And should he undertake twelve Upasads,--there being twelve months in the year, it is thereby made of the form of the year: he thus makes up the year. He performs twice each.
3:4:4:2020. These amount to twenty-four;--there being twenty-four half-moons in the year, it is thereby made of the form of the year: he thus makes up the year.
3:4:4:2121. As to his performing in the evening and in the morning,--it is because only thus completeness is obtained. When he performs in the forenoon, then he gains the victory;--and when he performs in the afternoon, he does so that it may be a good (complete) victory;--and when he offers the Homa, (it is as if) people fight here for a stronghold, and having conquered it, they enter it as their own.
3:4:4:2222. When he performs (the upasads), he fights; and when (the performance) is completed, he conquers; and when he offers the Homa 1, he enters that (stronghold) now his own.
3:4:4:2323. He offers it (with the verse) with which he
will have to perform twice in one day 1 (Vâg. S. V, 8), 'What most excellent iron-clad body is thine, O Agni, established in the deep, it hath chased away the cruel word, it hath chased away the fearful word; Hail!' for such-like it was, it was indeed iron.
3:4:4:2424. Again he offers (with the verse) with which he will have to perform twice in one day, 'What most excellent silver-clad body is thine, O Agni, established in the deep, it hath chased away the cruel word, it hath chased away the fearful word; Hail!' for such-like it was, it was indeed silver.
3:4:4:2525. And again he offers (with the verse) with which he will have to perform twice in one day, 'What most excellent gold-clad body is thine, O Agni, established in the deep, it hath chased away the cruel word, it hath chased away the fearful word; Hail!' for such-like it was, it was indeed golden. If he undertakes twelve Upasads, let him perform each of them for four days.
3:4:4:2626. Now then of the fast-homages. Some Upasads get wider and wider, others narrower and narrower: those at which he milks out one (teat) 2 on the first day, then two, and then three, are those that get wider and wider; and those at which he
milks out three on the first day, then two, and then one, are those that get narrower and narrower. Those getting narrower and narrower are (as good as) those getting wider and wider; and those getting wider and wider are (as good as) those getting narrower and narrower.
3:4:4:2727. Verily, the world is conquered by austere devotion. Now, his devotion becomes ever and ever wider, he conquers an ever and ever more glorious world and becomes better even in this world, whosoever, knowing this, undertakes the Upasads that get narrower and narrower 1: let him, therefore, undertake the Upasads that get narrower and narrower. And should he undertake twelve Upasads, let him have three (teats) milked out for four days, two for four days, and one for four days.
104:3 The Pravargya, an offering of heated milk, which precedes each performance of the Upasads,--except at the first performance of the Soma-sacrifice, when it is prohibited by many authorities,--seems originally to have been an independent ceremony, and as such it is treated by most ritualistic books apart from the exposition of the Soma-cult. The Satapatha-brâhmana deals with it in XIV, 1-3 (Vâg. S. XXXIX). Its mystic significance appears to have been that of supplying the sacrificer with a new celestial body. There seems to have been a tendency towards exalting its p. 105 importance--if not, indeed, towards making it take the place of the Soma-cult. The hot milk (gharma) is even styled 'Samrâg' or supreme king--as against the title 'râgan' or king, assigned to Soma; and a throne is provided for it, just as for the latter. The rules for its performance, according to the Âpastamba Srauta-sûtra, have been published, with a translation, by Professor Garbe (Zeitsch. der D. M. G. XXXIV, p. 319 seq.). See also Haug's Transl. of the Ait. Br. pp. 41-43; Weber, Ind. Stud. IX. pp. 218-220.
105:1 The Upasadah, consisting of three offerings of ghee to Agni, Soma, and Vishnu, followed by a Homa, have to be performed twice daily, for at least three days (the normal number at the Agnishtoma). The first day's performance is called (from the corresponding Homa) the 'ayahsayâ' (lying in iron, made of iron), the second day's 'ragahsayâ' (silvern),and the third day's 'harisayâ' (golden). If there are six, or twelve Upasad days, each of the three varieties of performance has assigned to it an equal number of successive days; and if there are more than twelve the three varieties are to be performed alternately.
105:2 For the anuvâkyâs and yâgyâs, as well as the kindling-verses (sâmidhenîs) to be recited at the Upasads, see Ait. Br. I, 26; Âsv. IV, 8.
105:3 For other versions of this myth, see Ait. Br. I, 23; Taitt. S. VI, 2, 3.
106:1 This would be the regular mode of ladling. See 1, 3, 2, 8 seq.
106:2 See p. 108, note 1.
106:3 For the two âghâra, or libations of ghee, made with the p. 107 sruva north of the fire and guhû south of the fire respectively, see I, 4, 4, 1 seq. At the Upasad-ishti neither fore-offerings (prayâga) nor after-offerings (anuyâga) are performed.
107:1 Viz. to the offering place on the south side of the fire. The covert meaning is that, were he to make the second libation, he would have to recede front the higher (uttara, northern) position already gained.
107:2 See I, 5, 1, 1 seq.
107:3 See I, 5, 2, 1 seq.
107:4 See I, 7, 2, 1 seq.
107:5 Of the ghee in the guhû (obtained from eight ladlings with the p. 108 sruva) he first offers one half each to Agni and Soma. Thereupon he pours the ghee from the upabhrit (obtained from four ladlings with the sruva) into the guhû and offers it to Vishnu.
108:1 'It is for conquest that he does not move about as he (does when he) performs here in any other sacrifice.' Kânva recension.
108:2 ? The socket; compare Ait. Br. I, 25, 'The gods constructed that arrow, the Upasads: Agni was its point (? anîka, shaft, Haug), Soma its barb (salya, steel, H.), Vishnu its shaft (teganam, point, H.), and Varuna its feathers (parna) . . . . For the arrow consists of three parts, anîka, salya, and tegana . . . . For the arrow consists of two parts, salya and tegana.' Here salya would seem to be the barbed head-piece (with the point, anîka), and tegana the shaft or reed of the arrow.
109:1 On the completion of each performance of the Upasad offerings, after the anointing of the prastara (see I, 8, 3, 11-14) and previously to taking up the enclosing-sticks (ib. 22), a homa (or guhoti) offering (part i, p. 263, note 2), called Upasad-homa, has to be performed with the dipping-spoon; the sacrificer holding on to Adhvaryu from behind, while the ghee is poured into the fire. Its performance over, the Upasads are brought to an end by a repetition of the ceremony with the prastara (which is not burnt) described above, III, 4, 3, 22, and the minor concluding ceremonies (I, 8, 3, 23 seq.; 9, 2, 19 seq.); whereupon the Subrahmanyâ litany (III, 3, 4, 17) is recited.
110:1 While the Hotri, as we saw (parag. 2, above), uses the same two verses twice in one day, viz. one for the anuvâkyâ in the morning and for the yâgyâ in the afternoon; and the other for the yâgyâ in the morning and for the anuvâkyâ in the evening,--the Adhvaryu is to use the three formulas here mentioned on the three Upasad days respectively, both at the morning and afternoon performances.
110:2 Viz. of the vratadughâ, or cow supplying his fast-milk. The milk so obtained is to be his only food during the Upasad days.
111:1 The simile is apparently taken from the arrow, which pierces the deeper the more pointed it is; cf. parag. 14, above; Ait. Br. I, 25. Also Taitt. S. VI, 2, 3, 5, where a goad (âra?) is compared.