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Brahman said .

Thus 1 duly studying to the best of his power, in the way above 2 stated, and likewise living as a Brahmakârin, one who is devoted to his own. duty and learned, who is a sage with all his senses restrained, who applies himself to what is agreeable and beneficial to the preceptor, who is pure 3, and constant in veracity and piety, should, with the permission of the preceptor, take food without decrying it 4, should eat (the leavings) of sacrificial offerings, and alms, and should stand, sit, and take exercise 5 (duly), should sacrifice twice to the fire after becoming clean and with a concentrated (mind), and should always bear a staff of the Bilva or Palâs6 (wood). The clothing of the twice-born (man) should be of linen, or of cotton, or also a deerskin, or a cloth entirely (dyed with) reddish colour. There should also be a girdle of muñga; he should have matted hair, and likewise always (carry) water (with him), and have his sacred thread, be engaged in sacred

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study, and free from avarice, and of rigid observances. (Such) a Brahmakârin, always making offerings likewise of pure water to satisfy the deities, being restrained in mind 1, is esteemed. One who is thus devoted 2, who is concentrated in mind, and continent 3, conquers heaven, and reaching the highest seat, does not return to birth. Refined by means of all ceremonies, and likewise living as a Brahmakârin 4, a sage who has renounced 5 (all) should go out of towns and dwell in forests 6. Wearing a skin or the bark of a tree, he should bathe (every) morning and evening, and always living within the forest, should not enter a town again. He should honour guests, and should also give them shelter at (the proper) time, living on fruits and leaves, and roots and Syâmâka grain. He should without sloth feed on water, air, and all forest-products down to grass as they come, in order 7, in accordance with the (regulations 8 at his) initiation. He should honour a guest who comes, by (giving him) water accompanied with roots, fruits, and leaves. And he should always without sloth give alms out of whatever he has for food. He should also eat always after the deities and guests 9

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(are satisfied) and with his speech restrained, having a mind free from envy 1, eating little, and depending on the deities. Restraining the external senses, kind, full of forgiveness, preserving his hair and moustache, performing sacrifices, addicted to sacred study, and devoted to veracity and piety, pure in body 2, always dexterous 3, always in forests, and concentrated in mind,--a forester whose senses are subdued and who is thus devoted 4 conquers the worlds. A householder, or a Brahmakârin, or again a forester, who wishes to apply himself to final emancipation should adopt the best (line of) conduct 5. Offering safety to all beings, the sage should become free from all action 6, and be agreeable to all beings, kind, and restrained in all his senses. He should make a fire 7 and feed on the alms (obtained) without asking 8 and without trouble 9, and which have come spontaneously 10, in a place free from smoke and where people have already 11 eaten. One who

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understands final emancipation should seek to obtain alms after the cleaning 1 of the vessels (used for cooking), and should not rejoice if he obtains, and should not be dejected if he does not obtain (alms). Nor should he beg for too much alms 2, seeking merely to sustain life. Eating only a little, he should go about for alms with a concentrated mind, looking out for the (proper) time. He should not wish for earnings in common with another, nor should he eat when honoured; for an ascetic should be averse from all earnings (accompanied) with honour 3. When eating, he should not taste any articles of food which have been eaten by others 4, or which are pungent, astringent, or bitter, and likewise no sweet juices. He should eat just enough for his livelihood-for the support of life. One who understands final emancipation should seek for a livelihood without obstructing (other) creatures; and when he goes about for alms, he should not go following after another 5. He should not parade (his) piety, he should move about in a secluded place, free from passion. He should resort for shelter to an empty house, or a forest, or the foot of a tree, or a river likewise, or the cavern of a mountain. In summer, (he should pass) but a single night 6 in a town; and in the rains, he may dwell in one place. He should move about the

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world like a worm 1, his path being pointed out by the sun, and he should walk with circumspection over the earth out of compassion to all beings 2. He should not make any accumulations; and should eschew dwelling with friends 3. And the man who understands final emancipation should verily do all acts which he has to do, always with clean water. A man should always bathe in clean water. And with his senses restrained, he should devote himself to these eight observances 4--harmlessness, life as a Brahmakârin, veracity, and also straightforwardness, freedom from anger, freedom from (the habit of) carping, restraint of the external organs, and habitual freedom from (the habit of) backbiting. He should always practice a sinless (mode of) conduct, not deceptive and not crooked; and free from attachment should always make one who comes (as a guest) take a morsel of food. He should eat just enough for livelihood-for the support of life. And he should eat (only) what has been obtained with piety 5, and should not follow his own (mere) desire 6. He should not accept anything at all other than food and clothing. And he should accept as much as he eats and no more. He should not receive from others, nor should he ever give to others 7.

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[paragraph continues] But owing to the helplessness of people, a wise man should always share (with others). He should not appropriate another's riches, and should not take (anything) unasked. Nor, verily, after enjoying any object should one become afterwards attached to it. One who has anything to do 1 should take earth, water, pebbles likewise, and leaves, flowers, and fruits which are not secured 2 (by anybody), as they come 3. One should not live by the occupation of an artisan 4, nor should one wish for gold. One should not hate, should not teach 5, and should be void of (all) belongings 6. One should eat what is consecrated by faith 7, and should avoid (all) controversies, should act without a purpose 8, should be free from attachment, and without fixed appointments with people 9. One should not perform, or cause to be performed, any action involving expectation of fruit, or involving any destruction of life, or the assemblage of people 10. Rejecting all things,

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and being equable to all beings, moving and unmoving, one should become an ascetic with small belongings. One should not perturb any other (person), nor should one be perturbed by any other (person 1). He who is trusted by all beings is said to be the foremost among those who understand final emancipation. One should not think of what is not come 2, nor reflect on that which is past; one should disregard the present, being concentrated (in mind) and indifferent to time 3. He should not defile 4 anything by the eye, or the mind, or by speech, nor should he do anything wrong openly or in secret. One who draws in the senses from all sides as a tortoise (draws in) his limbs 5, and in whom the senses, mind, and understanding are absorbed 6, who is free from desires, who understands all truth, who is free from the pairs of opposites, and from the ceremony of svâhâ, and who is free from salutations 7, and who is free from (the thought that this or that is) mine, who is free from egoism, who is free from anxiety for new acquisitions or protection of old acquisitions, and self-controlled 8, who is free from

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expectations, who is free from attachments to any entity, and who is dependent on none 1, who is attached to the self, and who understands the truth, is emancipated, there is no doubt of that. Those who perceive the self, which is without hands, foot, or back, without a head, without a stomach, which is free from the operations of the qualities 2, absolute, untainted, and stable, devoid of smell, devoid of taste or touch, devoid. of colour, and also devoid of sound, which is to be understood 3, which is unattached, and which is also devoid of flesh, which is free from anxiety 4, imperishable, divine, and though dwelling in a house 5, always dwelling in all entities, they never die 6. There the understanding reaches not, nor the senses, nor the deities, nor Vedas, sacrifices, nor worlds 7, nor penance., nor valour 8; the attainment to it of those who are possessed of knowledge is stated to be without comprehension of symbols 9. Therefore the learned man who knows (the) property of being void of symbols 10, being devoted to pious conduct, and

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resorting to concealed 1 piety should adopt the mode of life (necessary) for experience 2. Though undeluded, he should act in the manner of the deluded 3, not finding fault with piety 4. He should perform piety, behaving so that others would always disrespect him 5, and should not find fault with the ways of the good 6. That sage is said to be the best who has adopted this (line of) conduct. The senses, and the objects of the senses, and the five great elements, and mind, understanding, egoism, the unperceived, and the Purusha likewise 7, by an accurate determination about the truth, after understanding all these, one attains heaven 8, being released from all bonds. One who knows the truth, understanding these same (entities) at the time of the termination (of his life), should meditate, exclusively pondering on one point 9; and then, depending on none 10, he gets emancipation. Freed from all attachments, like the atmosphere dwelling in space 11, with his accumulations 12 exhausted, and free from distress 13, he attains to the highest seat.


360:1 Arguna Misra says, 'Having described first the order of householder, as that is the chief, he now describes that of Brahmakârin.' Cf. Âpastamba II, 9, 21, 1, and note.

360:2 Where? This is obscure.

360:3 Both internally and externally, I presume.

360:4 Cf. Taittirîya, p. 129; Sânti Parvan (Moksha), chap. 192, st. 6.

360:5 Cf. Gîtâ, p. 69. Arguna Misra says, 'Having exercise by means of standing and sitting; the meaning is not sleeping except at the proper time.'

360:6 Cf. Manu II, 41 seq.

361:1 Or it may be, 'being self-restrained and with (all his) heart.' The constructions in the original vary greatly, and so they do in the translation.

361:2 Applying himself to his duties.

361:3 Cf. Maitrî, p. 18, and comment there.

361:4 Cf. Manu VI, 1 seq.

361:5 I. e. who is a mendicant ascetic.

361:6 Cf. p. 173 supra, note  9. Here he gives a. description of the third order of forester, as to which compare generally Manu VI.

361:7 First the jungle-products, then air, &c., Arguna Misra. The sense seems to be that the restrictions should become gradually harder. Cf. Manu VI, 24-31; Âpastamba II, 9, 22, 2 seq.; II, 9, 23, 2.

361:8 I. e. whatever restriction he put on himself when entering upon the particular mode of life.

361:9 Supra, p. 358, and cf. Taittirîya, p. 38.

362:1 I. e. of others for obtaining more, and so forth. Arguna Misra's reading is different, and he renders it to mean, 'one by whom the rule of life as a Brahmakârin has not been violated.'

362:2 Arguna Misra's reading, 'one who has cast away (all attachment to) the body.' Compare as to hair and moustache, Manu VI, 6 seq.

362:3 See Gîtâ, p. 127. Here the meaning is probably assiduous in the performance of duties, vows, and so forth.

362:4 I. e. applies himself to his duties.

362:5 Arguna Misra says this means ânandâsramam, but there must be some bad copying here. I take the word as it stands to mean something like the 'godlike endowments' at Gîtâ, p. 114.

362:6 See Gîtâ, pp. 54, 127. The meaning here is probably that of action without egoism. See Gîtâ, p. 55.

362:7 I. e. Arguna Misra says, 'not at night.' The readings are unsatisfactory. I read kritvâ vahnim, but diffidently. Is the allusion to the rule at Âpastamba II, 9, 2 1, 10? Cf. Gautama III, 2 7.

362:8 Cf. Kaushîtaki, p. 32.

362:9 I. e. to the giver. Cf. Gîtâ, p. 120.

362:10 See Gîtâ, p. 10.

362:11 Cf. Manu VI, 56; Gautama III, 15.

363:1 I. e., I presume, in order to avoid interfering with others' comforts. And see last note.

363:2 See Manu VI, 55. As to proper time further on, see last note.

363:3 Cf. Sanatsugâtîya, pp. 45-147; 'without respect' at Gîtâ, p. 120, means probably with disrespect, otherwise that passage and this would be somewhat inconsistent. See too Manu II, 162.

363:4 Cf. Manu II, 56; Gîtâ, p. 118; and p. 269 supra.

363:5 As that other may get nothing if they go together, Arguna Misra Cf. Manu VI, 51.

363:6 Cf. Gautama III, 21.

364:1 I. e. not very fast, Arguna Misra; 'the path being pointed out by the sun' = not at night, for fear of destroying worms, &c.

364:2 This seems to be very like the practice of the Gainas of the present day. And cf. Manu VI, 69.

364:3 Cf. Gîtâ, pp. 68-103.

364:4 Cf. Gîtâ, p. 114, and cf. also Sanatsugâtîya, p. 153.

364:5 That is to say, obtained without violation of any binding obligation, or rule of the Sâstras.

364:6 Cf. Gîtâ, p. 117.

364:7 This is not very clear, and Arguna Misra's comments are not intelligible. The sense seems to be this, 'He should not take more than is wanted, nor should he keep any accumulations from which to give to others, but should at once share with others all that is earned.'

365:1 Arguna Misra says that this means if he wants them for any particular purpose he should take the earth, &c.

365:2 I. e. apparently, taken possession of and preserved as one's own by anybody.

365:3 Arguna Misra renders this by 'which lead to action.' Is it not rather the 'spontaneous earnings' at Gîtâ, p. 60?

365:4 Cf. Manu III, 64; Âpastamba I, 6, 18, 18; Gautama XVII, 7.

365:5 I. e. teach one who does not ask to be instructed. Cf. Manu II, 110.

365:6 Cf. Gîtâ, p. 60; the original word, however, is not the same.

365:7 See p. 360, note  3 supra; Manu II, 54-55; Gautama IX) 59. 'Controversies;' the original is nimitta, and the interpretation is what appears to be Arguna Misra's. It may also mean 'omens.' That this is the true sense appears from Manu VI, 50.

365:8 Cf. Gîtâ, p. 48.

365:9 Arguna Misra says, 'e. g. I shall come to you to-morrow for alms,' &c. Cf. Âpastamba I, 6, 19, 12.

365:10 The words are the same as at Gîtâ, p. 54, keeping people (to p. 366 their duties),' but the sense seems to be different. The commentators say nothing on this.

366:1 Cf. Gîtâ, p. 101.

366:2 I. e. one should not look to the future with any aspirations or expectations, and should not look back on the past with grief. Arguna Misra. See too p. 170, note  9 supra.

366:3 I am not sure if this is a correct interpretation. But it does not seem likely that the other possible sense--literally 'expecting time'--can be intended here.

366:4 This is obscure. Is the sense this, that one should not observe, or think, or speak badly or of the bad side of things?

366:5 Cf. p. 342 supra, note  1.

366:6 Cf. Katha, p. 151.

366:7 See p. 352 supra, note  1.

366:8 Cf. Gîtâ, p. 48, where the original words are the same.

367:1 Cf. Gîtâ, p. 60.

367:2 These are effects of Prakriti by which the Purusha is unaffected.

367:3 Literally, 'pursued.'

367:4 This is obscure. Arguna Misra's text is niskityam. Does that mean 'which should be accurately understood?' The rendering in the text of Nîlakantha's reading may mean that the Brahman has no such thoughts (kintâ) as are referred to at Gîtâ, p. 115.

367:5 Does this mean the body?

367:6 I. e. are free from birth and death. Cf. Âpastamba I, 8, 22, 4.

367:7 This, again, is not quite clear. Probably the explanation is to be found in the passage at Gîtâ p. 79.

367:8 Nîlakantha's reading is 'observances or vows.'

367:9 I. e. 'not to be acquired by inference,' Arguna Misra, p. 35, supra.

367:10 See p. 309 supra; 'who is without symbols, and knows piety,' according to Arguna Misra's reading.

368:1 See p. 159 supra, note  7, and cf. Manu III, 109, which is the text referred to in note 5 there.

368:2 I. e. direct perception of the Brahman. See Gîtâ, p. 57, note  5.

368:3 See p. 160 supra, note  8, and cf. also Manu II, 110.

368:4 Arguna Misra compares Gîtâ, p. 55, about 'shaking convictions.'

368:5 Cf. pp. 159-161 supra.

368:6 This means, I presume, the good devoted to action and not to knowledge only.

368:7 These are the famous elements of the Sânkhyas; see Sûtra I, 61.

368:8 Cf. p. 159 and note  2.

368:9 Cf. p. 300 supra.

368:10 Cf. Gîtâ, p. 60.

368:11 Cf. Gîtâ, p. 82, note  3.

368:12 Of actions previously performed. See p. 246 supra.

368:13 Cf. Gîtâ, p. 101, where, however, the original word is different.

Next: Chapter XXXII