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Brahman said:

Since the mind is ruler of these five elements, in (the matter of) absorbing or bringing (them) forth 6,

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the mind itself is the individual self 1. The mind always presides over the great elements. The understanding proclaims its power 2, and it is called the Kshetragña. The mind yokes the senses as a charioteer (yokes) good horses. The senses, the mind, and the understanding are always joined to the Kshetragña 3. That individual self, mounting the chariot to which big horses 4 are yoked, and in which the understanding is the drag 5, drives about on all sides. the great chariot which is pervaded by the Brahman 6, has the group of the senses yoked (to it), has the mind for a charioteer, and the understanding for a drag. That learned and talented person verily, who always understands thus the chariot pervaded by the Brahman, comes not by delusion in the midst of all entities 7. This forest of the Brahman 8 begins with the unperceived, and ends with the gross objects 9;

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and includes movables and immovables, receives light from the radiance of the sun and moon, is adorned with planets and nakshatras, and is decked on all sides with nets of rivers and mountains, and always beautified likewise by various (descriptions of) waters; it is (the means of) subsistence for all entities 1, and it is the goal of all living creatures. In this the Kshetragña always moves about. Whatever entities (there are) in this world, movable or immovable, they are the very first 2 to be dissolved; and next the developments produced from the elements 3; and (after) these developments, all the elements. Such is the upward gradation 4 among entities. Gods, men, Gandharvas, Pisâkas, Asuras, Râkshasas, all have been created by nature 5, not by actions, nor by a cause. These Brâhmanas 6, the creators of the world, are born here again and again. And whatever

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is produced from them 1 is dissolved in due time in those very five great elements, like billows in the ocean. The great elements are in every way (beyond) the elements that make up the world 2. And he who is released, even from those five elements, goes to the highest goal. The Lord Pragâpati created all this by the mind 3 only. And in the same manner 4 the sages attained the godhead 5 by means of penance 6. And in like manner, those who have achieved perfection, who have acquired concentration by a course of penance, and who likewise feed on fruits and roots, perceive the triple world 7 here by penance. Medicines, and herbs, and the various sciences are all acquired 8 by means of penance alone. For all acquisition 9 has penance for its root. Whatever is difficult to obtain 10, difficult to

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learn, difficult to vanquish, and difficult to pass through; all that can be accomplished by penance, for penance is difficult to overcome. One who drinks spirituous liquors, one who kills a Brâhmana, one who steals, one who destroys an embryo, one who violates the bed of his preceptor 1, is released from, that sin only by penance well performed. (Those) men, Pitris, gods, (sacrificial) animals 2, beasts and birds, and all other creatures movable or immovable, (who are) constantly devoted to penance, always reach perfection by penance. And in like manner the noble(-minded) gods went to heaven 3. Those who without sloth perform actions with expectations, and being full of egoism, they go near Pragâpati 4. Those high-souled ones who are devoid of (the thought that this or that is) mine, and devoid of egoism, by means of a pure concentration (of mind) on contemplation, obtain the great and highest world. Those who best understand the self, attaining concentration (of mind) on contemplation 5, and having their minds always tranquil, enter into the unperceived accumulation of happiness 6. Those

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who are free from (all thought that this or that is) mine, and who are free from egoism, attaining concentration (of mind) on contemplation 1, enter the highest world of the great, which is the unperceived. Born from that same unperceived 2 (principle), again acquiring knowledge, and getting rid of the (qualities of) passion and darkness, and resorting to the pure (quality of) goodness, a man gets rid of all sins, and abandons everything as fruitless. He should be understood to be the Kshetragña. He who understands him understands the Vedas 3. Withdrawing from the mind the objects 4 of mental operations, a sage should sit down self-restrained. (He) necessarily (becomes) that on which his mind 5 (is fixed). This is the eternal mystery. That which begins with the unperceived and ends with the gross objects 6 is stated to be of the nature of ignorance 7. But (you should) learn that whose nature is devoid

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of qualities. Two syllables 1 are death; three syllables the eternal Brahman. Mine is death, and not mine is the eternal 2. Some men of dull understandings extol action. But as to the high-souled ancients they do not extol action 3. By action a creature is born with a body and made up of the sixteen 4. Knowledge brings forth 5 the being, and that is acceptable and constitutes immortality. Therefore those who are far-sighted have no attachment to actions. This being is stated to be full of knowledge, not full of action 6. The self-restrained man who thus understands the immortal, changeless, incomprehensible, and ever indestructible and unattached (principle), he dies not 7. He who thus understands the self to which there is nothing prior, which is uncreated, changeless, unmoving 8, which is incomprehensible (even) to those who feed on nectar, he certainly becomes immortal 7 and not to be restrained 9, in consequence of these means 10.

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Expelling all impressions 1, and restraining the self in the Self 2, he understands that holy Brahman, than which nothing greater exists. And when the understanding is clear, he attains tranquillity 3. And the nature of tranquillity is as when one sees a dream 4. This 5 is the goal of those emancipated ones who are intent on knowledge. And they see all the movements 6 which are produced by development. This is the goal of those who are indifferent (to the world). This is the eternal piety. This is what is acquired by men of knowledge. This is the uncensured (mode of) conduct. This goal can be reached by one who is alike to all beings 7, who is without attachment, who is without expectations,

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and who looks alike on everything 1. I have now declared everything to you, O best of Brâhmana, sages! Act thus forthwith; then you will acquire perfection.

The preceptor said:

Thus instructed by the preceptor Brahman, those high-souled sages acted accordingly, and then attained to the worlds 2. Do you, too, O noble person, of pure self! duly act according to the words of Brahman which I have stated. Then will you attain perfection.

Vâsudeva, said:

That pupil thus instructed in the highest piety by the preceptor, did everything (accordingly), O son of Kuntî! and then attained final emancipation. And the pupil, having done all he should have done, attained to that seat, O supporter of the family of the Kauravas! going to which one grieves not 3.

Arguna said:

Who, indeed, was that Brâhmana, O Krishna! and who the pupil, O Ganârdana! If this verily, is fit to be heard by me, O Lord! then tell it me.

Vâsudeva said:

4 am the preceptor, O you of mighty arms! and

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know the mind to be my pupil. And, O Dhanañgaya! I have related this mystery to you out of love for you. If you have love for me, O supporter of the family of the Kauravas! then having heard this (instruction) relating to the self, always duly act 1 (according to it). Then when this piety is duly practised, you will attain the absolute final emancipation, getting rid of all sins. It was this same thing I stated to you before 2 when the time for battle had come, O you of mighty arms! Therefore fix your mind on this. And now 3, O chief of the descendants of Bharata! it is long since I saw the lord my father. I wish to see him, with your consent, O Phâlguna 4!

Vaisampâyana said,

When Krishna spoke these words, Dhanañgaya replied (saying), 'O Krishna! let us verily go to-day to the city of Gagasa 5. Be pleased, O you who understand piety! to see there king Yudhishthira, who is of a devout heart, and after taking leave of him to go to your own city.'


385:1 This is the Hindu. Gamut.

385:2 These are not in the Sânti Parvan; of many ingredients = collection of sounds, Arguna Misra.

385:3 Being all-pervading, Arguna Misra. Cf. its position at Taittirîya, p. 67.

385:4 Cf. Katha, pp. 114, 115, 149, and Sankarâkârya's commentary there, for an explanation of the whole passage. And see Sânkya-sâra, p. 16, as to what are here called self and understanding.

385:5 Cf. Gîtâ, p. 64, where the words are identical.

385:6 The elements are perceived or are not perceived by the senses tinder the direction of the mind; absorbing = destroying; bringing forth = producing, Nîlakantha. See p. 268 supra, and Sânti Parvan (Moksha), chap. 240, st. 12.

386:1 The word is the same as at Maitrî, p. 41, the comment on which should be seen.

386:2 I. e. the mind 's power is to be perceived by itself, Nîlakantha. The meaning seems to be that the understanding can only operate on what the mind places before it.

386:3 The passage at Katha, p. 111 seq., and Sankara's commentary there, throw light on this, though the figure is not drawn out in the same way in both places. For a definition of Kshetragña, see Sânti Parvan (Moksha), chap. 187, st. 23.

386:4 I. e. the senses.

386:5 I. e. that which holds the horses in check. Nîlakantha seems to render it by 'whip,' but that is not correct, I think.

386:6 So Arguna Misra. Nîlakantha says, 'The senses, &c., when they turn towards the outer world make the self drive about, as an individual self; when turned inwards they show him that he is the Brahman.' Nîlakantha thus likens this to the Katha passage. See also p. 187 and notes there.

386:7 Or it, may mean, among all men.

386:8 See p. 164 supra, note  2; and p. 295, note  4.

386:9 That is to say, it includes all Samsâra, all the elements recognised by the Sânkhya philosophy, save the Being or Purusha.

387:1 Cf. p. 371 supra.

387:2 Another reading means 'they are dissolved in the waters.' As to the order, cf. Vedânta Paribhâshâ, p. 48, and p. 335 supra.

387:3 I take these to mean the gross elements of which things movable and immovable may be said to be made, if one may use a non-idealist phrase in the Sânkhya philosophy. Then the elements next spoken of are the subtle ones or tanmâtras. Cf. the references in note  2. As to developments, see p. 382, note  4.

387:4 Viz. gross object, gross element, subtle element.

387:5 The original is svabhâva, which Arguna Misra renders by Prakriti. 'Actions' both Nîlakantha and Arguna Misra take to mean sacrifices, &c., and 'cause' the former interprets by Brahman; the latter by tanmâtras or subtle elements, and adds, 'the sense is not by sacrifice or tanmâtras only.' Nîlakantha says, 'The gods, &c., are produced by nature, as the gods, &c., seen in a dream.' The meaning seems to be that there are energies in nature which evolve these forms of being. Cf. also Gîtâ, p. 65.

387:6 I presume this means that the patriarchs (Marîki and others, says Nîlakantha) are also born again and again--that is to say, in different kalpas, I suppose--by nature only.

388:1 I think this must mean the elements, though it might at first sight be referred to the Brâhmanas.

388:2 I. e. the gross elements, I take it; the others are. the tanmâtras.

388:3 I. e. the meditation which constitutes true knowledge, Arguna Misra. But see Gîtâ, p. 87, note  1, and Sânkhya-sûtra.

388:4 I. e. by the mind, as to which cf. Taittirîya, p. 89; Katha, p. 164. Arguna Misra says, 'This apparent deviation from the ordinary modes of cause and effect is not altogether without parallel, so he adds this to show that.'

388:5 Literally, 'the gods,' but the meaning seems to be that given in the text, as Arguna Misra says.

388:6 This is only the concentration of mind and senses on one object, Nîlakantha. See p. 166, note  1 supra.

388:7 See p. 174 supra.

388:8 Literally, 'are accomplished,' which seems to mean that they are acquired so as to be practically at one's command when required.

388:9 The original word is derived from the same root as the subject of the last note.

388:10 Difficult to obtain = the seat of Indra, &c.; to learn = Vedas, &c.; to vanquish = fire. &c.; to pass through = a great deluge, &c., p. 389 Nîlakantha. Arguna Misra seems to interpret the last word, where his reading is doubtful, to mean 'difficult to do.'

389:1 Cf. Khândogya, p. 361. Except the destruction of the embryo (see Taitt. Âran. p. 870, but at Brihadâranyaka, p. 795, Kaushîtaki, p. 77, and Âpastamba I, 6, 19, 16, the commentators render Bhrûna by learned Brâhmana), the rest are the great sins. But note that stealing gold, not theft generally, is mentioned as a great sin.

389:2 Or, perhaps, cattle. The original is pasu.

389:3 See p. 160 supra, and cf. p. 178.

389:4 I. e. Kasyapa, as gods, &c. This seems to be Arguna Misra's interpretation. This condition is inferior to that described in the following sentence.

389:5 See p. 162, note  1.

389:6 Nîlakantha 's rendering is 'that by which (worldly) happiness is p. 390 heightened.' He compares Brihadâranyaka, p. 816. See also Taittirîya, p. 112.

390:1 See Gîtâ, p. 128, note  1, where dhyâna and yoga are taken separately. Here the compound is in the singular. Nîlakantha's reading is different.

390:2 The sense here is not quite clear. It seems, however, to be this. The acquisitions mentioned in the preceding sentence take the acquirers to some temporary world from which they afterwards return; but when they get rid of the qualities, they get final emancipation. As to the unperceived, cf. inter alia Gîtâ, p. 112, note  2.

390:3 Cf. Gîtâ, p. 111, and note  2 there. That seems to approach the question from the opposite point of view.

390:4 So Arguna Misra. At Gîtâ XVI, 16, kitta means the operation itself. That also will do here.

390:5 Cf. Gîtâ, p. 78; Maitrî, p. 178; Prasna, p. 194; and the quotations at Sânkhya-sâra, p. 3.

390:6 This phrase has occurred before; it means all the developments which make up worldly life. See Sânkhya-sâra, p. 5.

390:7 See p. 371 supra.

391:1 See Sânti Parvan (Râgadharma) XIII, 4. Cf. Maitrî, p. 180 This means the two and three syllables of 'mama' and 'na mama,' mine and not mine. Cf. Brihadâranyaka p. 970, and Khândogya, p. 118, and p. 548, for a similar conceit.

391:2 Final emancipation follows on abandoning the idea of 'mine;' bondage on harbouring it.

391:3 See Mundaka, p. 279.

391:4 The eleven organs and the five great elements which go to form the body. See Sânkhya-kârikâ 3, and comment thereon; Sânti Parvan, chap. 210, st. 32 seq.; chap. 242, st. 7 seq.; Prasna, p. 230.

391:5 I. e. shows.

391:6 Cf. Gîtâ, p. 118; Sânti Parvan, ch. 242, st. 15.

391:7 See p. 367 supra, note  6; and cf. Katha, pp. 155, 156.

391:8 I. e. which remains unconcerned, cf. Îsa, p. 10. Apûrvam (to which there is nothing prior), Arguna Misra renders by 'not familiarly known,' and Nîlakantha by 'not understood by any other means of knowledge.' See also Brihadâranyaka, p. 502, and Sankara on that.

391:9 This is not very clear, but I suppose the meaning to be the same as that of 'unconquerable' at p. 161, and see p. 231.

391:10 I. e. the means mentioned further on, says Nîlakantha.

392:1 Impressions from external causes. Cf. inter alia Sânkhya-sûtra III, 83; see, too, pp. 247-358 supra and notes there.

392:2 I. e. restraining the mind in the lotus-like heart, Nîlakantha. Cf. as to this, pp. 248, 372 inter alia.

392:3 Cf. Gîtâ, p. 51. See also Maitrî-upanishad, p. 176, and Mundaka, p. 314.

392:4 Arguna Misra says, 'The nature of tranquillity is this, that in that state you perceive everything to be unreal like what is seen in a dream' Nîlakantha says, 'The nature of tranquillity is this, that in that state the self abides without attachment to the body and any external objects, but working within itself as in a dream.' But see on this Katha, p. 147.

392:5 Viz. tranquillity, Nîlakantha.

392:6 I. e., says Nîlakantha, they see all worldly objects past and future. Arguna Misra, 'They see the actions performed for some wealth and so forth.' I am not satisfied with either meaning. Arguna Misra's is besides based on a reading different from that adopted in the text, namely, Parimânagâh, instead of Parinâmagâh. I think 'parinâma' is the development which, according to the Sânkhya philosophy, produces the universe, and the movements are the actions which that development--namely, here the activity of egoism and its products--occasions. Cf. as to some extent supporting this, Sânkhya-sâra, p. 16.

392:7 See inter alia Gîtâ, pp. 68-70.

393:1 See inter alia Gîtâ, pp. 68-70.

393:2 I. e., I presume, Bhûr and the rest. But see also Khândogya, pp. 212, 541, 620, and Brihadâranyaka, pp. 302, 608.

393:3 See p. 285 supra, and cf. inter alia Khândogya, p. 550.

393:4 e. I, the Kshetragña, am the preceptor, and the mind is that which has to be taught. This shows that one's instructor must be oneself, Nîlakantha. Arguna Misra says, 'I am the preceptor, the mind is the pupil. The meaning of this is that anybody who has not acquired knowledge is treated here as a pupil; there is no other special pupil intended.' Cf. also p. 310, supra.

394:1 Nîlakantha interprets the words without supplying anything, thus 'be devoted to yama niyama,' &c. Yama &c. are the eight requisites for Yoga or concentration of mind as taught by Patañgali.

394:2 That is to say, in the Gîtâ.

394:3 Here he takes up the thread of the story. In the first chapter it was hinted that Krishna was anxious to go to Dvârakâ.

394:4 This is a name of Arguna.

394:5 I. e. Hastinâpur, the capital of the Pândavas. They were, when the dialogue was held, at Indraprastha. See p. 229 supra.